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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Kinetic Responses of Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission to Increasing Urea Application Rate
Lee, Sun-Il ; Lim, Sang-Sun ; Lee, Kwang-Seung ; Kwak, Jin-Hyeob ; Jung, Jae-Woon ; Ro, Hee-Myoung ; Choi, Woo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.99
BACKGROUND: Application of urea may increase
emission from soils due both to
generation from urea hydrolysis and fertilizer-induced decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing urea application on
emission from soil and mineralization kinetics of indigenous SOC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Emission of
from a soil amended with four different rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 mg N/kg soil) of urea was investigated in a laboratory incubation experiment for 110 days. Cumulative
) was linearly increased with urea application rate due primarily to the contribution of urea-C through hydrolysis to total
emission. First-order kinetics parameters (
, mineralizable SOC pool size; k, mineralization rate) became greater with increasing urea application rate;
increased from 665.1 to 780.3 mg C/kg and k from 0.024 to 0.069
, determinately showing fertilizer-induced SOC mineralization. The relationship of
(non-linear) and k (linear) with urea-N application rate revealed different responses of
and k to increasing rate of fertilizer N. CONCLUSION(s): The relationship of mineralizable SOC pool size and mineralization rate with urea-N application rate suggested that increasing N fertilization may accelerate decomposition of readily decomposable SOC; however, it may not always stimulate decomposition of non-readily decomposable SOC that is protected from microbial decomposition.
Optimal Application Rate of Mixed Expeller Cake and Rice Straw and Impacts on Physical Properties of Soil in Organic Cultivation of Tomato
Lim, Tae-Jun ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Lee, Seong-Eun ; Jung, Hyun-Cheol ; Jeon, Sang-Ho ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 105~110
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.105
BACKGROUND: In this study, 5 different treatments such as non-treatment, mixed expeller cake 1.0 N (standard nitrogen fertilizer), rice straw, rice straw+mixed expeller cake 0.5 N, rice straw+mixed expeller cake 1.0 N were performed over 4 cropping seasons over 2 years in order to identify the optimal application rate of mixture of rice straw and mixed expeller cake, organic source in organic cultivation of tomatoes. METHODS AND RESULTS: There was no difference in all treatments in case of 200 mg/kg in the nitrate nitrogen content in soil prior to the first cropping season test under the criteria for nitrogen nutrient based on yield of crops, cultivation without fertilizers seems possible. But in the second cropping season, no treatment and rice straw showed the reduction of yield and in the third cropping season, rice-straw+mixed expeller cake 0.5 N treatment showed the significant difference. The content of nitrate nitrogen in soil prior to cropping seasons was evaluated in 160 mg/kg and standard fertilization such as mixed expeller cake, source of nitrogen, are needed due to the deficiency of nitrogen. In terms of application of organic resources, rice straw showed the effects of improvements on physical properties of soil such as bulk density, cation exchange capacity and humus contents, but the mixed expeller cake did not show any significant differences in improvements on physical properties of soil. CONCLUSION(s): Fertilizer management in organic cultivation of tomatoes is thought to produce the reliable quantity of crops as well as keep the high quality of soils by using the optimal application rate of mixed expeller cake according to the contents of nitrate nitrogen in soil and rice straw which improves the physical properties of soil.
Anthocyanin Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Selected Pigmented Rice Varieties
Ali, Hiba A. ; Cho, Il-Kyu ; Kim, Sun-Ju ; Kim, Se-Na ; Kim, So-Young ; Cho, Young-Sook ; Baek, Hyung-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 111~117
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.111
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins have been recognized as health-enhancing substances due to their antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and hypoglycemic effects. The objective was to identify anthocyanins-rich rice grains for the development of functional foods and/or functional food colorants METHODS AND RESULTS: Rice grains of one black and three red-hulled rice varieties were extracted with acidified 80% aqueous methanol. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts was screened on TLC plates and in an in vitro assay using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) as a free radical source. Red-hulled rice varieties exhibited higher antioxidant activity (88%, 1 mg/mL) than black rice (67%, 1 mg/mL). Among the red-hulled varieties tested, rice variety SSALBYEO54 (901452) was the most active (72%, 0.5 mg/mL). Rice extracted anthocyanin compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-FLD and LC-MS/MS. Red-hulled varieties comprised cyanidin-3-glucoside in addition to ferulic acid esters, apigenin and kaempferol glycosides. CONCLUSION(s): Anthocyanins identified in the black rice variety were cyanidin-7-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-Oglucoside, cyanidin-3'-O-glucoside, cyanidin-5-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3, 7-O-diglucoside, cyanidin-3, 5-O-diglucoside and peonidin-4'-O-glucoside. The results of this study show that the black rice (IT212512) and red-hulled rice variety SSALBYEO54 (901452) contain notable antioxidant activity for potential use in nutraceutical or functional food formulations.
Feasibility of Reclaimed Wastewater and Waste Nutrient Solution for Crop Production in Korea
Choi, Bong-Su ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Awad, Yasser M. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 118~124
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.118
BACKGROUND: Development of water recycle technologies is important for human health and sustainable agriculture. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the purification methods or the water quality of reclaimed wastewater in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the different wastewaters including reclaimed wastewater and waste nutrient solution (NS) were evaluated. The changes of water quality in reclaimed wastewater and NS were determined using ultraviolet (UV) treatment and sand filtration with charcoal. Our results showed that one of the most critical limitations of reusing wastewater was the presence of harmful pathogens that possibly cause human health risks. CONCLUSION(s): This study suggests that the application of UV treatment or combined with sand filtration on reclaimed wastewater and waste NS effectively removes the total coliform bacteria below the harmful or acceptable level. For future studies, a long-term field monitoring after applying reclaimed wastewater or NS is needed.
Effects of Waste Nutrient Solution on Growth of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) in Korea
Choi, Bong-Su ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 125~131
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.125
BACKGROUND: Reuse of waste nutrient solution for the cultivation of crops could lead to considerable conservation of water resources, plant nutrients, and water quality. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential for reducing the use of chemical fertilizer in Chinese cabbage cultivation via the reuse of waste nutrient solution as an alternative irrigation resource. METHODS AND RESULTS: The nutrients supplied in the waste nutrient solution consisted of 1474.5, 1285.1, 991.6, and 872.6 mg/L for
, respectively. At 56 days after transplanting (DAT), the leaf length of Chinese cabbage plants irrigated with the waste nutrient solution treatment was significantly higher than that of plants irrigated using a conventional groundwater treatment. Additionally, the leaf width, fresh weight and dry weight of the plants irrigated with the waste nutrient solution were similar or greater than that of plants irrigated with a conventional treatment. Furthermore, the growth of plants treated with the waste nutrient solution +25% fertilizer was the highest among all tested treatments. CONCLUSION(s): These results indicate that the waste nutrient solution can be used as an alternate water resource for crop cultivation. In addition, it can contribute to reduce the fertilizer and to obtain the higher crop yield of Chinese cabbage.
Effect of Potassium Fertigation Level on Growth and Yield of 'Campbell Early' Grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) in Open Field
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Lee, In-Bog ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Song, Yang-Ik ; Kweon, Hun-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 132~137
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.132
BACKGROUND: This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of potassium fertigation on the growth and yield of fourteen years-old 'Campbell Early' grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) on a sandy loam soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Potassium application (125 kg/ha/yr) was top-dressed as 30% of annual potassium application in all treatments and the remainders were drip-irrigated with 0 (0% of total K, K0 level of the remainder), 25 (17.5% of total K, K1/4 level of the remainder), 50 (35% of total K, K1/2 level), and 100mg/L (70% of total K, K1 level) in the intervals of 2 times a week for 12 weeks and the effect of K drip fertigation was compared to control treatment in which the K remainder was applied with surface application as additional fertilizer. The growth of stem diameter, leaf number and shoot length were highest in K1/2 (50 mg/L K), but K of mineral contents was lowest in K0. Yield of grapevine was no difference in 2008, but significantly higher K1/2 than other treatments in 2009. However, fruit quality (color degree, brix, acid contents) was no difference among the treatment. CONCLUSION(s): From the results, It is expected that K1/2 levels of fertigation based on soil testing could be more efficient to get optimum yield and save potassium fertilizer than control (surface application) treatments when grapevine was drip-irrigated at open field condition.
The Effects of Organic Materials on Yield and N Use Efficiency of Organic Rice Grown under Frequent Heavy Rains
Cho, Jung-Lai ; Lee, Youn ; Choi, Hyun-Sug ; Kim, Wol-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.138
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate growth and yield of organically grown rice under a typhoon during a fall. The treatments included NPK chemical fertilizer, compost, oilcake, oilcake 2X, hairyvetch, and vetch+rye. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nutrient applications were made at rates equivalent to approximately 0.9 kg of actual N per acre. Oilcake and hairyvetch treatments had the lowest C:N ratio, but compost had the highest C:N ratio of 34:1. Rice treated by organic nutrient sources had great growth and development at the beginning of the growing season but had depressed growth and yield at the harvest. Oilcake 2X-treated rice in early growing season, especially, showed better growth and development than rice treated by other nutrient sources but was severely lodged at the harvest season due to the typhoon. Compost treatment with high C:N ratio slowly released inorganic N and produced poor rice growth and yield; however, it recued rice lodging. N uptake was the greatest for the oilcake 2X and vetch+rye treatments but the lowest for the compost, which was the similar pattern to the N use efficiency; the greatest and lowest N use efficiency was observed for the oilcake 2X (55%) and compost (5%), respectively. CONCLUSION(s): Rice lodging should be prevented by reducing the excessive nitrogen supplement, resulting from the lower C:N ratio of the organic materials as well as prevented by the radical midsummer drainage. Vetch+rye treatment with 25:1 of C:N had optimum vegetative growth and reduced rice lodging, which increased N use efficiency and yield.
Removal and Release Velocities of Nutrients by Submerged Plants in Flood Control Reservoirs around Juam Lake
Han, Jong-Hak ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Sang-Don ; Kang, Se-Won ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Kim, Hyun-Ook ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 144~152
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.144
BACKGROUND: Eutrophication occurs occasionally in flood control reservoirs around Juam lake in summer and early autumn. Lakeside macrophyte which is one of internal pollutants effects on water quality when it is submerged during water surface is rising after rainy season. METHODS AND RESULTS: To improve water the quality of water from water supply source and to establish the management plan of submerged plants in flood control reservoirs around Juam Lake, the removal and release velocities of nutrients by submerged plants in site 1 and 2 were investigated. Removal or release velocity constant (K) of COD by Carex dimorpholepis Steud in column was 0.07~0.18
at 0~4 days after flooding, -0.23~-0.17
at 5~19 days after flooding and -0.28~0.03
at 20~33 days after flooding. Removal or release velocity constant (K) of T-N by Carex dimorpholepis Steud was 0.02
at 0~4(8) days after flooding, -0.13~-0.10
at 5(9)~33 days after flooding in column. Removal or release velocity constant (K) of T-P by Carex dimorpholepis Steud was 0.05~0.06
at 0~4 days after flooding, -0.14~-0.09
at 5~33 days after flooding. Release velocity constant (K) of nutrients by Miscanthus sacchariflorus Benth was lower than that by Carex dimorpholepis Steud. In site 1, the amount of nutrients release by Carex dimorpholepis Steud was 6,719 kg/month/area for COD, 2,397 kg/month/area for T-N and 466 kg/month/area for T-P. The amounts of nutrients release by Carex dimorpholepis Steud were higher than those by Miscanthus sacchariflorus Benth in both sites. CONCLUSION(s): The results of this study suggest that COD, T-N and T-P in water quality of Juam lake were strongly influenced by submerged plants in flood control reservoirs.
Wet Deposition of Heavy Metals during Farming Season in Taean, Korea
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Ko, Byong-Gu ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 153~159
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.153
BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to investigate the distribution and burden characteristics of heavy metal in the rainwater sampled at Taean area, in the middle part of Korea, from April 2002 to October 2003. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relationship between concentration of heavy metal and other chemical properties in the rainwaters was also evaluated. Chemical properties in the rainwater were various differences with raining periods and years. It appeared that a weighted average pH values of rainwater was ranged from 5.0 to 5.1. Heavy metal concentrations in the rainwater were ranked as Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > As > Cr > Cd. As compared with heavy metal concentrations of rainwater in 2002, Cu, Pb, and Zn were higher than other elements in 2003. There were positive correlation between major ionic components, such as
, and As, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Ni concentrations in rainwater. For heavy metal distribution of rainwater, the order of average enrichment factor was Cd > Pb > As > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr, and these were relatively higher than the natural components such as Fe, Mg and Ca. The monthly enrichment factor were relatively high, from August to October at Taean. The monthly amount of heavy metal precipitation was high in the rainy season from July to August because of great influence of rainfall. CONCLUSION(s): The results of this study suggest that the heavy metals(Cd, Pb, As, Cu, and Zn) of rainwater is strongly influenced by anthropogenic sources rather than natural sources.
Worker Exposure and Volatilization Pattern of Cadusafos, Ethoprophos and Probenazole after Applying Granular Type Formulation on Soil in Greenhouse
Park, Byung-Jun ; Lee, Ji-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 160~165
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.160
BACKGROUND: This study carried out to fate of pesticide and investigate worker exposure of pesticide in air after applying granular type pesticide formulation on soil in greenhouse for preventing farmer's pesticide intoxication. METHODS AND RESULTS: The recovery of pesticide, cadusafos, ethoprophos and probenazole on absorbent in air were ranged 80.9~121.1% in charcoal and 90.6~99.0% in XAD-4, respectively. Emission rate of in lysimeter was higher 3~5 times than that of pesticides from topsoil not added water at
plot after applying a mixture of granular formulation and soil. The ethoprophos concentration in air, 50 cm high from soil surface at greenhouse, was reached the highest 186.4
within 13 hours and were ranged 17.8~186.4
during 46 hours after applying granular formulation at dose rate 150 g a.i./245
. The cadusafos concentration in air at greenhouse was reached the highest 37.3
within 39 hours and were ranged 10.0~37.3
during 46 hours after applying granular formulation at dose rate 180 g a.i./245
. The probenazole concentration in air at greenhouse was reached the highest 1.45
within 37 hours and were ranged 0.23~1.45
during 46 hours after applying granular formulation at dose rate 144 g a.i./245
. CONCLUSION(s): The result of the reentry interval study demonstrated that reentry intervals for ethoprophos and cadusafos are longer than 48 hours.
Establishment of 22 Pesticide MRLs in Agricultural Products based on Risk Assessment
Chung, Hyung-Wook ; Ha, Yong-Geun ; Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Shin, Ji-Eun ; Do, Jung-Ah ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Cho, Jae-Ho ; Kwon, Ki-Sung ; Park, Sun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 166~172
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.166
BACKGROUND: Food Sanitary Act establishes Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of pesticides in food that are newly registered and used per each quarter, as stipulated by Agro-chemical Control Act. Current Food Code contains the MRLs for a total of 418 pesticides in 184 food types. METHODS AND RESULTS: National MRLs for pesticides have been established by based on scientific data of good agricultural practice, acceptable daily intake (ADI), food intake, average body weight and others. MRLs for pesticides are generally set under the principle that theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) are always below ADI. As results, 27 MRLs in agricultural products were newly proposed for 22 pesticides (fungicide: azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, fluquinconazole, flusilazole, iprovalicarb, kresoxim-methyl, mandipropamid, metconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, triflumizole, etc., Insecticide: dinotefuran, flubendiamide, indoxacarb, cyhalothrin, spinetoram, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, metaflumizone, etc., Acaricide(miticide): cyenopyrafen, lufenuron) in 2010. CONCLUSION(s): There is no intake concerns for establishment of pesticide MRLs on foods in this time. Because the ratio of theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) are set below that of ADI.
A Study on the Factors Causing Analytical Errors through the Estimation of Uncertainty for Cadmium and Lead Analysis in Tomato Paste
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Young-Jun ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kang, Dae-Won ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Shin, Young-Jae ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 169~178
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.169
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the measurement uncertainty associated with determination of cadmium and lead from tomato paste by ICP/MS. The sources of measurement uncertainty (i.e. sample weight, final volume, standard weight, purity, molecular weight, working standard solution, calibration curve, recovery and repeatability) in associated with the analysis of cadmium and lead were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The guide to the expression of uncertainty was used for the GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement) and Draft EURACHEM/CITAC (EURACHEM: A network of organization for analytical chemistry in Europe/Co-Operation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry) Guide with mathematical calculation and statistical analysis. The uncertainty components were evaluated by either Type A or Type B methods and the combined standard uncertainty were calculated by statistical analysis using several factors. Expected uncertainty of cadmium and lead was
mg/kg (k=2.09) and
mg/kg (k=2.16), on basis of 95% confidence of Certified Reference Material (CRM) which was within certification range of
mg/kg for cadmium (k=2.03) and
mg/kg for lead (k=2.01), respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The most influential components in the uncertainty of heavy metals analysis were confirmed as recovery, standard calibration curve and standard solution were identified as the most influential components causing uncertainty of heavy metal analysis. Therefore, more careful consideration is required in these steps to reduce uncertainty of heavy metals analysis in tomato paste.
Aphicidal Activity of Starfish (Asterina pectinifera) Extracts against Green Peach Aphid (Myzus Persicae)
Jang, Ja-Yeong ; Yi, Sol ; Jung, Iee-Young ; Choi, Eun-Hyun ; Jo, Uk-Hee ; Seo, Jung-Mi ; Yang, Si-Young ; Kim, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 173~178
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.173
BACKGROUND: Starfish is one of major sea invertebrates that have become a serious economic threat to aquacultural farms in Korea. Much effort has sacrificed to reduce the economic losses of the farms by predatory starfish, including developing and searching biological resources for medicinal and agricultural purposes. In the present study, we investigated aphicidal activity of the extracts from the starfish Asterina pectinifera against green peach aphid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fresh starfishes were cut into small pieces, homogenized and soaked in methanol. The methanol extracts were centrifuged and the resulting supernatant was subjected to aphicidal activity assays and a series of silica gel column chromatography. More than 70% mortality of aphids were observed by the extracts at a concentration of 1,000 mg/L, exhibiting dose-dependent mortality. TOF-MS analyses detected polyhydroxysteroid as a main aphicidal compound from the starfish extracts. Transmission electronic microscopy could demonstrate that the extracts with polyhydroxysteroid caused aphids death by affecting their epicuticular membrane. CONCLUSION(s): This is the first report of aphicidal activity of the starfish Asterina pectinifera extracts against green peach aphid. Starfish biological resources may be used as a potential candidate for developing a new type natural insecticide.
Assessing Metallic Toxicity of Wastewater for Irrigation in Some Industrial Areas of Bangladesh
Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur ; Jiku, Md. Abu Sayem ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.189
BACKGROUND: Wastewaters were collected from 25 sites of two industrial areas of Mymensingh and Gazipur in Bangladesh to assess metallic toxicity of wastewater for irrigation usage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The analyzed wastewaters were slightly alkaline to alkaline in nature and were problematic for irrigation except 3 samples. As per TDS values, 9 samples were rated as fresh water and the rest 16 were classified as brackish water. EC and SAR reflected that all samples were medium salinity (C2), high salinity (C3), very high salinity (C4) and low alkalinity (S1) hazard classes expressed as C2S1, C3S1 and C4S1. Wastewaters of different industries were graded as excellent, good, permissible and doubtful for irrigation purpose as per SSP. According to hardness (
), wastewater were under moderately hard, hard and very hard classes. Cd, Cr and Cu ions were treated as toxicant for irrigating soils and crops. Zn was problematic for long-term irrigation. The concentrations of Pb, Fe and Na were far below the toxic levels. Synergistic relationships were observed between pH-EC, pH-TDS, EC-TDS, SAR-SSP and SSP-hardness. CONCLUSION(s): If wastewater is applied for irrigation due to the fresh water shortage, it can contaminate soil due to some toxic metal ions.
Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Nano-emulsion Vitamin A, D and E (LaVita) in Rats
Lee, Young-Ju ; Kwon, Min ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Kyun ; Jeong, Sang-Hee ; Chang, Hee-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 196~201
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.196
BACKGROUND: Bioavailability enhancement by solubilization of lipophilic drugs in nano-emulsion has been reported and it may be useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. This study was performed to compare in vivo bioavailability of nano-emulsion formulation with that of the general product as control. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics assessment of Vitamin A, D and E complex of nanoemulsion formulation (LaVita), in comparison to the general product, was performed in the male rat plasma by a single oral dose at 20 mL/kg body weight (n=3/group). For nano-emulsion formulation (LaVita),
of vitamin A and E in plasma were much higher and the area under the curve (AUC) of vitamin A, D and E were 14-63% higher, and the half-life of vitamin E was 2-fold longer than the general product. According to statistical analysis, each
of vitamin A, D & E was significantly higher (p<0.01, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) than that of general product. Half-life of vitamin A was significantly higher (p<0.01) and AUC of vitamin A and D were also significantly higher than the general product. CONCLUSION(s): Considering significant increment of
and AUC, LaVita made of nano-emulsion could be more effective the absorption rate and extent for bioavailability of vitamin A, D & E than those of general product.
Biodegradation of Organochlorine Insecticide Endosulfan by the Fungus Eutypella sp. KEF-1
Lee, Jung-Bok ; Park, Sang-Yeul ; Shin, Kee-Sun ; Jeon, Chun-Pyo ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 202~208
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.202
- Endosulfan isomers of endosulfan, an endocrine disrupting chemical, are widely used cyclodiene organochlorine pesticide in worldwide, and it has widespread application in agriculture and can contaminate river-system as runoff from soil or aerial deposition METHOD AND RESULTS: In this study, an attempt was made to isolate an endosulfan degrading fungus from endosulfan-polluted agricultural soil. Through repetitive enrichment and successive subculture in media containing endosulfan and its metabolites as the sole carbon source, a fungus designated KEF-1 was isolated. Based on phylogenetic analysis, strain KEF-1 was assigned to the genus Eutypella. Also, the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of KEF-1 were submitted to GenBank under accession number EF581006. In potato dextrose broth containing 8
/mL endosulfan, strain KEF-1 completely degraded the endosulfanin 12 days. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that Eutypella sp. KEF-1 has potential as a biocatalyst for endosulfan bioremediation
Geographical Distribution of Diving Beetles (Dytiscidae) in Korean Paddy Ecosystem
Han, Min-Su ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Na, Young-Eun ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 209~215
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.209
BACKGROUND: The paddy ecosystem is periodically disturbed with a relatively consistent cycle in short term. However, in long term aspect, the paddy as habitats of organisms has been affected by the change in farming practices. Accordingly, the composition and their densities of fauna species inhabiting the wet paddy has been changed. The geological distribution of a species is very helpful to understand the past and current status of habitats and biodiversity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We monitored 290 sites of open plain paddy or terraced valley paddy located in 138 cities or counties of South Korea and analyzed examine geological distribution of a taxon of freshwater invertebrates, diving beetles (Dytiscidae) which inhabited the paddy ecosystem. This survey was conducted from 2005 through 2007. The total species of diving beetles found in the paddy were identified to be 15 genus 26 species among the family of Dytiscidae. Among them, 24 species were found in the terraced valleys-in paddy fields, and 19 species were found in the open plain paddy fields. Eleven species of them were rarely found in the paddy. The average body size of the adult diving beetles of each species was between 2.0 and 35.0 mm. Most of the diving beetle species except for 11 species with rare frequency of occurrence were found in almost all sites of the terraced valley paddy fields but three species (Agabus browni, Agabus japnicus, and Ilybius apicalis) were not found in the open plain paddy fields. The species distributed relatively widely over some sites of the open plain paddy fields were Guignotus japonicus, and Rhantus pulverosus. Specifically, Ilybius apicalis was found in a specific region, the east-southern part of Korean peninsula, whereas Coelambus chinensis was found only in valley paddy field of the region where Ilybius apicalis was not found. Overall distribution range of diving beetles in open plain paddy fields was limited to few area than in terraced valley paddy fields. CONCLUSION(s): The differences in the range of distribution of diving beetles between terraced valley paddy fields and open plain paddy fields was thought to be the result of an complex action of physico-chemical environments such as annual water status and the degree of chemical application involving differences in the extent of disturbance of the paddy ecosystem, the connectivity of the paddy to an adjacent biotope, and interrelationships among competitors.
Effects of Environmental Factors and Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus Removal of Alcaligenes sp.
Yoo, Ri-Bi ; Kim, Hee-Jung ; Lee, Seok-Eon ; Lee, Moon-Soon ; Woo, Sun-Hee ; Choi, Jong-Soon ; Baek, Ki-Tae ; Chung, Keun-Yook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 216~222
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.216
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal capacity of Alcaligenes sp., which was well known as one of PAOs(Phosphorus Accumulating Microorganisms). METHODS AND RESULTS: The environmental factors used in this study were temperature, pH and carbon sources, and the heavy metals included Cu, Cd, Zn, As, and Ni. The growth and P removal efficiency of Alcaligenes sp. was maximal as temperature, pH, and carbon source were
, 7, and glucose+acetate, respectively. Also, the
(median inhibitory Concentration) values of Alcaligenes sp. for the Cu, Cd, Zn, As, and Ni were 5.03, 0.08, 0.73, 282.20 and 4.74 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that the growth and P removal efficiency of Alcaligenes sp. were affected by the environment factors and at the best optimum condition for its growth and P removal efficiency, as the concentrations of heavy metals were gradually increased, its growth was correspondingly decreased.
Effect of Inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense and Methylobacterium oryzae on the Growth of Red Pepper Plant
Kim, Byoung-Ho ; Sa, Tong-Min ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 2, 2011, Pages 223~228
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.2.223
BACKGROUND: Rhizosphere bacteria may improve plant growth and productivity both by supply nutrients and hormonal stimulation. Although many experiments have shown improvements in plant growth with inoculation of bacterial cultures to the rhizosphere, the main obstacle in the applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in a large scale is the inconsistency of the results. We tested the growth promoting effects of Azospirillum and Methylobacterium strains on red pepper plant. METHODS AND RESULTS: Red pepper seedlings were grown for 25 days in a growth media inoculated with A. brasilense CW903 or M. oryzae CBMB20. The seedlings were transplanted and grown for 45 days in pots with soil in a greenhouse, at half the recommended level of fertilizer. Bacterial culture,
for A. brasilense CW903 and
CFU for M. oryzae CBMB20, was applied in root zone soil periodically every 10 days during the experiment. Inoculation of M. oryzae CBMB20 significantly increased the red pepper plant growth in terms of leaf number, height and mass of shoot, or root mass compared to uninoculated control plants. Although beneficial effects of A. brasilense on plant growth of many crops were observed, the growthpromoting effect of A. brasilense CW903 on red pepper plant was not found in this study. CONCLUSION(s): The factors responsible for the irregularities in plant growth promoting of rhizobacteria are difficult to elucidate. Extensive inoculation experiments in the greenhouse and in the field should enable us to define the factors critical to obtain successful application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.