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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Tree Ring Ca/Al as an Indicator of Historical Soil Acidification of Pinus Densiflora Forest in Southern Korea
Lee, Kwang-Seung ; Hung, Dinh Viet ; Kwak, Jin-Hyeob ; Lim, Sang-Sun ; Lee, Kye-Han ; Choi, Woo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 229~233
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.229
BACKGROUND: Soil acidification, which is known to be one of the reasons of forest decline, is associated with decreases in exchangeable Ca and increases in Al concentration, leading to low Ca/Al ratio in soil solution. As tree rings are datable archives of environmental changes, Ca/Al ratios of annual growth ring may show decreasing pattern in accordance with the progress of soil acidification. This study was conducted to investigate Ca/Al pattern of Pinus densiflora tree ring in an attempt to test its usefulness as an indicator of historical soil acidification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three P. densiflora tree disks were collected from P. densiflora forests in Jeonnam province, and soil samples (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm in depth) were also collected from the tree locations. Soils were analyzed for pH and exchangeable Ca and Al concentrations, and Ca/Al was calculated. Annual growth rings formed between 1969 and 2007 were separated and analyzed for Ca/Al. Soil Ca/Al was positively (P<0.01) correlated with soil pH, suggesting that soil acidification decreased Ca while increasing Al availability, lowering Ca/Al in soil solution. The Ca/Al of tree rings also showed a decreasing pattern from 18.2 to 5.5 during the period, and this seemed to reflect historical acidification of the soils. CONCLUSION(s): The relationship between soil pH and Ca/Al and the decreasing pattern of Ca/Al of tree ring suggest that Ca/Al of tree ring needs to be considered as a proxy of the progress of soil acidification in P. densiflora forest in southern Korea.
Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Potential of Winter Cover Crop Cultivation in Rice Paddy Soil
Lee, Seul-Bi ; Haque, Mozammel ; Pramanik, Prabhat ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 234~242
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.234
BACKGROUND: Cultivation of winter cover crops is strongly recommended to increase land utilization efficiency, animal feeding material self-production, and to improve soil and environmental quality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four major winter crops (barley, Chinese milk vetch, hairy vetch, and rye) having different C/N ratio were seeded in silt loam paddy soil in the November 2007 and the aboveground biomass was harvested on the late May 2008 to evaluate its effectiveness as green manure, and root biomass distribution was characterized at the different depth (0-60 cm) to study its effect on physical properties and carbon sequestration in soil. During this experiment, the naturally growing weed in the rice paddy soil in Korea, short awn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol), was considered as control treatment. Above-ground biomass of all cover crops selected was significantly higher than that of the control treatment (2.8 Mg/ha). Comparatively higher above-ground biomass productivity of rye and barley (15.8 and 13.5 Mg/ha, respectively) suggested that these cover crops possibly had the highest potential as a green manure and animal feeding material. Root biomass production of different cover crops followed the same trend as that for their above ground biomass. Rye (Secale cereal) might have the highest potential for soil C accumulation (7893 C kg/ha) by root biomass development, and then followed by barley (6985 C kg/ha), hairy vetch (6467 C kg/ha), Chinese milk vetch (6671 C kg/ha), and control (5791 C kg/ha). CONCLUSION(s): Cover crops like rye and barley having high biomass productivity might be the most effective winter cover crops to increase organic carbon distribution in different soil aggregates which might be beneficial to improve soil structure, aeration etc. and C sequestration.
Effect of Gypsum Application on Reducing Methane (CH
) Emission in a Reclaimed Coastal Paddy Soil
Lim, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 243~251
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.243
) is known as an ideal amendment to improve soil quality of the reclaimed coastal land. Since gypsum has very high concentration of electron acceptor like
, its application might be effective on reducing
emission during rice cultivation, but its effect has not been studied well. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of gypsum on
emission and rice growth characteristics was studied by pot test, which was packed by reclaimed paddy soils collected from Galsa, Hadong, Gyeongnam province. Chemical-grade gypsum was applied in two soils having EC 2.25 and 9.48 dS/m at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%(wt/wt).
emission was characterized a week interval by closed chamber method during rice cultivation.
emission rate was significantly decreased with increasing salt accumulation and gypsum application levels. With increasing gypsum application, dissolved
concentration in the leachate water was significantly increased, which might have suppressed
production in soil. Total
flux was dramatically decreased with increasing gypsum application. In contrast, rice yield was increased with increasing gypsum application and then achieved maximum productivity at 1.0% gypsum application in two soils. CONCLUSION(s): Gypsum is a very good soil amendment to suppress
emission in reclaimed coastal paddy soils, and improve rice productivity and soil properties. The optimum application level of gypsum is assumed at ca. 1% to improve soil productivity with reducing effectively
emission during rice cultivation.
Estimation of Biomass Resource Conversion Factor and Potential Production in Agricultural Sector
Park, Woo-Kyun ; Park, Noh-Back ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 252~260
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.252
BACKGROUND: Currently, national biomass inventory are being established for efficient management of the potential energy sources. Among the various types of biomass, agricultural wastes are considered to take the biggest portion of the total annual biomass generated in Korea, implying its importance. However, the currently estimated amount is not reliable because the old reference data are still used to estimate total annual amount of agricultural wastes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Therefore, to provide reliable estimation data, a correct conversion factor obtained by taking into account the current situation is required. For this, the current study was conducted to provide the conversion factors for each representative 8 crop through a field cultivation study. Also conversion factors for 18 crops were calculated using the average amount of each crop produced during 2004 and 2008, subsequently; total amount of agricultural wastes generated in 2009 was estimated using these conversion factors. The total biomass of rice straw and rice husk generated in 2009 were 6.5 and 1.1 million tons, respectively, which consist 75% of the total agricultural based wastes, while the total biomass of pepper shoots and apple pruning twigs were 1.0 and 0.6 million tons, respectively. Despite the high amount of rice-based biomass, their applicability for bio-energy production is low due to conventional utilization of these materials for animal feeds and beds for animal husbandry. In addition to exact estimation of the total biomass, temporal variations in both generated amount and the type of agricultural biomass materials are also important for efficient utilization; fruit pruning twigs (January to March); barley-, been-, and mustard-related waste materials (April to June); rice-related waste (September to October). CONCLUSION(s): Such information provided in this study can be used to establish a master plan for efficient utilization of the agricultural wastes on purpose of bio-energy production.
Effect of Phosphate Fertilizer and Manure in Reducing Cadmium Phytoavailability in Radish-grown Soil
Hong, Chang-Oh ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.261
ACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) has long been recognized as one of most toxic elements. Application of organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers can decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted to evaluate effect of combined application of phosphate fertilizer and manure in reducing cadmium phytoavailability in heavy metal contaminated soil. Phosphate fertilizers [Fused and super phosphate (FSP) and
(DPP)] and manure (M) were applied as single application (FSP, DPP, and M) to combined application (FSP+M and DPP+M) before radish seeding.
extractable Cd and plant Cd concentration, mainly due to increases in soil pH and negative charge. However, FSP increased
extractable Cd and plant Cd concentration. Manure significantly increased soil pH and negative charge. Combined application of phosphate fertilizer and manure were much more effective in reducing Cd phytoavailability than a simple application of each component. Calculated solubility diagram indicated that Cd concentrations in the solution of soils amended with phosphate fertilizers and manure were undersaturated with respect to all potential Cd minerals [
]. Plant Cd concentration and
extractable Cd were negatively related to soil pH and negative charge. CONCLUSION: Alleviation of Cd phytoavailability with phosphate fertilizer and manure can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization due to the increase in soil pH and negative charge rather than Cd and phosphate precipitation. Therefore, combined application of alkaline phosphate materials and manure is effective for reducing Cd phytoavailability.
A Study on Estimate of Sediment Yield Using Tank Model in Oship River Mouth of East Coast
Kang, Sank-Hyeok ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Kim, Sang-Ryul ; Ji, Jeong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 268~274
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.268
BACKGROUND: A large scale of sediment load delivered from watershed causes substantial waterway damages and water quality degradation. Controlling sediment loading requires the knowledge of the soil erosion and sedimentation. The various factors such as watershed size, slope, climate, land use may affect sediment delivery processes. Traditionally sediment delivery ratio prediction equations have been developed by relating watershed characteristics to measured sediment yield divided by predicted gross erosion. However, sediment prediction equations have been developed for only a few regions because of limited sediment data. Besides, little research has been done on the prediction of sediment delivery ratio for asia monsoon period in mountainous watershed. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study Tank model was expanded and applied for estimating sediment yield to Oship River of east coast. The rainfall-runoff in 2006 was verified using the Tank model and we derived good result between observed and calculated discharge in 2009 at the same conditions. In relation to sediment yield, the sediment delivery rate of 2006 was very high than 2009 regardless of methods for estimating sediment load. It was thought to be affected by heavy rainfall due to the typhoon. CONCLUSION(s): For estimating sediment volume from watershed, long-term monitoring data on discharge and sediment is needed. This model will be able to apply to predict discharge and sediment yield simultaneously in ungauged area. This approach is more effective and less expensive method than the traditional method which needs a lot of data collection.
The Characteristics of Growth, Yield and Quality of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) on the Basis of Pot Seedling Raising Method in Eco-friendly Agriculture
Kwon, Young-Rip ; Choi, In-Young ; Moon, Young-Hun ; Seo, Kyoung-Won ; Sharma, Praveen Kumar ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 275~280
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.275
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to find out the suitable method for organic rice production on the basis of different seedling raising methods at nine eco-friendly agricultural units of Samgi, Mangsung, Iksan and Sungsan, Gusan of Jeollabuk-do, during 2009-10. METHODS AND RESULTS: On the basis of yield and physiological parameters, pot seeding method was found to be superior to drill seeding and broadcast seeding methods. The number of panicle, grain, the precent of ripened grains, and the 1,000 grain weight, were better in pot seeding method. Maximum yield and other attributes were recorded in rice, cultivated with seedlings raised by pot and broadcast seeding method. Number of panicle/hill and grain/panicle was 10.4% and 35.1% higher than the broadcast seeding method, respectively. Yield also showed 8.8% increase in pot seeding method as compare to broadcast seeding method. Higher grain yield was obtained when 56 hills/
of rice seedlings were used as compare to 50 hills/
raised by pot seeding method and 70 hills/
of broadcast seeding method. Lodging was minimum in seedlings raised with pot seeding method as thickness of third internode was more (9.0%) than the seedlings, raised with broadcast seeding method. Root length and dry weight also showed similar tendency i.e. 13.8% and 25.3% higher, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): Quality and grade of rice, cultivated with pot seeding method was better than broadcast seeding method. Head rice was 4.4% higher; and protein content and broken rice grown by pot seeding method were 0.4% and 1.8% lower than broadcast seeding method, respectively.
Concentration of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde depending on the Time of Storage into Mineral Water
Lee, Youn-Hee ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Park, Ju-Hyun ; Choi, Ja-Yoon ; Ahn, Kyung-Hee ; Ahn, Hye-Sil ; Kwon, Oh-Sang ; Kim, Tae-Seung ; Han, Jin-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 281~287
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.281
BACKGROUND: According to Korean regulations, bottled waters (BWs) can not be treated with chemical disinfectants like chlorine, so UV and ozone disinfection is applied. During the past several years, chemicals were detected in some BWs, and the public was concerned about the safety of BWs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mineral waters were stored for 180 days at
, tested acetaldehyde and formaldehyde by HPLC. When mineral waters were put in a PET bottles, the formaldehyde level ranged from 5 to
during 180 days at
. While the acetaldehyde level ranged from 31 to
, it was low than
in glass bottle. CONCLUSION(s): This result showed that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected higher in PET bottles than glass bottles, these also increased depending on the time of storage. Concentration of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde could be significantly influenced by the time of storage and temperature.
Establishment of Analytical Method for Methylmercury in Fish by Using HPLC-ICP/MS
Yoo, Kyung-Yoal ; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Yang-Sun ; Myung, Jyong-Eun ; Yoon, Hae-Seong ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 288~294
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.288
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury is analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS because of the simplicity for sample preparation and interference. However, most of the pre-treatment methods for methylmercury need a further pH adjustment of the extracted solution and removal of organic matter for HPLC. The purpose of this study was to establish a rapid and accurate analytical method for determination of methylmercury in fish by using HPLC-ICP/MS. METHOD AND RESULTS: We conducted an experiment for pre-treatment and instrument conditions and analytical method verification. Pre-treatment condition was established with aqueous 1% L-cysteine HCl and heated at
in microwave for 20 min. Methylmercury in
of filtered extract was separated by a C18 column and aqueous 0.1% L-cysteine HCl + 0.1% L-cysteine mobile phase at
. The presence of cysteine in mobile phase and sample solution was essential to eliminate adsorption, peak tailing and memory effect problems. Correlation coefficient(
) for the linearity was 0.9998. The limits of detection and quantitation for this method were 0.15 and
respectively. CONCLUSION: Result for analytical method verification, accuracy and repeatability of the analytes were in good agreement with the certified reference materials values of methylmercury at a 95% confidence level. The advantage of the established method is that the extracted solution can be directly injected into the HPLC column without additional processes and the memory effect of mercury in the ICP-MS can be eliminated.
Effects of Antimicrobials on Methane Production in an Anaerobic Digestion Process
Oh, Seung-Yong ; Park, Noh-Back ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Chun, Man-Young ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 295~303
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.295
BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestion process is recently adapted technology for treatment of organic waste such as animal manure because the energy embedded in the waste can be recovered from the waste while the organic waste were digested. Ever increased demand for consumption of meat resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobials to the livestocks for more food production. Most antimicrobials administered to animals are excreted through urine and feces, which might highly affect the biological treatment processes of the animal manure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antimicrobials on the efficiency of anaerobic digestion process and to clarify the interactions between antimicrobials and anaerobes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experiment was consisted of two parts 1) batch test to investigate the effects of individual antibiotic compounds on production of methane and VFAs(volatile fatty acids), and removal efficiency of organic matter, and 2) the continuous reactor test to elucidate the effects of mixed antimicrobials on the whole anaerobic digestion process. The batch test showed no inhibitions in the rate of methane and VFAs production, and the rate of organic removal were observed with treatment at 1~10 mg/L of antimicrobials while temporary inhibition was observed at 50 mg/L treatment. In contrast, treatment of 100 mg/L antimicrobials resulted in continuous decreased in the rate of methane production and organic removal efficiency. The continuous reactor test conduced to see the influence of the mixed antimicrobials showed only small declines in the methane production and organic matter removal when 1~10 mg/L of combined antimicrobials were applied but this was not significant. In contrast, with the treatment of 50 mg/L of combined antimicrobials, the rate of organic removal efficiency in effluent decreased by 2~15% and the rate of biogas production decreased by 30%. CONCLUSION(s): The antimicrobials remained in the animal manure might not be removed during the anaerobic digestion process and hence, is likely to be released to the natural ecosystem. Therefore, the efforts to decline the usage of antimicrobials for animal farming would be highly recommended.
Characteristics of Nutrient Uptake by Water Plants in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands for Treating Non-point Source Pollution
Kang, Se-Won ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Kim, Sang-Don ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 304~309
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.304
BACKGROUND: Generally, water plants may play an important role in nutrients(N, P) removal in constructed wetlands(CWs). Previous studies considered nutrients uptake by water plants in various CWs for treating point source pollution. On the other hand, few studies considered nutrients uptake by water plants in free water surface(FWS) CWs for treating non-point source pollution. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate characteristics of nutrient uptake by water plants in FWS CWs, dry weights, nutrients content and nutrients uptake by water plants were investigated from April, 2008 to October, 2008. Dominance plants were Phragmites japonica STEUD (PHRJA), Nymphaea tetragona ANGUSTA(NTMTE), Typha orientalis PRESL(TYHOR), Phragmites communis TRINIUS(PHRCO) and Zizanis latifolia TURCZ(ZIZLA) in FWS CWs. The dry weights of water plants in August were higher in the order of TYHOR(54.27 g/plant) > PHRJA(44.30 g/plant)
NTMTE(36.75 g/plant). The T-N and T-P contents by water plants were not significantly differences regardless of cultivation period. The maximum amount of T-N uptake by water plants in August were 773 mg/plant for PHRJA, 625 mg/plant for NTMTE, 1206 mg/plant for TYHOR, 754 mg/plant for PHRCO and 768 mg/plant for ZIZLA. The maximum amounts of T-P uptake by PHRJA, NTMTE, TYHOR, PHRCO and ZIZLA were 397, 177, 411, 261 and 229 mg/plant in August, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The results of this study suggest that optimum water plant was Typha orientalis PRESL in free water surface constructed wetlands.
Evaluation of Removal Efficiencies of Heavy Metals Using Brown Seaweed Biosorbent Under Different Biosorption Systems
Choi, Ik-Won ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Sung-Un ; Kang, Se-Won ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Kang, Seok-Jin ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 310~315
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.310
BACKGROUND: Heavy-metal pollution represents an important environmental problem due to the toxic effects of metals, and their accumulation throughout the food chain leads to serious ecological and health problems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimum conditions in continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and packedbed column contactor (PBCC) using brown seaweed biosorbent were investigated. Under optimum conditions from both lab-scale biosorbent systems, removal efficiency of copper (Cu) in a large-scale PBCC system was investigated. Removal capacity of Cu using brown seaweed biosorbent in a lab-scale CSTR system was higher than that in a lab-scale PBCC system. On the other hand, over 48 L/day of flow rate in Cu solution, removal efficiency of Cu in a lab-scale PBCC system was higher than that in a lab-scale CSTR system. Optimum flow rate of Cu was 24 L/day, optimum Cu solution concentration was 100 mg/L. Removal capacity of Cu at different stages was higher in the order of double column biosorption system > single column biosorption system. Under different heavy metals, removal capacities of heavy metal were higher in the order of Pb > Cr > Ni > Mn
Co. Removal capacity of Cu was 138 L in a large-scale PBCC system. Removal capacity of Cu a large-scale PBCC system was similar with in a lab-scale PBCC system. CONCLUSION(s): Therefore, PBCC system using brown seaweed biosorbent was suitable for treating heavy metal wastewater.
Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Lake : Risk Quotients and Probabilistic Approach
Lee, Ji-Ho ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Park, Sang-Won ; Kim, Won-Il ; Hong, Su-Myung ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Moo-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 316~322
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.316
BACKGROUND: Pesticides concentration was monitored in 50 agricultural lakes, and ecological risk for aquatic organism was assessed using risk quotient (RQ) and probabilistic methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pesticides concentrations detected in 50 agricultural lakes during peak season (June and September) were in the range of
. The RQ for algae and the other species was estimated to be 0.25 and below 0.01, indicating medium risk and no risk. Oxadiazon predominantly contributed to RQ value of 99% for algae, fishes, and amphibians. In terms of hazardous concentration at 5% of species (
), ecological risk quotients (ERQ) for oxadiazon ranged from 0.18~0.33, showing a medium risk level. Overall, the concentrations of pesticides were much lower than
), value. Probability of combined ecological risk for pesticides ranged from 1.82% to 2.41%. CONCLUSION(s): Combined ecological risk probability did not exceed the acceptable level of 5%, indicating no ecological risk for selected aquatic species. This study suggests that regular ecological risk assessment (ERA) will be required to protect and manage an agricultural lake. Not only ERA at screening level by comparing exposure with toxic effects for aquatic species also advanced ERA technique considering species in indigenous to Korea, chronic toxicity, pulse dose, fate, and environmental factors should be required.
Simultaneous Analysis of Conazole Fungicides in Garlic by Q-TOF Mass Spectrometer Coupled with a Modified QuEChERS Method
Bong, Min-Sun ; Yang, Si-Young ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Seo, Jung-Mi ; Kim, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 323~329
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.323
BACKGROUND: The conazoles, difenoconazole, diniconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole and tetraconazole are a large class of synthetic fungicides used extensively for foliage and seed treatments in agricultural crops. The extensive use of conazoles has brought concerns on the potentiality of environmental contamination and toxicity. Thus studies on the development of methods for monitoring the conazoles are required. METHODS AND RESULTS: A modified quick, easy, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was involved in sample preparation. Quadrapole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF MS) in electron spray ionization (ESI) mode was employed to determine conazoles in garlic samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of conazoles by Q-TOF-MS ranged from 0.001 to 0.002 mg/L and 0.002 to 0.005 mg/L, respectively. Q-TOF-MS analysis exhibited less than 2.6 ppm error of accurate mass measurements for the detection of conazoles spiked at 0.05 mg/L in garlic matrix. Recovery values of conazoles fortified in garlic samples at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L were between 79.2 and 106.2% with a maximum 11.8% of standard deviation. No detectable conazoles were found in the domestic market samples by using the Q-TOF-MS method. CONCLUSION(s): High degree of confirmation for conazoles by accurate mass measurements demonstrated that Q-TOF-MS analysis combined with a QuEChERS method may be applicable to simultaneous determination of conazoles in garlic samples.
Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Cadmium and Lead in Agricultural Products
Kim, Ji-Young ; Choi, Nam-Geun ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Lee, Young-Gu ; Jo, Kyoung-Kyu ; Lee, Cheol-Ho ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 330~338
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.330
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the agricultural product (Pulses, Lettuces, Pumpkins, Apples, Pears and Tangerines) in Korea, monitoring of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contaminations of agricultural products in cultivated areas and abandoned mine areas were investigated, and risk assessment was performed through dietary intake of agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: The average contents of Cd and Pb ranged from 0.001 to 0.018 mg/kg and from 0.007 to 0.032 mg/kg respectively. The result was showed that contents of Cd and Pb did not exceed maximum residual levels established by CODEX except pumpkins and apples. The average daily intake were in the range of
b.w./day at the mean and 95th percentile for Cd,
b.w./day at the mean and 95th percentile for Pb for general population, based on the Korean public nutrition report 2008. The Hazard Index (HI) from the ratio analysis between daily exposure and safety level values was smaller than 1.0. CONCLUSION(s): This results demonstrated that human exposure to Cd and Pb through dietary intake of agricultural produces from abandoned mine areas might not cause adverse effect exceeding to those from non-contaminated areas.
Application of Multiresidue Analysis Method of Unregistered Pesticides in Korea for Imported Food
Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Kim, Ji-Hwan ; Do, Jung-Ah ; Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Kwon, Ki-Sung ; Lee, Joong-Keun ; Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 339~345
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.339
BACKGROUND: Recently in Korea, the import of agricultural products is rising due to the increasing amount of trade. Unregistered pesticides, allidochlor, propachlor, propham, cycloate, diallate and pebulate are widely used as pesticides for rice cultivation in foreign countries, while they are not registered in Korea. Therefore, the residue amount of imported agri-foods should be verified using the proper official analytical method for each of them that has not registered in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: This work was conducted to apply the official method of Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) for determining multi class pesticide multiresidues in agricultural commodities. Brown rice and orange which have different characteristics as a matrix were selected as representative samples for residue analysis. The recoveries of cycloate, diallate and pebulate by GC/MS in fortified brown rice and orange with levels of 0.04~0.4 mg/kg were ranged from 82.8% to 110.3%. The quantification limits of three pesticides in brown rice and orange were 0.04 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: As a result, this method can surely be used as an official method for routine analysis of unregistered pesticides in Korea for imported agri-food.
Characterization and Antifungal Activity from Soilborne Streptomyces sp. AM50 towards Major Plant Pathogens
Jang, Jong-Ok ; Lee, Jung-Bok ; Kim, Beam-Soo ; Kang, Sun-Chul ; Hwang, Cher-Won ; Shin, Kee-Sun ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 3, 2011, Pages 346~356
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.3.346
BACKGROUND: Chemical fungicides not only may pollute the ecosystem but also can be environmentally hazardous, as the chemicals accumulate in soil. Biological control is a frequently-used environment-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides in phytopathogen management. However, the use of microbial products as fungicides has limitations. This study isolated and characterized a three-antifungal-enzyme (chitinase, cellulase, and
-1,3-glucanase)-producing bacterium, and examined the conditions required to optimize the production of the antifungal enzymes. METHOD AND RESULTS: The antifungal enzymes chitinase, cellulase, and
-1,3-glucanase were produced by bacteria isolated from an sawmill in Korea. Based on the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, the bacterial strain AM50 was identical to Streptomyces sp. And their antifungal activity was optimized when Streptomyces sp. AM50 was grown aerobically in a medium composed of 0.4% chitin, 0.4% starch, 0.2% ammonium sulfate, 0.11%
, and 0.0001%
. A culture broth of Streptomyces sp. AM50 showed antifungal activity towards the hyphae of plant pathogenic fungi, including hyphae swelling and lysis in P. capsici, factors that may contribute to its suppression of plant pathogenic fungi. CONCLUSION(S): This study demonstrated the multiantifungal enzyme production by Streptomyces sp. AM50 for the biological control of major plant pathogens. Further studies will investigate the synergistic effect, to the growth regulations by biogenic amines and antifungal enzyme gene promoter.