Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Estimating Concentrations of Pesticide Residue in Soil from Pepper Plot Using the GLEAMS Model
Jin, So-Hyun ; Yoon, Kwang-Sik ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Choi, Woo-Jung ; Choi, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Bo-Mi ; Lim, Sang-Sun ; Jung, Jae-Woon ; Lee, Kyoung-Sook ; Hong, Su-Myeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 357~366
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.357
BACKGROUND: Mathematical model such as GLEAMS have been developed and successfully applied to upland fields to estimate the level of pesticide residues in soil. But, the GLEAMS model rarely applied to the Korean conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate pesticide transport in soil residue using the GLEAMS model from pepper plot, Alachlor, Endosulfan, Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate were applied for standard and double rate. Soil sampling was conducted and decaying patterns of pesticides were investigated. Observed climate data such as temperature and irrigation amount were used for hydrology simulation. The observed pesticide residue data of 2008 were used for parameter calibration, and validation of GLEAMS model was conducted with observed data of 2009. After calibration, the
(Organic carbon distribution coefficient) and WSHFRC (Washoff fraction) parameters were identified as key parameters. The simulated concentrations of the pesticides except Fenvalerate were sensitive to
parameter. Overall, soil residue concentrations of Alachlor, Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate were fairly simulated compared to those of Endosulfan. The applicability of the GLEAMS model was also confirmed by statistical analysis. CONCLUSION(s): GLEAMS model was eligible for evaluation of pesticide soil residue for Alachlor, Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate.
Assessment of Korean Paddy Soil Microbial Community Structure by Use of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays
Choe, Myeong-Eun ; Lee, In-Jung ; Shin, Jae-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 367~376
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.367
BACKGROUND: In order to develop effective assessment method for Korean paddy soil microbial community structure, reliable genomic DNA extraction method from paddy soil and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method are needed to establish METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of six conventional soil genomic DNA extraction methods, anion exchange resin purification method was turn to be the most reliable. Various PCR primers for distinguishing five bacterial phylum (
-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes), all bacteria, and all fungi were tested. Various qRT-PCR temperature conditions were also tested by repeating experiment. Finally, both genomic DNA extraction and qRT-PCR methods for paddy soil were well established. CONCLUSION: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method to assess paddy soil microbial community was established.
The Effect of Flooding Time on Ammonia Emission after Application of Liquid Pig Manure in Paddy Soil
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Lee, Youn ; Shin, Pyung-Gyun ; Yun, Hong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 377~381
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.377
BACKGROUND: Ammonia emissions from field-applied livestock manure are considered a threat to the environment worldwide. In Korea, a large amount of liquid manure was applied in the rice field before rice transplanting in order to reduce chemical fertilizer use. This study was conducted to provide the optimal flooding time after liquid manure application in an attempt to minimize ammonia emission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ammonia emission from paddy field applied with liquid pig manure following different flooding time was measured using the dynamic chamber method. The five treatments used were : application of liquid pig manure to paddy field in flooding condition (F0T); one day (F1T) and three days (F3T) after flooding; without flooding (NF), and flooding without the application of liquid pig manure (control). Among the treatment, the highest ammonia emission was observed in F0T. The cumulative ammonia emission of F1T and F3T for 12 days were very similar and were about 4.7 times less than that of the F0T treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ammonia emission in paddy field could be significantly reduced by liquid pig manure application after flooding rather than application of liquid pig manure in flooding condition. Therefore, flooding after liquid pig manure application would provide much more nitrogen for rice growth due to the reduction of ammonia emission.
Supplementary Blue and Red Radiation at Sunrise and Sunset Influences Growth of Ageratum, African Marigold, and Salvia Plants
Heo, Jeong-Wook ; Lee, Yong-Beom ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 382~389
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.382
BACKGROUND: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with lower electric cost and the specific wavelength have been considering as a novel light source for plant production in greenhouse conditions as well as in a closed culture system. Supplementary lighting for day-length extension was considered as light intensity, light quality, and/or photoperiod control on plant growth and development. Effects of supplementary blue or red LED radiation with lower light intensity on growth of Ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum Mill., cv. Blue Field), African marigold (Tagetes erecta L., cv. Orange Boy), and Salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sello ex Ruem & Schult., cv. Red Vista) were discussed during sunrise and sunset twilight in the experiment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Supplementary lighting by blue and red LEDs for 30 (Treatment B30; R30) or 60 (Treatment B60; R60) min. per day were established in greenhouse conditions. Photosynthetic photon flux for supplementary radiation was kept at
on the culture bed. Natural condition without supplementary light was considered as a control. The highest shoot and root dry weights were shown in African marigold exposed by red light for 60 min. per day. Supplementary blue and red lighting regardless of the radiation time significantly stimulated development of lateral branches in African marigold. Stem growth in Ageratum and Salvia seedlings was significantly promoted by red radiation as well as natural light. CONCLUSIONS: Extending of the radiation time at sunrise and sunset twilight using LEDs stimulated reproductive growth of flowering plant species. Different characteristics on growth under supplementary blue or red lighting conditions were also observed in the seedlings during supplementary radiation.
Expression of Anti-breast Cancer Monoclonal Antibody in Transgenic Plant
Kim, Deuk-Su ; Shao, Yingxue ; Lee, Jeong-Hwan ; Yoon, Joon-Sik ; Park, Se-Ra ; Choo, Young-Kug ; Hwang, Kyung-A ; Ko, Ki-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 390~394
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.390
BACKGROUND: Plant expression system for mass production of recombinant proteins has several advantages over other existing expression systems with economical and safety issues. Breast cancer is a cancer originating from breast tissue and comprises almost 25% of all cancers in women world widely. Lewis-Y antigen is difucosylated oligosaccharide and is carried by glycoconjugates at cancer cell surface. In this study, the anti-breast cancer mAb BR55, which recognizes the epitope Lewis-Y, was expressed in the plant expression system. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have developed plant system for production of mAb BR55 with or without KDEL (the ER retention signal). This ER retention signal was attached to C-terminus of protein to help retain the recombinant glycoprotein carrying oligomannose glycans and enhance glycoprotein accumulation. PCR analysis was performed and confirmed the presence of recombinant genes. Western blot validated that the recombinant proteins mAb BR55 with or without KDEL were expressed in transgenic plants, moreover, the expression level of the mAb BR55 with KDEL was higher compared to the mAb BR55 without KDEL. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that KDEL fusion is a good way to produce proteins and plant can be an ideal expression system to obtain proteins and enhance accumulation of proteins.
Physiological and Proteomics Analysis to Potassium Starvation in Rice
Kim, Sang-Gon ; Wang, Yiming ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Chi, Yong-Hun ; Kim, Keun-Ki ; Choi, In-Soo ; Kim, Yong-Chul ; Kang, Kyu-Young ; Kim, Sun-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 395~401
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.395
BACKGROUND: Potassium (K) is one of the macronutrients which are essential for plant growth and development. Its deficiency in paddy soils is becoming one of the limiting factors for increasing rice yield in Asia. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate physiological symptoms under K-starvation (NP) compared with complete media (NPK) condition, we measured shoot/root length, weight, nutrients, and patterns of protein expression. The shoot growth was significantly reduced, but root growth was not affected by K-starvation. However, biomasses were decreased in both shoot and root. Uptake of K was reduced up to 85%, while total concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, Na were increased in root and shoot. To better understand the starved K mechanism of rice, comparative proteome analysis for proteins isolated from rice leaves was conducted using 2-DGE. Five spots of differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Analysis of these K-starvation response proteins suggested that they were involved in metabolism and defense. CONCLUSION(s): Physiological and 2-DGE based proteomics approach used in our study results in observation of morphology or nutrients change and identification of K-starvation responsive proteins in rice root. These results have important roles in maintaining nutrient homeostasis and would also be useful for further characterization of protein function in plant K nutrition.
Effects of Various Wavelength on the Hardness and the Free Amino Acid Contents of Soybean Sprouts
Cha, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Eui-Ho ; Kang, Sun-Chul ; Baek, Kwang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 402~408
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.402
BACKGROUND: Effect of various light wavelength and plant defense molecules were evaluated on the hardness and the contents of free amino acid including
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in soybean sprouts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Germinating soybean seeds were treated with various single wavelength of light (380, 440, 470, and 660 nm) or without light at
for six days. Soybean seeds were also treated with stress-signaling molecule ethephon or
at the same time. Soybean sprouts treated with 470 nm substantially raised the hardness almost two times than the control. The free amino acid contents were higher in 470 nm and
treated soybean seeds than the control. Nutritionally beneficial GABA contents were increased by the treatments of 470 nm, 440 nm, ethephon, and
. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the hardness and the contents of amino acids can be regulated by stimuli, which stimuli could be composed of various wavelength and plant defense molecules. Especially, single wavelength 470 nm illumination has the effect of increasing GABA contents with increased hardness.
Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Grain after Milling
Cho, Young-Sook ; Kim, Yu-Na ; Kim, Su-Yeonk ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Kim, Heon-Woong ; Kim, Se-Na ; Kim, So-Young ; Park, Hong-Ju ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.409
BACKGROUND: Cereals, especially rice is the staple food of oriental nations and because it is very important for Korean food, to determine the extent of nutrient losses due to milling, we analyzed the fatty acid using by GC-FID(Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector). Experimented rice cereals were rice, glutinous rice, Heuinchalssalbori, Seodunchalbori, Saessalbori, Keunalbori No.1, barnyard millet produced in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: After milling, the contents of fatty acids in the rice, glutinous rice, Heuinchalssalbori, and Seodunchalbori, Keunalbori No.1 rather decreased, but in the Saessalbori, and barnyard mille increased. Particularly, fatty acid content of the rice decreased from 24.8 mg/g to 6.4 mg/g, glutinous rice decreased from 29.4 mg/g to 11.7 mg/g after milling. There were also significant changes in the compositions of fatty acid among samples. Stearic acid (
) increased from 5% to 15%, but oleic acid (
) and linoleic acid (
) decreased in the rice after milling. CONCLUSION(s):In the brown rice, 11 different types of fatty acids were detected, and its highest content was found in grains. However, milled grain was observed only seven fatty acids in the case of rice. This result insisted that a portion of the lipid layer was significantly lost during the milling operation in rice.
Characteristics of Reflective Light over Red and Black Plastic Mulch, and Effect on the Quality and Yield of the Oriental Melon and Tomato
Hong, Seung-Chang ; Heo, Jeong-Wook ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 414~418
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.414
BACKGROUND: Plastic mulches widely used in raised-bed culture mainly to conserve water, control weeds and raise soil temperature. The most widely used plastic mulch colour is black. Reflective red and far-red light can affect on growth and yield of various vegetable crops. Objectives of this study were to investigate the characteristics of reflective light of black and red plastic mulches, and to evaluate the reflective red and far-red light on the quality characteristics and yield of the Oriental melon (Cucumis. Melo L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). METHODS AND RESULTS: Oriental melon and tomato were cultivated over the reflective red and black plastic mulches in plastic house. Reflected red and far-red light over the red plastic mulch were 2.6 times higher than those of black plastic mulch. Red to F-Red ratio of black plastic mulch, red plastic mulch and sunlight were 1.14, 0.93 and 1.16 respectively. Intensity of reflected red and far-red light over red plastic mulch were highest at surface height of 30 cm. The higher the height of the surface decrease the intensity of far-red light. Accordingly, Red to F-Red ratio were increased. Reflective red plastic mulch increased the weight of fruit and content of sugar in Oriental melon and tomato. CONCLUSION(s): Yield of Oriental melon over reflective red plastic mulch was higher than that of black plastic mulch. These results suggested that reflected red and far-red light over the red plastic mulch affected allocation of photosynthate in growing Oriental melon.
Variation of Fatty Acid Composition and Content in Domestic and Imported Solar-Salt by GC-MS
Kim, Su-Yeon ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Kim, Heon-Woong ; Kim, Se-Na ; Kim, So-Young ; Cho, Young-Sook ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Weon, Hang-Yun ; Ham, Kyung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 419~423
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.419
BACKGROUND: Inorganic component is made up largely of salt, because the criteria are difficult to split into domestic and imported ingredients, organic examined the fatty acid composition is to see a possible use as a marker using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 14 domestic samples and 8 imported samples were collected from China, India and other countries were investigated on item of 37 fatty acids. METHODS AND RESULTS: The major components were six species, myristic acid (
), palmitic acid (
), palmitoleic acid (
), stearic acid (
), oleic acid (
), linoleic acid (
) among detected twenty fatty acids including 9 unknowns. The content of palmitic acid were highest as 25.2 to 50.8% of total fatty acids contents. Domestic has seen the most amount of salt in the Taepyeong salts
/100g salt in Chinese Weifang salts showed the lowest content. CONCLUSION(s): The total fatty acid content has seen the most amount of salt in 352.3 ug/100g Christmas island salts showed the lowest content of
/100g, as a result it is difficult to distinguish the domestic salts and imported by the composition of fatty acid.
Isolation and Degradation Activity of a TBTCl (Tributyltin Chloride) Resistant Bacteriain Gwangyang Bay
Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Son, Hong-Joo ; Jeoung, Nam-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 424~431
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.424
BACKGROUND: Tributyltin chloride is among the most toxic compounds known for aquatic ecosystems. Microorganisms are responsible for removal of TBTCl. Nevertheless, only a limited number of marine bacteria were investigated for biodegradation of TBTCl in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: The number of TBTCl resistant bacteria ranged from
cfu/mL in the seawater, and ranged from
cfu/g in the surface sediment, respectively. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of TBTCl resistant bacteria were investigated by API 20NE and other tests. The most abundant species of TBTCl resistant bacteria were Vibrio spp. (19.2%), Bacillus spp. (16.2%), Aeromonas spp. (15.2%), and Pseudomonas spp. (13.1%), etc. Eleven TBTCl resistant isolates also had a resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn). Among them, isolate T7 showing the strong TBTCl-resistance was selected. This isolate was identified as the genus Pantoea by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and designated as Pantoea sp. T7. In addition, this bacterium was cultivated up to the growth of 50.7% after 60 hrs at TBTCl concentration of
. TBTCl-degrading activity of Pantoea sp. T7 was measured by GC-FPD analysis. As a result of biological TBTCl-degradation at TBTCl concentration of
, TBTCl-removal efficiency of Pantoeasp. T7 was 62.7% after 40 hrs. CONCLUSION(S): These results suggest that Pantoea sp. T7 is potentially useful for the bioremediation of TBT contamination.
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Etofenprox Residues in Foods with Mass-Spectrometric Confirmation
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Kwon, Ki-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 432~439
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.432
BACKGROUND: An official analytical method was developed to determine etofenprox residues in agricultural commodities using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). METHODS AND RESULTS: The etofenprox residue was extracted with acetone from representative samples of five raw products which comprised rice grain, apple, mandarin, cabbage, and soybean. The extract was then serially purified by liquid-liquid partition and Florisil column chromatography. For rice and soybean samples, acetonitrile/n-hexane partition was additionally coupled to remove nonpolar lipids. Reversed phase HPLC using an octadecylsilyl column was successfully applied to separate etofenprox from co-extractives. Intact etofenprox was sensitively detected by ultraviolet absorption at 225 nm. Recovery experiment at the quantitation limit validated that the proposed method could apparently determine the etofenprox residue at 0.02 mg/kg. Mean recoveries from five crop samples fortified at three levels in triplicate were in the range of 93.6~106.4%. Relative standard deviations of the analytical method were all less than 10%, irrespective of crop types. A selected-ion monitoring LC/mass spectrometry with positive atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization was also provided to confirm the suspected residue. CONCLUSION(s): The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive enough to be employed in routine inspection or monitoring of agricultural products for the etofenprox residue.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment for Cereals and Leafy Vegetables of Certificated and General Agricultural Products
Kim, Hyo-Young ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Kim, Ji-Hwan ; Ahn, Ji-Woon ; Chung, Duck-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 440~445
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.440
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to monitor the current status of pesticide residues and to assess their risk in domestic agricultural products. The samples were rice, barley, lettuce and perilla leaf. These four types of agricultural products were those with GAP(Good Agricultural Practice) certification, organic agricultural products, pesticide-free agricultural products or general agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: They were purchased from traditional markets and supermarkets of 12 regions in Korea from July to August 2010. The total number of samples was 259 for agricultural products and these were analyzed by GC/ECD, GC/NPD and GC/MSD. We used multiresidue methods to analyze for 110 different pesticides except for herbicides. CONCLUSION: In this study, residual pesticides were detected in 18 samples. Among these general agricultural products, organic agricultural products and products with GAP-certification were detected in 12, 4 and 2 samples, respectively. Detection rates of general agricultural products, organic agricultural products and products with GAPcertification were 4.6%, 1.5% and 0.8% respectively. Pesticides were not detected in pesticide-free agricultural products. Their detection levels were less than their maximum residue levels. Their estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.0003% to 0.04302% of their acceptable daily intakes, of which the values have no effect on human health.
Dissipation Pattern of Azoxystrobin, Difenoconazole and Iprodione Treated on Field-Grown Green Garlic
Kang, Hye-Rim ; Lee, Young-Ju ; Lee, Yu-Ri ; Han, Guk-Tak ; Chang, Hee-Ra ; Kim, Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 446~452
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.446
BACKGROUND: To investigate the dissipation patterns of 3 pesticides, azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione, on green garlic after field treatment pesticides were treated as foliar treatment by single application at recommended and double the recommended rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Residue samples were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 and 10 days post-treatment for azoxystrobin and 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 21 days post-treatment for difenoconazole and iprodione. After preparation the fortified samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromotography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine the residue levels. Recoveries ranged from 87 to 109% for azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione at two different levels. The limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were 0.002 mg/kg for azoxystrobin and difenoconazole and 0.01 mg/kg for iprodione. CONCLUSION(S): Half-lives of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione in green garlic after treatment were 1.2, 3.8 and 3.2 days at recommended and 1.4, 3.3 and 3.2 at double the recommended rate, respectively. Residue level of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione in green garlic were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 0 day, 0 day and 5 days, respectively. Therefore, these pesticide were considered that residues was satisfied to the requirement of domestic trade related to the consumer safety.
Inhibitory Activity of Oak Pyroligneous Liquor against Coleosporium Plectranthi, an Obligate Parasite Responsible for the Rust Disease on Perilla Leaf
Kumar, Varun ; Chauhan, Anil Kumar ; Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 453~458
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.453
BACKGROUND: Coleosporium plectranthi, an obligate parasite, which is responsible for the rust disease of Perilla frutescens, a plant in Korea, commonly known as Perilla. All rusts are obligate parasites, meaning that they require a living host to complete their life cycle. They generally do not kill the host plant but can severely reduce growth and yield. Food and feed spoilage fungi cause great economic losses worldwide. It is estimated that between 5 and 10% of the world food production is wasted due to fungal deterioration. Rust disease of Perilla is highly frequent and is widely spread in Korea. The present study was designed to investigate a novel media for the urediniospore germination in vitro and anti-rust activity as well as GC-MS analysis of oak pyroligneous liquor. METHOD AND RESULTS: Urediniospores were collected from the infected leaf of Perilla. Spore suspension was made and the suspension was inoculated in the 2% water agar media with proper humidity, then they were incubated at
for 56 hrs. The GC-MS analysis of the oak pyroligneous liquor was also done to check the chemical composition. GC-MS analysis of the wood vinegar was found 15 compounds, among them o-mthoxyphenol (25.93%), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (16.06%), 4-methylenecyclohexanone (10.69%), 2,3-dihydroxytoluene (7.84%), levoglucosane (6.14%) and propanoic acid (5.32%) were the major components. Different concentration of the oak pyroligneous liquor was used, and spore inhibition was recorded on the basis of spore counting. The best results were noted at the concentration of 50% solution where 31.8% spores were inhibited. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the chemical composition of the oak pyroligneous liquor and the activity recorded we can use it as an anti-rust agent.
Antibacterial Effects of Extracts of Thuja Orientalis cv Aurea Nana Cones against Food-spoilage and Food-borne Pathogens
Yang, Xiao Nan ; Hwang, Cher-Won ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 459~465
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.459
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, Chemical antiseptics have become great problems for health and environmental, so that developing of new substitutes for chemical antiseptics is more and more important. Natural product is a kind of environment-friendly additive that could be used as antiseptic in food industry. Thuja orientalis cv Aurea Nana is a gymnospermous plant of the family Cupressaceae, native to northwestern China and widely naturalised elsewhere in Korea and Japan. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial potential of various organic extracts from T. orientalis cones against some food-borne and food-spoilage bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hexane extract (HE), chloroform extract (CE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and methanol extract (ME) were obtained from female cones of T. orientalis. The antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested by standard agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against five gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria. Cell viability and morphology change of L. monocytogenes ATCC 10943 treated with hexane extract were also observed. The various extracts displayed remarkable antibacterial effects against all the gram-positive bacteria but did not show any effect against the gram-negative bacteria. Hexane extract has the highest inhibitory effect on cell viability of L. monocytogenes ATCC 10943. SEM observation also demonstrated the damaging effect of the hexane extract on the morphology of L. monocytogenes ATCC 10943 at the minimum inhibitory concentration. CONCLUSION(s): The tested gram-positive bacteria were significantly inhibited by organic extracts of T. orientalis cone. Hexane extract was the most potent against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 10943, as evidenced by the lowest MIC level and the complete inhibition of cell viability within shortest exposure time, along with SEM observation.
Effects of Transgenic Soybean Cultivation on Soil Microbial Community in the Rhizosphere
Lee, Ki-Jong ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Lee, Jang-Yong ; Yi, Bu-Young ; Oh, Sung-Dug ; Kweon, Soon-Jong ; Suh, Seok-Choel ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ; Kim, Kyung-Hwan ; Park, Jong-Sug ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 466~472
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.4.466
BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a legume and an important oil crop worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible impact of transgenic soybean cultivation on the soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microorganisms were isolated from the rhizosphere soils. Microbial community was identified based on the culture-dependent and molecular biology methods. The total numbers of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans were similar to each other, and there was no significant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans. Dominant bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with transgenic or non-transgenic soybeans were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The microbial communities in transgenic and non-transgenic soybean soils were characterized using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles showed the different patterns, but didn't show significant difference to each other at 0.05 significance level. DNAs were isolated from soils cultivating transgenic or non-transgenic soybeans and analyzed for persistence of transgenes in the soil by using PCR. PCR analysis revealed that there were no amplified
-tmt and bar gene in soil DNA. CONCLUSION(S): The results of this study suggested that microbial community of soybean field were not significantly affected by cultivation of the transgenic soybeans.