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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Application Effect of Organic Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on the Watermelon Growth and Soil Chemical Properties in Greenhouse
Uhm, Mi-Jeong ; Noh, Jae-Jong ; Chon, Hyong-Gwon ; Kwon, Sung-Whan ; Song, Young-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.1
BACKGROUND: Organic fertilizers in watermelon cultivation are widely used to supply nutrient and organic matter. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of application rate of organic fertilizer on the watermelon growth and soil chemical properties in greenhouse METHODS AND RESULTS: The organic fertilizers used in this experiment were mixed expeller cake (MEC) and mixed organic fertilizer (MOF). The treatments were conducted with 4 levels (1.0 N, 0.7 N, 0.5 N and 0.3 N) on the basis of soil testing nitrogen fertilization (STNF) using MEC or MOF as the basal dressing, and using chemical fertilizers (CF) as the additional dressing on the rest of STNF. These fertilizations were compared to CF 1.0 N (0.3 N as the basal and 0.7 N as the additional dressing) and non fertilization (NF). The leaf area of watermelon in treatment 0.5 N and 0.3 N using MEC or MOF was similar to CF treatment. The absorbed nutrient amounts by leaf, weight and sugar contents of fruit in the 0.5 N and 0.3 N treatments were higher than other treatments. In 0.5 N and 0.3 N treatments using MEC or MOF on the basis of STNF, soil chemical properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), available
and exchangeable K concentrations after experiment showed tendency to decreasing or similar level before experiment. CONCLUSION(s): These results suggest that the MEC or MOF application as the basal dressing at the 30~50% level of STNF and CF application as the additional dressing on the rest of STNF be best to maintain adequate nutrient of soil and to increase marketable yield for watermelon.
A Preliminary Investigation of Radon Concentration for Some Agricultural Greenhouses in Jeju Island
Kang, Tae-Woo ; Song, Myeong-Han ; Kim, Tae-Hyoung ; Chang, Byung-Uck ; Kim, Young-Jae ; Kim, Geun-Ho ; Park, Jae-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.9
BACKGROUND: A preliminary investigation of the radon (
) concentration has been conducted, employing solid-state nuclear-track detectors (SSNTD) and a continuous radon monitor (CRM), for fourteen randomly selected agricultural greenhouses in Jeju Island, where the underground-air was used for air conditioning and
supplement. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SSNTD was used to measure the average radon concentration for three months and the CRM was used for an instantaneous measurement. In order to obtain the radon concentration of a greenhouse, the SSNTDs were placed at a number of evenly distributed points inside the greenhouse and the mean of the measured values was taken. In addition, in order to assess the radon concentration of the underground-air itself, measurement was also made at the borehole of the underground-air in each agricultural facility, employing both the SSNTD and CRM. It is found that the radon concentration of the greenhouses ranges higher than those not using the underground-air and the average of Korean dwellings. While the radon concentration of most agricultural facilities is still lower than the reference level (1,000 Bq/
) recommended by the International Radiation Protection Committee (ICRP), three facilities at one site show higher concentrations than the reference level. The three-month-averaged radon concentration and the instantaneous radon concentration of the underground-air itself ranges 1,228- 5,259 and 3,322-17,900 Bq/
, respectively, and regional variation is more significant. CONCLUSION: From this results, radon concentration of the underground-air is assumed that it is associated with the geological characteristics and the boring depth of the region located of their.
Evaluation of Application to Pre-Developed Delivery Load Equation at Upper Watershed of the Daechung Reservoir
Lee, Jun-Bae ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ; Yoon, Young-Sam ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Jung, Jae-Woon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 16~23
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.16
BACKGROUND: To improve the Daechung reservoir water quality, a quantitative estimation of the delivery load from upper watershed need to be conducted prior to others. To do so, an intensive monitoring is necessary because of the complexity and uncertainty of the delivery load from uppper watershed. However, intensive monitoring need to invest much time, cost, and effort. So, many researcher have developed an equation to estimate the delivery loads. But, relatively little research has been conducted on the applicability of pre-developed equation using other sites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate application of the equation for BOD, T-N and T-P delivery load. METHODS AND RESULTS: To verify the applicability of the equation, the following equation was used; Delivery loads(kg/day)=generated pollutant loads
. The equations could be calculated the daily delivery loads of streams without any data of water quality, only with the data of daily runoff of study sites. The equations were applied to Youngdogcheon, Chogangcheon, Bocheongcheon, Sookcheon to examine its applicability using monitoring data. The results showed that the estimated delivery loads were in a good agreement with the observed data and indicated reasonable applicability of the equations. CONCLUSION(s): Overall, the equations were satisfactory in estimation of delivery loads at upper watershed of the Daechung reservoir. Therefore, the equations could be contributed to better water quality management in the Daechung reservoir.
Effects of electron donors and acceptors in generating bioelectrical energy using microbial fuel cells
Gurung, Anup ; Oh, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 24~29
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.24
BACKGROUND: In recent years, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as a promising technology for recovering renewable energy from waste biomass, especially wastewater. In this study, the possibility of bioelectricity generation in two chambered mediator-less microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully demonstrated using fermentable and non-fermentable substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two different electron acceptors have been tested in the cathode chamber for the effects of reducing agent on the power generation in MFCs. The average voltages of
V were achieved with acetate using oxygen and potassium ferricyanide as reducing agent, respectively. Similarly, with glucose the average voltages of
V were obtained using oxygen and ferricyanide, respectively. Using potassium ferricyanide as the reducing agent, the power output increases by 39 and 43% with acetate and glucose, respectively, as compared to the dissolved oxygen. Slightly higher coulombic efficiency (CE%) was obtained in acetate as compared to MFCs operated with glucose. The maximum power densities of 124 mW/
and 204 mW/
were obtained using dissolved oxygen and
, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): This study demonstrates that power generation from the MFCs can be influenced significantly by the different types of catholyte. Relatively higher CE was obtained with
. Thus, application of
as the catholyte can be vital for scaling uppower generation from the MFCs forreal time applications.
Morphological Changes of Fungal Cell Wall and ABC Transporter as Resistance Responses of Rice Bakanae Disease Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi CF337 to Prochloraz
Yang, You-Ri ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Lee, Se-Won ; Kim, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.30
BACKGROUND: The resistance of rice bakanae disease pathogens against the fungicide prochloraz has been reported. Understanding the resistance mechanisms is an important for better control of the pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the resistance mechanisms of Fusarium fujikuroi CF337 (CF337) against prochloraz. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morphological changes in the cell wall of CF337 grown in potato dextrose broth (PDB) with or without prochloraz was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Growth inhibition of CF337 was examined in PDB containing prochloraz or an ABC transporter inhibitor or both of them. Cell wall thickness of CF337 grown in PDB with prochloraz was significantly increased from
. Significant inhibition in the growth of CF337 was observed in the presence of both prochloraz and the inhibitor, but no growth inhibition was observed in the presence of the inhibitor or prochloraz. Sequence analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) gene of CF337 showed 70 to 80% similarities to the genes of the pathogens resistant to other fungicides. CONCLUSION: Efflux transporter system and changes in cell wall thickness were suggested as resistance mechanisms of CF337 against prochloraz.
Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Edible Mushrooms
Kim, Ji-Young ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kang, Dae-Won ; Ko, Hyeon-Seok ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.37
BACKGROUND: Many edible mushrooms are known to accumulate high levels of heavy metals. This research was focused on health risk assessment to investigate the mushrooms in Korea, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contaminations in edible mushrooms in cultivated areas were investigated, and health risk was assessed through dietary intake of mushrooms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The heavy metals in mushrooms were analyzed by ICP/MS after acid digestion. Probabilistic health risk were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. The average contents of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg were
mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cd and Pb did not exceed maximum residual levels established by European Uion regulation (Cd 0.20 mg/kg and Pb 0.30 mg/kg). For health risk assessment, estimated intakes in all age populations did not exceed the provisional tolerable daily intake of As and Hg, provisional tolerable monthly intake of Cd, provisional tolerable weekly intake of Pb. The Hazard Index (HI) were ranged from
for Pb, and
for Hg at general population. CONCLUSION: The HI from the ratio analysis between daily exposure and safety level values was less than 1.0. This results demonstrated that human exposure to heavy metals through dietary intake of mushrooms might not cause adverse effect.
Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit of Fungicides Pyrimethanil and Trifloxystrobin during Cultivation of Persimmon
Lee, Dong-Yeol ; Kim, Yeong-Jin ; Lee, So-Jung ; Cho, Kyu-Song ; Kim, Sang-Gon ; Park, Min-Ho ; Kang, Kyu-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.45
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to establish pre-harvest residue limit of fungicides pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin in persimmon, based on dissipation and biological half-lives of two fungicides residue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Both pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin were extracted with acetonitrile, clean-up with
SPE cartridge and residue were analyzed by HPLC/DAD. Limit of Detection was 0.01 mg/kg. Average recovery were
of pyrimethanil, and
of trifloxystrobin at fortification levels at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSION: The biological half-lives of pyrimethanil were 15.6 and 11.6 days at sprayed with recommended and double dosage, respectively. The biological half-lives of trifloxystrobin were 10.4 and 10.3 days at sprayed with recommended and double dosage, respectively. The pre-harvest residue limit of pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin were recommended as 2.69 and 0.83 mg/kg for 10 days before harvest, respectively.
Soil Microbial Community Assessment for the Rhizosphere Soil of Herbicide Resistant Genetically Modified Chinese Cabbage
Sohn, Soo-In ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Ahn, Byung-Ohg ; Ryu, Tae-Hoon ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Park, Jong-Sug ; Lee, Ki-Jong ; Oh, Sung-Dug ; Lee, Jang-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.52
BACKGROUND: Cultivation of genetically modified(GM) crops rapidly has increased in the global agricultural area. Among those, herbicide resistant GM crops are reported to have occupied 89.3 million hectares in 2010. However, cultivation of GM crops in the field evoked the concern of the possibility of gene transfer from transgenic plant into soil microorganisms. In our present study, we have assessed the effects of herbicide-resistant GM Chinese cabbage on the surrounding soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of a herbicide-resistant genetically modified (GM) Chinese cabbage on the soil microbial community in its field of growth were assessed using a conventional culture technique and also culture-independent molecular methods. Three replicate field plots were planted with a single GM and four non-GM Chinese cabbages (these included a non-GM counterpart). The soils around these plants were compared using colony counting, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and a species diversity index assessment during the growing periods. The bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes population densities of the GM Chinese cabbage soils were found to be within the range of those of the non-GM Chinese cabbage soils. The DGGE banding patterns of the GM and non-GM soils were also similar, suggesting that the bacterial community structures were stable within a given month and were unaffected by the presence of a GM plant. The similarities of the bacterial species diversity indices were consistent with this finding. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that soil microbial communities are unaffected by the cultivation of herbicide-resistant GM Chinese cabbage within the experimental time frame.
Antifungal Activity of Crude Extract Compound from Rhus verniciflua Against Anthracnose Fungi (Collectotrichum spp.) of Red-Pepper
Song, Chi-Hyoun ; Chung, Jong-Bae ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ; Park, Se-Young ; Lee, Yong-Se ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 60~67
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.60
BACKGROUND: Anthracnose disease caused by Collectotrichum spp. is one of the most important worldwide devastating diseases in red pepper plants. Fungicides using plant extracts have several advantages, compared to synthetic chemical fungicides, because they are naturally occurring compounds, are usually safe for agricultural environment and are used for producing highly valuable agricultural products. Efforts for seeking an anti-fungal activities using naturally occurring compounds were mostly conducted from medicinal plant extracts. Sap of Rhus verniciflus was known to have healing effects on several human diseases. Recently, the extracts of Rhus verniciflus were actively tested for anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, and anti-fungal effects. In this study, the extract of Rhus verniciflus was tested for anti-fungal activity against Colletotrichum spp., which cause anthracnose in red-pepper. METHODS AND RESULTS: After neutralizing extracts of Rhus verniciflus (urushiol contents 70%) with autoclave, the crude extracts were used to investigate inhibitory effects for mycelial growth and spore germination of Colletotrichum spp. on PDA media. The mycelial growth and spore germination of Colletotrichum spp. were inhibited 18-39% and over 50% in response to crude extract of R. verniciflus (1.0 mg/mL). After spraying the extracts at the same concentrations above and then artificially inoculating Colletotrichum spp. on blue and red-pepper fruits, in vitro inhibition effects were examined. At 1.0 mg/mL, the crude extract of R. verniciflus showed inhibition activity in anthracnose incidence on blue- and red-pepper as 68.1-75.0%, through a artificial inoculation of Colletotrichum spp. in a laboratory. For in vivo inhibitory effects, the extracts (1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/mL) were treated on red-pepper plants grown in green house 3 times at the interval of 1 week. Then inhibitory effects were determined by counting diseased fruits at 1 week after final treatment. The incidence of anthracnose was inhibited over 60% in the greenhouse by treatment of crude extract of R. verniciflus (1.0 mg/mL). CONCLUSION(s): Extracts of Rhus verniciflus were shown to have inhibitory effects on mycelial growth, spore germination of Colletotrichum spp. in vitro and on occurrence of anthracnose on pepper fruit in green house.
Selection of Antagonistic Microorganisms against Plant Pathogens from Eco-friendly Formulations
Gang, Guen-Hye ; Cha, Jae-Yul ; Heo, Bit-Na ; Yi, Og-Sun ; Lee, Yong-Bok ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.68
BACKGROUND: Some microorganisms extant in nature have ability to suppress various plant pathogens, and also can promote plant growth. Thus microorganisms are such great source of antimicrobial agents to develop antagonistic microorganism production and eco-friendly crop management. We isolated the microorganisms in various eco-friendly formulations. The suppressive abilities against plant pathogens have been characterized in vitro level. METHODS AND RESULTS: The indigenous microorganisms have been isolated from Cooked rice, Black sugar, Rice Bran, and Red clay using dilution plating method. Population of bacteria and fungi were above 107 in the all formulations. We isolated and pure cultured the microorganisms based on morphological characteristics. Three major plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora capsici) have been used to select antagonistic microorganisms. Total 20 bacteria and 9 fungi showed the pathogen growth suppression ability in vitro condition. The selected microorganisms were identified by ITS sequence similarity. CONCLUSION: All tested eco-friendly formulations contained high-density of the microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms, Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces spp. showed the most effective antifungal activity against the plant pathogens such as F. oxysporum, R. solani, and P. capsici. Among the selected fungi Trichoderma sp. demonstrated antifungal activity. Our results suggest that the currently adapted eco-friendly formulations might useful for sustain agricultural system.
Current research trends for heavy metals of agricultural soils and crop uptake in Korea
Lee, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Jeong, Eun-Jung ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 75~95
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.1.75
BACKGROUND: Increase of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystem has become a social issue nationwide as it is related to public health. This review was performed to find out more systematic and integrated future researches on heavy metals using up to date articles published in the Korean journals related to agricultural environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Researches on heavy metals in agricultural soils and plant uptake were categorized by the establishment of criteria, analytical methods, monitoring, management of source, characteristics and behavior in soil, plant uptake, bioavailability affecting physico -chemical properties in soil, risk assessment and soil remediation. In the early 1990s, the monitoring for heavy metals in soil has been widely performed. Accumulation of heavy metals in contaminated soil and availability to plants has also attracted interests to study the soil remediation using various physico-chemical methods. The phytoavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals have been mainly studied to assess the safety of agro-products using risk assessment techniques in the 2000s. CONCLUSION: Future direction of research on heavy metal in agricultural environment must be carried out by ensuring food safety and sustainability. A steady survey and proper management for polluted regions should be continued. Law and regulation must be modified systematically. Furthermore, studies should expand on mitigation of heavy metal uptake by crops and remediation of polluted fields.