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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Bioavailability of Phosphorus Accumulated in Arable Soils
Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 293~299
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.293
BACKGROUND: Soil utilization pattern can be the main factor affecting soil physico-chemical properties, especially in soil phosphorus (P). Understanding the distribution and bioavailability of P is important for developing management to minimize P release from arable soils to environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential bioavailability of soil organic P by using phosphatase hydrolysis method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four soils from onion-rice double cropping and 30 soils from plastic film house were selected from Changyeong and Daegok in Gyeongnam province, respectively. The P accumulation pattern (total P, inorganic P, organic P, residual P) and water soluble P were characterized. Commercial phosphatase enzymes were used to classify water-extractable molybdate unreactive P from arable soils into compounds that could be hydrolysed by (i) alkaline phosphomonoesterase (comprising labile orthophosphate monoesters), (ii) a combination of alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase (comprising labile orthophosphate monoesters and diesters), and (iii) phytase (including inositol hexakisphosphate). Available P was highly accumulated with 616 and 1,208 mg/kg in double cropping system and plastic film house, respectively. Dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved unreactive P (DUP) had similar trends with available P, showing 24 and 109 mg/kg in double cropping and 37 and 159 mg/kg in plastic film house, respectively, indicating that important role of dissolved organic P in the environments had been underestimated. From the result of phosphatase hydrolysis, about 39% and 66% of DUP was evaluated as bioavailable in double cropping and plastic film house, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Orthophosphate monoester and orthophosphate diester accounted for high portion of dissolved organic P in arable soils, indicating that these organic P forms give important impacts on bioavailability of P released from P accumulated soils.
Transfer Factor of Heavy Metals from Agricultural Soil to Agricultural Products
Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Kang, Dae-Won ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Doo Ho ; Lee, Young-Ja ; Kim, Won Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 300~307
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.300
BACKGROUND: The Transfer Factor (TF) of heavy metals from soil to plant is important, because TF is an indicator of heavy metal in soils and a factor that quantifies bioavailability of heavy metals to agricultural products. This study was conducted to investigate the transfer ability of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) from soil to agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated heavy metals (As, Cd and Pb) concentrations in 9 agricultural products (rice, barely, corn, pulse, lettuce, pumpkin, apple, pear, tangerin) and soil. TF of agricultural products was evaluated based on total and HCl-extractable soil concentration of As, Cd, and Pb. Regression analysis was used to predict the relationship of total and HCl-extractable concentration with agricultural product contents of As, Cd, and Pb. The result showed that TF was investigated average 0.006~0.309 (As), 0.002~6.185 (Cd), 0.003~0.602 (Pb). The mean TF value was the highest as rice 0.309 in As, lettuce 6.185, pear 0.717, rice 0.308 in Cd, lettuce 0.602, pumpkin 0.536 in Pb which were dependent on the vegetable species and cereal is showed higher than fruit-vegetables in As. CONCLUSION(S): Soil HCl-extractable concentration of As, Cd, and Pb had the larger effects on thier contents in agricultural products than total soil concentrations. We suggests that TF are served as influential factor on the prediction of uptake. Further study for uptake and accumulation mechanism of toxic metals by agricultural products will be required to assess the human health risk and need TF of more agricultural products.
Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems without Incorporation of Green Manure Crops
Kim, TaeYoung ; Daquiado, Aileen Rose ; Alam, Faridul ; Lee, YongBok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 308~312
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.308
BACKGROUND: The nutrient balance in Korea during 1985-2006 had continually increased and maintained the highest levels among OECD countries. The use of green manure crops such as barley and hairy vetch is common practice for reducing chemical fertilizer application and maintaining soil fertility. However, green manure crops can also be used as a livestock feeding material which may reduce nutrient balance in the national scale. We calculated nitrogen and phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system where all green manure was removed and used for feeding livestock. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing rates were tested for rice cultivation without chemical fertilization. The conventional fertilization (NPK) for rice cultivation was selected to compare nutrient balance with green manure-rice cultivation. Nitrogen and phosphate balance were calculated according to the surface balance method of the PARCOM guidelines. Total aboveground biomass of mixture (barley and hairy vetch) was higher compared to that of pure barley or hairy vetch. Among the mixture with barley and hairy vetch, the highest aboveground biomass was observed in B75H25 (barley 75%+hairy vetch 25%). The nitrogen and phosphate balance in the B75H25 mixture was-104 kg N/ha and-50.3 kg P/ha, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The barley and hairy vetch mixture proved to be a very effective strategy for biomass production of green manure. The amount of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer to be applied is estimated to be 104 kg N/ha and 50.3 kg P/ha in order to maintain soil fertility if all green manure and rice straw were removed from rice field for livestock feeding.
Outbreak of Scion Root from 'Shiranuhi Mandarin' Hybrid Tree in Plastic Film House
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Moon, Young-Eel ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Han, Seung-Gab ; Chae, Chi-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 313~317
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.313
BACKGROUND: Citrus is usually propagated by grafting onto a rootstock. In Korea, As trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) has dwarf and strong cold hardness, it is widely used as the rootstock of satsuma mandarin. Because 'Shiranuhi' ((Citrus unshiu
C. reticulata), a kind of citrus, also, generally is grafted onto a trifoliate orange, most of farmer has been recognized that 'Shiranuhi' root is naturally trifoliate orange. Meanwhile, reduction of flowering in 'Shiranuhi' orchard has been issued among the farmers and researchers over past few years and they guessed it was occurred by severe prune, oversupply of fertilization, overfruiting and temperature of growth period. However, a few researchers strongly assumed that it would be caused by scion rooting of 'Shiranuhi'. So, this study was carried out to identify the existence of scion rooting in 'Shiranuhi' tree in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify the existence of scion rooting in 'Shiranuhi' tree, we randomly selected six 'Shiranuhi'orchards and we surveyed three to four trees, which flowering was not enough, from six 'Shiranuhi' orchards respectively. We took the root samples of 'Shiranuhi' mandarin, and then separated the two group which were non-scion rooting (Trifoliate orange), and scion rooting ('Shiranuhi' mandarin). To identity the scion rooting, we used primer set of three types which were a F2/R15, F4/R15 and F5/R15 primer set. As a result, when we conducted the DNA analysis, fourteen tree in less bloomed twenty tree was proved as tree with the scion rooting of 'Shiranuhi' mandarin. CONCLUSION(S): Scion roots of 'Shiranuhi'mandarin were usually observed in a deeply planted tree, and xylem of 'Shiranuhi' root indicated more white color than a case of trifoliata orange. 'Shiranuhi' tree by scion rooting was more vigorous but less flowering than trees grafted onto trifoliata orange. When we used F2/R15, F4/R15 and F5/R15 primer set for discriminance of 'Shiranuhi'mandarin root and trifoliate root, we identified the existence of scion rooting in 'Shiranuhi', From our results, it is suggested that the influence of scion root should be reviewed in 'Shiranuhi'orchards.
Comparing Farming Methods in Pollutant runoff loads from Paddy Fields using the CREAMS-PADDY Model
Song, Jung-Hun ; Kang, Moon-Seong ; Song, In-Hong ; Jang, Jeong-Ryeol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 318~327
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.318
BACKGROUND: For Non-Point Source(NPS) loads reduction, pollutant loads need to be quantified for major farming methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of farming methods on NPS pollutant loads from a paddy rice field during the growing season. METHODS AND RESULTS: The height of drainage outlet, amount of fertilizer, irrigation water quality were considered as farming factors for scenarios development. The control was derived from conventional farming methods and four different scenarios were developed based combination of farming factors. A field scale model, CREAMS-PADDY(Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems for PADDY), was used to calculate pollutant nutrient loads. The data collected from an experimental plot located downstream of the Idong reservoir were used for model calibration and validation. The simulation results agreed well with observed values during the calibration and validation periods. The calibrated model was used to evaluate farming scenarios in terms of NPS loads. Pollutant loads for T-N, T-P were reduced by 5~62%, 8~37% with increasing the height of drainage outlet from 100 mm of 100 mm, respectively. When amount of fertilizer was changed from standard to conventional, T-N, T-P pollutant loads were reduced by 0~22%, 0~24%. Irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir increased T-N of 9~65%, T-P of 9~47% in comparison with conventional. CONCLUSION(S): The results indicated that applying increased the height of drainage after midsummer drainage, standard fertilization level during non-rainy seasons, irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir were effective farming methods to reduce NPS pollutant loads from paddy in Korea.
A Study on Water Quality Changes of Geum River Subwatersheds: In Cases of Tributary
Han, Ah-Won ; Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Hwang, Soon-Hong ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Lee, Young-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 328~343
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.328
BACKGROUND: For effective subwatershed management, it is very important to select the tributaries for improving water quality and understand the characteristics of tributaries. Until now, however, the case study of main streams has been managed. 17 tributaries in Geum river subwatershed were monitored to regulate the source of water contaminations and identify their current situations in this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: As pollution indicators, such as biological oxygen demand(
), chemical oxygen demand(
), suspended solid(SS), total nitrogen (T-N), total phosphate(T-P) and total organic carbon(TOC) in Geum river were examined from January to December in 2011. The results were as follows : The annual average concentration of nutrients in Yongdam reservoir upsteam was 0.7 mg/L for BOD, 3.0 mg/L for COD, 8.4 mg/L for SS, 2.905 mg/L for T-N, 0.035 mg/L for T-P and 1.6 mg/L for TOC. Water quality of Daechung reservoir upstream was mostly similar tendency in comparison to Yongdam reservoir upstream. Among the 22 tributaries, water quality in Daechung reservoir downstream was more polluted. T-N contents were significantly high in Miho B4 located Daechung reservoir downstream(annual average concentration: 13.53 mg/L). In cases of Miho A1, A2 and C1, pollution degree was worsened during rainy season expecially. CONCLUSION(S): For improving water quality of Geum river subwatershed, the tributaries in the Mihocheon area should be preferentially considered. Mihocheon tributary is the highest in pollution site, and thus a study on long-term effects should be research.
Evaluation of Treatment Efficiencies of Pollutants under Different Pollutant Fractions in Activated Sludge-Constructed Wetland System for Treating Piggery Wastewater
Kim, Seong-Heon ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Choong-Heon ; Choi, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Hong-Chul ; Ha, Yeong-Rae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 344~350
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.344
BACKGROUND: To design and develop a constructed wetland for effective livestock wastewater treatment, it is necessary to understand the removal mechanisms of various types of pollutants in constructed wetlands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficiency of pollutants under different types of fraction in constructed wetland system for treating piggery wastewater. METHODS AND RESULTS: The piggery wastewater treatment plant that consisted of activated sludge tank, aerobic and anaerobic beds was constructed. The concentration of COD(Chemical oxygen demand) in effluent by fraction was 71.5 mg/L for soluble COD, 142 mg/L insoluble COD. The concentration of SS(Suspended solid) in effluent by existing form was 102 mg/L for volatile SS, 15.5 mg/L for fixed SS. The concentration of T-N(Total nitrogen) and T-P(Total phosphorus) in effluent by existing form were 12.8 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for dissolved form, 35.0 mg/L and 1.93 mg/L for suspended form. The removal efficiencies of COD, SS, T-N and T-P in hot season(summer and autumn) were higher than those in cold season(spring and winter). The removal efficiencies of COD, SS, T-N and T-P in effluent were 98.0, 99.0, 98.2 and 99.2% for all seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The results indicated that removal types of pollutants were insoluble COD(ICOD), volatile SS(VSS), dissolved T-N(DTN) and dissolved T-P(DTP) in constructed wetlands for treating piggery wastewater.
Growth Characteristic and Nutrient Uptake of Water Plants in Constructed Wetlands for Treating Livestock Wastewater
Park, Jong-Hwan ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Seong-Heon ; Lee, Choong-Heon ; Choi, Jeong-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Ha, Yeong-Rae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 351~358
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.351
BACKGROUND: Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment are vegetated by wetland plants. Wetland plants are an important component of wetlands, and the plants have several roles in relation to the livestock wastewater treatment processes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth characteristics and nutrient absorption of water plants in constructed wetlands for treating livestock wastewater. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, livestock wastewater treatment plant by constructed wetlands consisted of
water plant filtration bed,
activated sludge bed,
horizontal flow(HF) and
HF beds. Phragmites communis TRINIUS(PHRCO) was transplanted in
VF bed, Iris pseudoacorus L(IRIPS) was transplanted in
HF bed and PHRCO, IRIPS and Typha orientalis PRESEL(THYOR) were transplanted in
HF. Growth of water plants in constructed wetlands were the highest in October. The IRIPS growth was higher than other plant as 264 g/plant in October. The absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus by IRIS were 3.38 g/plant and 0.634 g/plant, respectively. The absorption of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn by water plants were higher in the order of IRIPS > THYOR > PHRCO. CONCLUSION(S): The absorption of nutrients by water plants were higher on the order of IRIPS > THYOR > PHRCO in constructed wetlands for treating livestock wastewater.
Patterns of Waterbirds Abundance and Habitat Use in Rice Fields
Nam, Hyung-Kyu ; Choi, Seung-Hye ; Choi, Yu-Seong ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 359~367
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.359
BACKGROUND: As natural wetlands are decreased by increment of human demand, the importance of rice fields as an alternative habitat for waterbirds is well documented. However, the relationship between waterbirds use and management practice of rice fields has not been fully understood. The present study attempted to understand the changes in temporal abundance of waterbirds and their preference for habitat types in rice fields all year round. METHODS AND RESULTS: Waterbirds census were conducted in rice fields around Asan bay in Korea during April 2009-March 2010 and April 2011-March 2012. In the bird counts, the locations of the observed birds on a 1/2,500 map were recorded along with the local habitat type (paddy, ditch, levee, road). Thirty five species of waterbirds recorded in the rice fields during the survey period and three major groups (shorebirds, herons, and waterfowls) were characterized according to season and micro-habitat use. Shorebirds visited a flooded paddy for feeding during their spring migration season (April-May), and herons used the rice field as feeding sites during their breeding periods (April-October). Most waterfowls were observed in a dry paddy to feed a fallen rice seed and stubs during the winter season (September-March). Waterbird groups selectively used micro-habitats in rice field. Shorebirds and waterfowls mainly preferred at rice paddies, while herons were attracted to most habitat types. CONCLUSION(S): Rice fields supported various waterbirds all year round and waterbird communities using the rice fields were dramatically changed according to seasonal change of rice field condition.
Effect of Microorganism Mixture Application on the Microflora and the Chemical Properties of Soil and the Growth of Vegetables in Greenhouse
Ryu, Il-Hwan ; Jeong, Su-Ji ; Han, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 368~374
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.368
BACKGROUND: The urgency of feeding the world's growing population while combating soil pollution, salinization and desertification requires suitable biotechnology not only to improve crop productivity but also to improve soil health through interactions of soil nutrient and soil microorganism. Interest in the utilization of microbial fertilizer has increased. A principle of nature farming is to produce abundant and healthy crops without using chemical fertilizer and pesticides, and without interrupting the natural ecosystem. Beneficial microorganisms may provide supplemental nutrients in the soil, promote crop growth, and enhance plant resistance against pathogenic microorganisms. We mixed beneficial microorganisms such as Bacillus sp. Han-5 with anti-fungal activities, Trichoderma harziaum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum with organic material degrading activity, Actinomycetes bovis with antibiotic production and Pseudomonas sp. with nitrogen fixation. This study was carried out to investigate the mixtures on the soil microflora and soil chemical properties and the effect on the growth of lettuce and cucumber under greenhouse conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The microbial mixtures were used with each of organic fertilizer, swine manure and organic+swine manure and compared in regard to changes in soil chemical properties, soil microflora properties and crop growth. At 50 days after the treatment of microorganism mixtures, the pH improved from 5.8 to 6.3, and the EC,
-Na and K decreased by 52.4%, 60.5% and 29.3%, respectively. The available
increased by 25.9% and 21.2%, respectively. Otherwise, the population density of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. was accelerated and the growth of vegetables increased. Moreover, the population density of E. coli and Fusarium sp., decreased remarkably. The ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) and the ratio of Actinomycetes bovis to fungi (A/F) increased 2.3 (from 272.2 to 624.4) and 1.7 times (from 38.3 to 64), respectively. Furthermore, the growth and yield of cucumber and lettuce significantly increased by the treatment of microorganism mixtures. CONCLUSION(S): These results suggest that the treatment of microorganism mixtures improved the chemical properties and the microflora of soil and the crop growth. Therefore, it is concluded that the microorganism mixtures could be good alternative soil amendments to restore soil nutrients and soil microflora.
Effect of Application Rate of Hairy Vetch on Ammonia Emission from Paddy Soil
Kim, TaeYoung ; Daquiado, Aileen Rose ; Alam, Faridul ; Lee, YongBok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 375~377
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.375
BACKGROUND: Hairy ventch (Vicia villosa) is a good green manure for supplying nitrogen in arable soil. Ammonia emission from rice fields can occur, and the degree of this emission can be great. However, quantitative information of ammonia emission from paddy soil using green manure is required to obtain emission factors for rice cropping in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ammonia emission from flooding soil with different application rate of hairy vetch was measured using the closed chamber method. For this study, hairy vetch was applied at rates of 0 (control), 500 (H500), 1000 (H1000), 2000 (H2000), and 3000 (H3000) kg/ha (fresh matter basis). This experiment was conducted for 54 days under flooding condition. The total NH3 emission throughout the experiment period was 0.32, 0.54, 1.20, 4.20, and 6.20 kg/ha for control, H500, H1000, H2000, and H3000, respectively. The ratio of NH3 emission to applied nitrogen by hairy vetch for each treatment was 0.7, 1.4, 3.2, and 3.2% for H500, H1000, H2000, and H3000, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): A very small amount of ammonia emission was recorded in the present study. Therefore, the use of hairy vetch in paddy field instead of chemical fertilizer can reduce ammonia emissions.
Evaluation of Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems with Different Incorporation Rate of Green Manure Crops
Kim, TaeYoung ; Daquiado, Aileen Rose ; Alam, Faridul ; Kim, Pil-Joo ; Lee, YongBok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 31, issue 4, 2012, Pages 378~380
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.378
BACKGROUND: In Korea, green manure has been cultivated for reducing chemical fertilizer application, maintaining soil fertility, and feeding livestock in winter season. We evaluated the phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system with different removal rates of green manure for maintaining soil fertility. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch mixture was selected as the green manure in this study. The barley and hairy vetch was sowed at a rate of 135 and 23 kg/ha, respectively, without fertilizer application. Total aboveground biomass was 12000 (barley: 5400 kg/ha, hairy vetch: 6600 kg/ha) kg/ha, and these green manure were incorporated with different input rates before rice planting. The input rates of green manure in this study were 0 (NPK+0%), 25 (NPK+25%), 50 (NPK+50%), 75 (NPK+75%) and 100 % (NPK+100) and the standard fertilization (NPK) without green manure cultivation. All treatments were applied with standard fertilizer (N-P-K: 90-19.6-48.3 kg/ha) before rice planting. The highest rice yield was observed in NPK+50% which was 20% higher compared with NPK. The phosphate balance with different incorporation rates of green manure was-104.0,-76.8,-52.9,-27.4, and 6.0 kg/ha for NPK+0%, NPK+25%, NPK+50%, NPK+75%, and NPK+100%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The use of green manure for livestock feeding in green manure-rice cropping systems could remove a huge amount of phosphate. This cropping system strongly requires phosphate application before green manure seeding for maintaining soil fertility.