Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Effects of Protox Herbicide Tolerance Rice Cultivation on Microbial Community in Paddy Soil
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Ahn, Byung-Ohg ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Chang-Gi ; Back, Kyoung-Whan ; Lee, Kijong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.95
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food of over half the world's population. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible impact of transgenic rice cultivation on the soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microorganisms were isolated from the rhizosphere of GM and non-GM rice cultivation soils. Microbial community was identified based on the culture-dependent and molecular biology methods. The total numbers of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with GM and non-GM rice were similar to each other, and there was no significant difference between GM and non-GM rice. Dominant bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with GM and non-GM rice were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The microbial communities in GM and non-GM rice cultivated soils were characterized using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles showed similar patterns, but didn't show significant difference to each other. DNAs were isolated from soils cultivating GM and non-GM rice and analyzed for persistence of inserted gene in the soil by using PCR. The PCR analysis revealed that there were no amplified protox gene in soil DNA. CONCLUSION(S): These data suggest that transgenic rice does not have a significant impact on soil microbial communities, although continued research may be necessary.
Calcium Deficiency Causes Pithiness in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) Fruit
Moon, Byung Woo ; Jung, Hae Woong ; Lee, Hee Jae ; Yu, Duk Jun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 102~107
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.102
BACKGROUND: Pithy pear fruit are not distinguished externally from sound fruit and thus often cause unexpected economic losses. To find out the cause of pithiness, the pithiness incidence and characteristics of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) fruit picked from a spot frequently produced pithy fruit in an orchard were compared with those of fruit picked from another spot produced sound fruit every year. And the soil chemical properties of the two spots and mineral contents in fruit, shoots, and leaves of Japanese pear trees cultivated in the two spots were also examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pithiness incidence was 0, 8.8, and 11.3% at 7 days before and 0 and 7 days after optimal harvest date, respectively, in the spot frequently produced pithy fruit. Flesh firmness was significantly lower in pithy fruit than in sound fruit, while soluble solids content was slightly higher in pithy fruit than in sound fruit. Unlike other mineral contents, Ca content was significantly lower in pithy fruit than in sound fruit. These results indicate that Ca deficiency in fruit is closely associated with decrease in flesh firmness and thus pithiness development. Ca content in soil of the spot frequently produced pithy fruit was also significantly lower than that in soil of the spot produced sound fruit. However, shoots or leaves did not exhibit significant difference in Ca and/or other mineral contents between the two spots, indicating that Ca deficiency in fruit is dependent on the translocation of Ca within a plant rather than soil Ca status. Although total-N, available
, K, and Ca contents were significantly lower in soil of the spot frequently produced pithy fruit than in soil of the spot produced sound fruit, Mg and Na contents and pH were not different between the soil conditions. CONCLUSION(S): Fruit maturity and Ca level in fruit are closely related to the incidence of pithiness in 'Niitaka' Japanese pear.
Banana Peel: A Green Solution for Metal Removal from Contaminated Waters
Arunakumara, Kkiu ; Walpola, Buddhi Charana ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 108~116
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.108
BACKGROUND: Certain crop-based waste materials have been recognized as cost-effective and highly efficient adsorbents for removal and recovery of different kind of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The ability is strongly attributed to the carboxyl functional group of some pectin substances such as galacturonic acid often found in fruit peels. The present manuscript was aimed at assessing the potential applicability of banana peel for metal removal from contaminated waters. METHODS AND RESULTS: As revealed by laboratory investigations, banana peel contains pectin (10-21%), lignin (6-12%), cellulose (7.6-9.6%), and hemicelluloses (6.4-9.4%). The pectin extraction is reported to have glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, and galactouroninc acid. Several studies conducted under different conditions proved that banana peel is capable of adsorbing 5.71, 2.55, 28.00, 6.88, 7.97, and 5.80 mg/g of
, respectively, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption capacity is, however, dependent upon several factors including solution pH, dose of adsorbent and metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed. CONCLUSION(S): Since the annual world production of banana exceeds 100 million tons, about 40 million tons of banana peel (40% of total weight of the fresh fruit) remains vastly unused. Exploring a sound technology with banana peel would therefore, not only address the much needed sustainable tool for cleaning contaminated waters, but of course bring an additional value to the banana industry worldwide.
Evaluation of Scab Resistance and Effect of Photosynthetic Rates on Fruit Characteristics among Elite Pear Seedlings
Won, Kyung-Ho ; Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Sherzod, Rajametov ; Lim, Kyeong-Ho ; Lee, Han-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.117
BACKGROUND: The scab, which is caused by Venturia nashicola, gives serious damages to pear trees. 'Niitaka' accounts for 82% of areas in pear cultivation. However 'Niitaka' is a scab susceptible cultivar. So, most of Korean farmers who growing pear trees have suffered by economic losses with the scab. In this research, we evaluated the scab resistance among elite pear seedlings to clarify genetics about the scab resistance. And we analyzed photosynthetic features with these seedlings to develop suitable cultivar which is advantageous for producing quality fruits during the growth and development of plants. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured the rates of scab incidence among seedlings in a field experiment condition and an in-vitro test. An in-vitro test has been done with field experiment-based results. We made plant materials by grafting branches of each seedlings with 'Kongbae' rootstocks. And they had been grown for one month. Then, scab conidia suspension is sprayed to seedlings and sustained for 40 days under the controlled environment. As the results, 6 seedlings displayed lower incidence rates than other seedlings and 'Niitaka'. We also measured instant photosynthetic rates of each seedlings to determine the correlation between photosynthetic rates and fruit characteristics. However, it seemed that there is no correlation between them. CONCLUSION(S): Among the seedlings, 6 seedlings displayed the higher resistance to scab than other seedlings and 'Niitaka'. This characteristics is considered to be come from the gene expression of European pear. And we found that photosynthetic rate in trees rarely does not influence the fruit characteristics. It is considered to be affected by cultivar's own characteristics.
Flowering Control by Using Red Light of Chrysanthemum
Hong, Seung-Chang ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Chae, Mi-Jin ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 123~127
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.123
BACKGROUND: The incandescent bulb and compact fluorescent lamp are widely using as a light sources for daylength extension of chrysanthemum. But, these light sources consume a lot of electricity and have short longevity. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semi conductor light source. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime. In this study, we investigated the intensity of red light to control flowering of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. "Shinma") by using LEDs. METHODS AND RESULTS: The red (660 nm) and far-red (730 nm) light were irradiated subsequently to investigate photo-reversible flowering responses of chrysanthemum. The flowering of chrysanthemum was inhibited by night interruption with red light but subsequently irradiated far-red light induced the flowering of chrysanthemum. This photoreversibility, reversion of the inductive effect of a brief red light pulse by a subsequent far-red light pulse, is a property of photo responses regulated by the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B. Four different intensity of red light of 0.7, 1.4, 2.1, and
(PAR) were irradiated at growth room in order to determine the threshold for floral inhibition of chrysanthemum. Over
of the red lights irradiated chrysanthemums were not flowered. The plant length, fresh weight, number of leaves, and leaf area of chrysanthemum irradiated with red light were increased by 17%, 36%, 11%, and 48%, respectively, compared to those of compact fluorescent lamp. CONCLUSION(S): The red light and subsequential far-red light showed that the photoreversibility on flowering of chrysanthemum. The red light (
of red LEDs) and white light (50 Lux of compact fluorescent lamp) have the same effect on inhibition of flowering in chrysanthemum. Additionally, the red light increased the plant height and dry weight of chrysanthemum.
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Metazosulfuron Residue in Representative Crops
Lee, Hyeri ; Kim, Eunhye ; Lee, Young Deuk ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 128~135
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.128
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to develop a single residue analytical method for new herbicide metazosulfuron in crops. METHODS AND RESULTS: Brown rice, apple, mandarin, Kimchi cabbage and soybean were selected as representative crops, and clean-up system, partition solvent and extraction solvent were optimized. Instrumental limit of quantitation (ILOQ), linearity of calibration curve and method limit of quantitation (MLOQ) were determined based on the chromatography and whole procedures. For recovery tests, brown rice, apple, mandarin, Kimchi cabbage and soybean samples were macerated and fortified with metazosulfuron standard solution at three levels (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ and 100 MLOQ). And then those were extracted with acetonitrile, concentrated, and partitioned with ethyl acetate. Then the extracts were concentrated again and cleaned-up through
(aminopropyl) SPE cartridge with acetone : dichloromethane (1% acetic acid) (20 : 80, v/v) before concentration and analysis with HPLC. CONCLUSION(S): ILOQ of metazosulfuron was 2 ng (S/N
10) and good linearity was achieved between 0.05 and 12.5 mg/Kg of metazosulfuron standard solutions, with coefficients of determination of 0.9999. MLOQ was 0.02 mg/Kg. Good recoveries from 74.1 to 116.9% with coefficients of variation (C.V.) of less than 10% were obtained, regardless of sample type, which satisfies the criteria of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Those results were reconfirmed with LC-MS (SIM). The method established in this study is simple, economic and efficient to be applied to most of crops as an official and general method for residue analysis of metazosulfuron.
Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limits (PHRLs) of Fungicide Fenarimol and Insecticide Flufenoxuron in Peaches during Cultivation Period
Moon, Hye-Ree ; Park, Jae-Hoon ; Yoon, Ji-Yeong ; Na, Eun-Shik ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 136~141
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.136
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to establishment the PHRLs of peach during cultivation period, and also to estimate biological half-lives for residues of fenarimol and flufenoxuron. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extracted samples of fenarimol were analyzed by GC-ECD and the flufenoxuron extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Recoveries of fenarimol at two fortification levels of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg were
(%), respectively. And recoveries of flufenoxuron at two fortification levels of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg were
(%), respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The biological half-lives of fenarimol in single treatment and triple treatment were 3.5day and 3.8day. that of Flufenoxuron was also 7.1day and 4.9day, respectively. The PHRL of fenarimol were recommended as 1.5 mg/kg for 10day before harvest and the PHRL of flufenoxuron were recommended as 1.4 mg/kg for 10day before harvest.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment for Fruits in Market
Ahn, Ji-Woon ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Kim, Jeong-Min ; Seok, Da-Rong ; Lee, Eun-Hyang ; Lee, Seong-Eun ; Chung, Duck-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 142~147
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.142
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in domestic agricultural products and to assess their risk to human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: 123 samples containing both general and environment-friendly certified agricultural products were purchased from traditional domestic markets and supermarkets in six provinces of Korea. Multiresidue analyses of one hundred twenty-two pesticides except for herbicides were performed with gas chromatography-electron capture detector, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sixteen pesticides were detected in 45 agricultural product samples, which were 38 general, 6 low pesticide and 1 of GAP agricultural product samples and the detection rate was 33.6%. Pesticides detected in agricultural product samples were cypermethrin, lufenuron, fenvalerate, bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr and iprodione. Residual concentration of 18 samples were exceeded the recommended maximum residue limit set by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and two kinds of unregistered pesticides in korea were also detected in two samples. CONCLUSION(S): In order to do risk assessment by agricultural products consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to %ADI values. The range of %ADI values was from 0.038% to 2.748%. Taken together, it demonstrates the pesticides found in agricultural products samples were below the safety margin, indicating no effect on human health.
Impact of Virus-resistant Trigonal Cactus Cultivation on Soil Microbial Community
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Kim, Jong-Bum ; Lee, Jung-Jin ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Ahn, Byung-Ohg ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Park, Jong-Sug ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Lee, Kijong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 148~154
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.148
BACKGROUND: Genetically modified(GM) trigonal cactus(Hylocereus trigonus Saff.) contained a coat protein gene of cactus virus X (CVX), which conferred resistance to the virus, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene, which conferred herbicide resistance, and a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S). This study was conducted to evaluate the possible impact of GM trigonal cactus cultivation on the soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microorganisms were isolated from the rhizosphere of GM and non-GM trigonal cactus cultivation soils. The total numbers of bacteria, and actinomycete in the rhizosphere soils cultivated GM and non-GM trigonal cactus were similar to each other, and there was no significant difference. Dominant bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with GM and non-GM trigonal cactus were Proteobacteria, Uncultured archaeon, and Uncultured bacterium. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles show a similar patterns, significant difference was not observed in each other. DNA was isolated from soil cultivated GM and non-GM trigonal cactus, we analyzed the persistence of the inserted gene by PCR. Amplification of the inserted genes was not observed in the soil DNA, which was collected after harvest. CONCLUSION(S): This result suggests that the GM trigonal cactus cultivation does not change significantly the microbial community.
Status of Birds Using a Rice Paddy in South Korea
Kim, Mi-Ran ; Nam, Hyung-Kyu ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Na, Young-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 155~165
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.155
BACKGROUND: Rice paddies not only produce food but also provides wildlife habitats. Although more than half agricultural land of South Korea is rice paddy, a few studies have been conducted in rice paddy ecosystem. We investigated a status of bird using a rice paddy in South Korea using published data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birds using a rice paddy have been defined as birds which breed, rest or forage on rice paddy, bank, reservoirs or irrigation ditches. According to the publication from 1980s, birds using a rice paddy were total 47 families 279 species. Scolopacidae and Charadriidae (18%), Falconidae, Accipitridae and Strigidae (12%) and Anatidae (11%) used a rice paddy. Half of bird species using a rice paddy visited a dried rice paddy during the winter and 39.4% of them used a flooded rice paddy in spring, autumn or summer. Dependency on a rice paddy was high in ducks, egrets, cranes, and shorebirds. Population of dabbling ducks has decreased for last 12 years while cranes have increased. CONCLUSION(S): Rice paddies provide both migratory and terrestrial birds including endangered species for habitate all through the year in Korea.
Inorganic Element Concentrations in Different Organs of Young Persimmon Trees Received Different Levels of K Fertilization and Its Influence on the Fruit aracteristics
Choi, Seong-Tae ; Park, Doo-Sang ; Son, Ji-Young ; Park, Yeo-Ok ; Hong, Kwang-Pyo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 166~170
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.166
BACKGROUND: Persimmon growers have often tried various regimens of K fertilization to improve fruit quality. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of K rates on concentration of inorganic elements in different tree organs and on fruit characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-year-old non-astringent 'Fuyu' persimmons, grown in 50-L pots, were used. Total K amounts of 0 (no-application), 12, 25, 37, and 66 g were fertigated to a pot with KCl solution at 3-to 4-day intervals from July to September. The 0 K trees received no K fertilizer for the two previous years. Leaves, fruits, and shoots were sampled in November. K concentrations in leaves and shoots increased significantly by increasing K rate; leaf K, 0.49% for the 0 K, increased to 3.09% for the 37 g and 3.11% for the 66 g trees. Fruit K was notably lower for the 0 K, but there were no significant differences among the trees as long as they were supplied with more than 12-g K. In the trees with 0 K, leaf necrosis in the margin was apparent in June and the symptom progressed toward the midrib. Some leaves scorch-rolled from the margin in August. The greatest effect of K rates was on fruit size; it significantly increased to 181 g for the 12 g, 203 g for the 37 g, and 206 g for the 66 g compared with 150 g for the 0 K trees. However, K rates did not affect firmness and soluble solids of the fruits. The fruits of the 0 K trees were characterized by better coloration. CONCLUSION(S): The K-rate effect on inorganic elements depended on tree organs and fruit size was the major parameter to be affected by the K rates.