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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Single Extractions for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Phytoavailability in Soil
Seo, Byoung-Hwan ; Lim, Ga-Hee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 171~178
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.171
BACKGROUND: Consensus of heavy metal phytoavailability in soils needs to be introduced for soil management protocols in relation to safer food production in the contaminated agricultural soils. For this, setting up the method for evaluation of metal phytoavailability in soil is an essential prerequisite. METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study was carried to select a proper single extraction method for determination of phytoavailable metal concentration in soil. Two extraction methods were examined including 1 M
extraction and 0.01 M
extraction methods using 142 soil samples collected from the agricultural soils nearby abandoned mining area in Korea. Corelation analysis was conducted between phytoavailable metal concentrations and soil properties potentially influencing on the metal phytoavailability. Both methods showed similar significance (p<0.001) in correlation with soil properties such as soil pH. However, higher correlation coefficients between phytoavailable metal concentrations and soil properties were observed when used
extraction rather than using
extraction. CONCLUSION(S): It appeared that 0.01 M
extraction was better option for determination of phytoavailable metals in soils and further study to test the efficiency of this method is required in combination with plant uptake.
New Estimates of CH
Emission Scaling Factors by Amount of Rice Straw Applied from Korea Paddy Fields
Ju, Okjung ; Won, Tae-Jin ; Cho, Kwang-Rae ; Choi, Byoung-Rourl ; Seo, Jae-Sun ; Park, In-Tae ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 179~184
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.179
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimates of total direct
emissions from croplands on a country scale are important for global budgets of anthropogenic sources of
emissions and for the development of effective mitigation strategies. Methane production resulted by the anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds where
acts as inorganic electron acceptor. This process could be affected by the addition of rice straw, water management and rice variety itself. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica type, var Samkwangbyeo) was cultivated in four plots: (1) Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium (NPK) (
:90-45-57 kg/ha); (2) NPK plus 3 Mg/ha rice straw (RS3); (3) NPK plus 5 Mg/ha rice straw (RS5); (4) NPK plus 7 Mg/ha rice straw (RS7) for 3 years (2010-2012) and the rice straw incorporated in fall (Nov.) in Gyeonggi-do Hwaseong-si. Gas samples were collected using the closed static chamber which were installed in each treated plot of
. According to application of 3, 5, 7 Mg/ha of rice straw, methane emission increased by 46, 101, 190%, respectively, compared to that of the NPK plot. CONCLUSION(S): We obtained a quantitative relationship between
emission and the amount of rice straw applied from rice fields which could be described by polynomial regression of order 2. The emission scaling factor estimated by the relationship were in the range of IPCC GPG (2000).
Syntaxonomical Characteristics of Abandoned Paddy Fields by Seral Stages in South Korea
Shim, In-Su ; Kim, Hong-Bong ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 185~192
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.185
BACKGROUND: As a result of rural exodus, aging of rural population, development of high-yield rice varieties and so on, abandoned paddy fields of South Korea have generally increased. The phytosociological studies are needed to recommend the effective vegetation management methods of abandoned paddy fields. The current study performed an analysis of vegetation characteristics by classifying plant communities for abandoned paddy fields in South Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: A comparative analysis of syntaxonomy, synecology, and syndynamics was performed by using the Z.-M. method of phytosociology and vegetation survey which was obtained from an enumeration district of total 203 phytosociological releves of 5 regions in Gangwon-do, 5 regions in Gyeonggi-do, 2 regions in Chungcheong-do, 18 regions in Gyeongsang-do, and 10 regions in Jeolla-do. Alopecurus aequalis community, Juncus effusus var. decipiens community and Salix koreensis community were, respectively, identified as successional plant communities of the early stage, the middle stage, and the late stage in the vegetation of abandoned paddy field. Sere of abandoned paddy field can be classified, developmentally, into annual plant stage, perennial plant stage, shrub plant stage, and forest tree stage. Several kinds of dominant species rather than a distinct species were found in the middle stage of abandoned paddy field. CONCLUSION(S): In this study, changing pattern in vegetational communities of abandoned paddy field were understood. These results will provide important information for restoring and conserving the ecology of fallow ground.
Effect of Light-Quality Control on Growth of Ledebouriella seseloides Grown in Plant Factory of an Artificial Light Type
Heo, Jeong-Wook ; Kim, Dong-Eok ; Han, Kil-Su ; Kim, Sook-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 193~200
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.193
BACKGROUND: Plant factory system of an artificial light type using Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), fluorescent light, or metal halide lamp instead of sun light is an ultimated method for plant production without any pesticides regardless of seasonal changes. The plant factory is also completely isolated from outside environmental conditions such as a light, temperature, or humidity compared to conventional greenhouse. Light-environment control such as a quality or quantity in the plant factory system is essential for improving the growth and development of plant species. However, there was little report that the effects of various light qualities provided by LEDs on Ledebouriella seseloides growth under the plant factory system. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ledebouriella seseloides seedlings transplanted at urethane sponge were grown in the plant factory system of a horizontal type with LED artificial lights for 90 days. Yamazaki solution for hydroponic culture of the seedlings was regularly irrigated by the deep flow technique (DFT) system on the culture gutters. Electrical Conductivity (EC) and pH of the solution was recorded at 1.4 ds/m and 5.8 in average, respectively during the experimental period. Number of unfolded leaves, leaf length, shoot fresh and dry weight of the seedlings were three times measured in every 30 days after beginning of the experiment. Blue LEDs, red LEDs, and fluorescent lights inside the plant factory were used as light sources. Conventional fluorescent lamps were considered as a control. In all the treatment, light intensity was maintained at
on the culture bed. Fresh weight of the seedlings was 3.7 times greater in the treatment with the mixture radiation of fluorescent light and blue+red LEDs (1:3 in energy ratio; Treatment FLBR13) than in fluorescent light treatment (Treatment FL). In FLBR13 treatment, dry weight per seedling was two times greater than in FL or BR11 treatment of blue+red LEDs (1:3 in energy ratio; Treatment BR11) during the culture period. Increasing in number of unfolded leaves was also significantly affected by the FLBR13 treatment comparing with BR11 treatment. CONCLUSION(S): Hydroponic culture of Ledebouriella seseloides seedlings was successfully achieved in the plant factory system with mixture lights of blue, red LEDs and fluorescent lights. Shoot growth of the seedlings was significantly promoted by the FLBR13 with the mixture radiation of fluorescent light, blue, and red LEDs under 1:3 mixture ratio of blue and red LEDs during the experimental period compared to conventional light conditions.
Regrowth of Buds and Flower Bud Formation in Kiwifruit as Affected by Early Defoliation
Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Kim, Hong Lim ; Chae, Won-Byoung ; Lee, Jae Han ; Lee, Eung Ho ; Kim, Jin Gook ; Lee, Yong Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 201~206
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.201
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit, which was introduced to Korea in late 1970s, is a warm-temperate fruit tree, whose leaves are easily damaged by wind because of their large size. To produce high quality fruits, efficient windbreak is necessary to protect leaves until harvest. In Korea, typhoons from July onwards usually influence the production of kiwifruit. Damages from typhoons include low fruit quality in the current year and low flowering ratio the following year. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of early defoliation of kiwifruit vines from July to October on the regrowth of shoot axillary buds the current year and bud break and flowering the following year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Scions of kiwifruit cultivar 'Goldrush' were veneer grafted onto five-year-old Actinidia deliciosa rootstocks, planted in Wagner pots (13L) and grown in a rain shelter. Kiwifruit leaves in the proximity of leaf stalk were cut by lopping shears to simulate mechanical damage from typhoon since only leaf stalks were left when kiwifruit vines were damaged by typhoons. Kiwifruit vines were defoliated from July 15 to October 14 with one monthintervals and degrees of defoliation were 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. All experiments were conducted in the rain shelter and replicated at least five times. Defoliation in July 15 resulted in a high regrowth ratio of 20-40% regardless of degree of defoliation but that in August 16 showed only 5.8% of regrowth ratio in the no defoliation treatment; however, more than 25% of defoliation in August 16 showed 17-23% of regrowth ratio. In September 15, regrowth ratio decreased further to less than 10% in all treatments and no regrowth was observed in October 14. Percent bud break of all defoliation treatments were not significant in comparison to 64.7% in no defoliation except for 42.1% and 42.9% in 100% defoliation in July 15 and August 16, respectively. Floral shoot in the no defoliation treatment was 70.2% and defoliation of 50% or less resulted in the same or increased floral shoot ratio in July 15, August 16, and September 15; however, defoliation in October 14 showed no difference in all treatments. In flower number per floral shoot, 2-3 flowers appeared in no defoliation and only 1 flower was observed when the vines were defoliated more than 50% in July 15 and September 15. In October 14, contrary to the floral shoot ratio, flower number decreased with increased defoliation. CONCLUSION(S): Therefore, it is suggested that dormancy of 'Goldrush' axillary buds, was started in August and completed in October. The effect of defoliation on bud break of axillary buds the following year was insignificant, except for 100% defoliation in July 15 and August 16. From July 15 to September 15, floral bud ratio was significantly reduced when more than 50% of leaves were defoliated compared to no defoliation. Also, the number of flowers per flower-bearing shoot the following year decreased by less than 50% when compared to no defoliation, and this decrease was more prominent in September 15 than July 15 and August 16.
Enhancement of Analytical Method for Thidiazuron Residues and Monitoring of its Residues in Agricultural Commodities
Do, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Park, Hyejin ; Kwon, Ji-Eun ; Cho, Yoon-Jae ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Hong, Jin-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.207
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to develop analytical method with reproducibility, accuracy and applicability to agricultural products than the existing methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mean recoveries of thidiazuron ranged from 89.2 to 91.2 in hulled rices, 87.2 to 92.1 in peppers, from 76.4 to 86.9 in potatoes, from 91.2 to 95.7 in watermelons, from 86.5 to 88.5 in kiwi fruits, and from 89.5 to 94.0 in grapes, with less than 10% of relative standard deviations. In addition, the limit of quantitation was set to be 0.05 mg/kg and there were no interfering peaks in integrating the thidiazuron peak. CONCLUSION(S): These results represent that the enhanced analytical method has reliable accuracy, precision, selectivity, and sensitivity.
Establishment of Analytical Method for Dichlorprop Residues, a Plant Growth Regulator in Agricultural Commodities Using GC/ECD
Lee, Sang-Mok ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Lee, Han-Jin ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Kim, Hee-Jeong ; Cho, Yoon-Jae ; Choi, Si-Won ; Kim, Myung-Ae ; Kim, MeeKyung ; Rhee, Gyu-Seek ; Lee, Sang-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 214~223
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.214
BACKGROUND: This study focused on the development of an analytical method about dichlorprop (DCPP; 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) which is a plant growth regulator, a synthetic auxin for agricultural commodities. DCPP prevents falling of fruits during their growth periods. However, the overdose of DCPP caused the unwanted maturing time and reduce the safe storage period. If we take fruits with exceeding maximum residue limits, it could be harmful. Therefore, this study presented the analytical method of DCPP in agricultural commodities for the nation-wide pesticide residues monitoring program of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. METHODS AND RESULTS: We adopted the analytical method for DCPP in agricultural commodities by gas chromatograph in cooperated with Electron Capture Detector(ECD). Sample extraction and purification by ion-associated partition method were applied, then quantitation was done by GC/ECD with DB-17, a moderate polarity column under the temperature-rising condition with nitrogen as a carrier gas and split-less mode. Standard calibration curve presented linearity with the correlation coefficient (
) > 0.9998, analysed from 0.1 to 2.0 mg/L concentration. Limit of quantitation in agricultural commodities represents 0.05 mg/kg, and average recoveries ranged from 78.8 to 102.2%. The repeatability of measurements expressed as coefficient of variation (CV %) was less than 9.5% in 0.05, 0.10, and 0.50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION(S): Our newly improved analytical method for DCPP residues in agricultural commodities was applicable to the nation-wide pesticide residues monitoring program with the acceptable level of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility.
Bioconcentration Factor(BCF) of Perchlorate from Agricultural Products and Soils
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Lee, Jeong-Mi ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Park, Ki-Moon ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 224~230
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.224
) is an anion that is extremely water-soluble and environmentally stable. It mostly exists in the form of sodium perchlorate, ammonium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate which are used in rocket fuels, propellants, ignitable sources, air bag inflation systems and explosives. Perchlorate can be taken into the thyroid glands and interfere with iodide uptake. The determination of perchlorate in agricultural products is important due to its potential health impact on humans. The objective of this study was to determine the perchlorate concentrations in the samples of various agricultural products and soils. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, samples of cereal(Rice, Barley, Corn, Bean), vegetable(Spinach, Lettuce, Sesame, Chives, Chili, Pumpkin, Tomato), fruit(Apple, Pear, Tangerine, Grape) were analyzed for perchlorate contents. Perchlorate concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that agricultural products respectively contained perchlorate concentrations in the range of : cereals N.D.~
. Bioconcentration factor was in the order of : vegetables > cereals > fruits. Bioconcentration factor was highest follwed by Sesame 37.88, Corn 21.51, Spinach 10.57, Tangerine 4.39, Chives 2.89 and Lettuce 1.90. The recoveries of perchlorate from spiked agricultural products and soils ranged from 87.72~111.26% and 102.09~111.23%. CONCLUSION(S): The health risk assessment results obtained in this study are lower than the RfD(Reference Dose, 0.0007 mg/kg/body weight/day) value as suggested by the Integrated Risk Information System(US IRIS). Our results indicate that, people currently exposed to perchlorate from agricultural products consumption are considered as safe.
Responses of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cyprinus carpio Fed on Disease Resistant(OsCK1) Rice Variety
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Lee, Kijong ; Park, Soo-Yun ; Lee, Dae-Yong ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Kim, Min-Young ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 231~239
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.231
BACKGROUND: The disease resistant (OsCK1) rice was generated by inserting choline kinase (CK1) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes isolated from Oriza sativa and Streptomyces hygroscopicus into the genome of rice (Nakdongbyeo). With the potential problems of safety, the non-target organism evaluation is required as an essential element for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. In present study, we studied the effects on survival of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cyprinus carpio, commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The M. anguillicaudatus and C. carpio were fed on disease resistant (OsCK1) rice and non-genetically modified (non-GM) rice (Nakdongbyeo) to 0, 10, 100, 1,000 and 5,000 mg/L, as treatment concentration respectively. The OsCK1 rice used for the test was confirmed to have the OsCK1/PAT gene expression by the PCR and ELISA analysis. Feeding test showed that no significant differences in cumulative immobility and abnormal response of M. anguillicaudatus and C. carpio fed on between OsCK1 rice and non-GM rice. The 96hr-
values showed no difference between OsCK1 rice (>5,000 mg/L) and non-GM rice (>5,000 mg/L). CONCLUSION(S): The results of this study suggested that there was no significant difference in toxicity for M. anguillicaudatus and C. carpio between OsCK1 rice and non-GM counterparts.
Selective Isolation and Phylogeny of the Yeast Species Associated with Aloe vera and Aloe saponaria
Choi, Sungchang ; Kim, Myung-Uk ; Kim, Jong-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 240~243
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.3.240
BACKGROUND: Several yeast species have potential applications in biotechnology and the identification of such yeast species is of great interest. The first step in the identification of yeasts is the establishment of an effective isolation method. Thus, we compared the efficacy of different yeast media in the isolation of yeast associated with Aloe vera and Aloe saponaria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we spread homogenized A. vera and A. saponaria leaves onto 4 different yeast selective media containing chloramphenicol, streptomycin, Triton X-100 and L-sorbose. We observed high selectivity for yeast and many colonies on media. We isolated 67 yeast strains from A. vera and 42 yeast strains from A. saponaria. We used phylogenetic analysis to identify the yeast isolates based on ITS region sequencing and performed sequence analysis on representative isolates from each agar plate. Further, we compared the sequences obtained with reference sequences. The yeast species isolated from A. vera were as follows: 56 isolates of Meyerozyma, 9 isolates of Cryptococcus, and 1 isolate each of Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces. Those isolated from A. saponaria were as follows: 41 isolates of Rhodosporidium and 1 isolate of Sporobolomyces. CONCLUSION(S): All the isolates obtained using large agar plate containing chloramphenicol, streptomycin, Triton X-100 and L-sorbose were identified as yeast. Therefore, we concluded that this method is useful for selective screening of yeast species.