Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Determination of Analytical Method for the Insecticide Clothianidin and its Metabolites in Soil and Surface Water
Choi, Young-Joon ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Han, Byung-Soo ; Lee, Young-Deuk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 69~77
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.69
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clothianidin on the soil in terms of clothianidin dissipation and degradation to evaluate its safety in order to provide an analytical foundation for clothianidin and the 5 metabolites related to it. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to separate clothianidin and its metabolites in this study. In soil, after suppressing dissociation-proned ions with weak alkalic
and extracting the metabolites with methanol, clothianidin, Methylaminoimidazole(MAI), Methylnitroguanidine(MNG), Thiazolylmethylurea(TZMU) and Thiazolylnitroguanidine(TZNG). Thiazolylmethylguanidine(TMG) were extracted with the addition of neutral
to increasing the intensity of ions. Compounding elements were separated by using Hydrometrix (
) and ion-exchanging Solid-phase extraction(SPE) Strong cation-exchanger(SCX) and C18 were used. The recovery rates of clothianidin and 5 metabolites in soil and water ranged from 87.4% to 104.3%. A standard deviation of our analysis for the soil and water samples were less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Well accepted detection limits for clothianidin and 5 metabolites in soil samples based on a dissipation analysis is 0.005 mg/kg and 0.001 mg/L in water samples. The dissipation concentration of this study was decided to be enough to evaluate the dissipation levels of clothianidin and its metabolites.
The Applicability of the Acid Mine Drainage Sludge in the Heavy Metal Stabilization in Soils
Kim, Min-Suk ; Min, Hyungi ; Lee, Byeongjoo ; Chang, Sein ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Koo, Namin ; Park, Jeong-Sik ; Bak, Gwan-In ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 78~85
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.78
BACKGROUND: Recent studies using various industrial wastes for heavy metal stabilization in soil were conducted in order to find out new alternative amendments. The acid mine drainage sludge(AMDS) contains lots of metal oxides(hydroxides) that may be useful for heavy metal stabilization not only waste water treatment but also soil remediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of acid mine drainage sludge for heavy metals stabilization in soils METHODS AND RESULTS: Alkali soil contaminated with heavy metals was collected from the agricultural soils affected by the abandoned mine sites nearby. Three different amounts(1%, 3%, 5%) of AMDS were applied into control soil and contaminated soil. For determining the changes in the extractable heavy metals,
and Mehlich-3 were applied as chemical assessments for metal stabilization. For biological assessments, lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) and chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa var. glabra) were cultivated and accumulation of heavy metals on each plant were determined. It was revealed that AMDS reduced heavy metal mobility and bioavailability in soil, which resulted in the decreases in the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in each plant. CONCLUSION: Though the high level of heavy metal concentrations in AMDS, any considerable increase in the heavy metal availability was not observed with control and contaminated soil. In conclusion, these results indicated that AMDS could be applied to heavy metal contaminated soil as an alternative amendments for reducing heavy metal mobility and bioavailability.
Ecological Characteristics of Vascular Plants by Habitat Types of Dry Field in Jeolla-do, Korea
Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Na, Young-Eun ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Choe, Lak-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 86~102
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.86
BACKGROUND: According to the types of human interference, there are various plants that have strong vitality and ability to breed in the dry field. Recently, climate change alters the geographical distribution and phenology of the plant species. So, we need to understand present occurrence pattern and ecological characteristics of these plants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The plant species data were obtained from 8 regions in Jeolla-do. Flora investigation was done from May 2013 to September 2013. Habitat type of dry field in Jeolla-do was classified into 3 types (inside of dry field: IDF, embankment around the end of a dry field: EDF, levee slope of dry field: LS). The vascular plants of study area were listed 296 taxa which contain 68 families, 203 genera, 244 species, 43 varieties and 9 forms. The vascular plants of three different habitat types were IDF 174 taxa, EDF 249 taxa and LS 136 taxa. The occurrence rate of Therophyte was arranged by the order of IDF(67.6%), EDF(51.9%), LS(54.3%). Naturalized rate was analysed as IDF 27.9%, EDF 21.0%, LS 18.6%. Urbanization index was analysed as IDF 11.8%, EDF 13.7%, LS 10.0%. CONCLUSION: With these results, we found that three habitat types were ecological difference affected by the human impacts. Also, we found environmental indicators through the ecological characteristics of flora for the type of habitat of dry field. These indicators will help assess the agriculture environmental variability and the floral change according to the climate change in dry field.
Study of Kidney Toxicity of Azadirachta Indica Extract for Oral Administration in Rats
Yoon, Hyunjoo ; Choe, Miseon ; Cho, Hyeon-Jo ; Han, Beom Seok ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Oh, Jin-Ah ; Cho, Namjun ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.103
BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica has been widely used as environment-friendly organic materials because of its insecticidal properties. This study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity and the subacute toxicity of Azadirachta indica extract(AIE) in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the oral acute toxicity test, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with 2.0 g/Kg bw of AIE. The
value was greater than 2.0 g/Kg bw for both male and female rats. For the subacute toxicity study, rats were treated with AIE at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/Kg bw once a day for 4 weeks(n=10 animals per each group). There were no significant changes in body weight, food intake and water consumption observed during the experimental duration. In addition, no difference of relative kidney weight was observed among all treated groups. Serum creatinine level in the AIE 2.0 g/Kg group increased significantly compared with that of control group in male rats, but serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Significant increase of serum cholesterol levels were observed in all AIE groups, compared with the control group, in the female rats (p<0.05). However, histopathological examination of the kidney did not reveal any significant lesions in all groups. CONCLUSION: On the basis of results, it could be concluded that oral administration AIE didn't cause any toxic response in kidney, except the increased serum cholesterol.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment in Some Fruits on the Market in Incheon, Korea
Chung, Se Jin ; Kim, Hye Young ; Kim, Ji Hyeung ; Yeom, Mi Suk ; Cho, Joong Hee ; Lee, Soo Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.111
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the levels of pesticide residues in fruits and to assess their risk to human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: Monitoring of 215 samples of fruits collected from local markets in incheon during 2013 was performed. 259 pesticides were analyzed by multi-residue method and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and safe/Mass/Mass(QuEChERS/MS/MS) method using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector/Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector(GC-ECD/NPD), GC-MS, LC(Liquid Chromatography-Mass/Mass(LC-MS/MS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array/Fluorescence Detector(HPLC-PDA/FLD). In 56.3% of the samples detected pesticide residues and were not found to exceed Maximum Residue Limits(MRL). The highest detected samples were found in citrus fruits(83.9%). Among the detected compounds, carbendazim(13.1%), imazalil (11.7%), thiabendazole(10.7%) and fludioxonil(9.8%) were frequently found in fruits. A risk assessment of pesticide residues in fruits was performed by calculating Estimated Daily Intake(EDI) and Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI). Also, we were evaluated removal efficiency of pesticide residues by washing and peeling. The removal efficiency of pesticide residues in citrus and tropical fruits by peeling processes were 91.6%. After the washing process, the removal rates were 43.1%(Cherry, Grape, Blueberry). CONCLUSION: The level of pesticide residues in fruits was within the MRL. The range of %ADI values was from 0.00011 to 0.98795%. The process of washing or peeling reduces the level of pesticide residues. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human being.
Acute Toxicity Evaluation to Daphnia magna of Disease Resistant(OsCK1) Rice
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Lee, Kijong ; Park, Soo-Yun ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ; Suh, Sang Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.121
BACKGROUND: The disease resistant (OsCK1) rice was generated by inserting choline kinase (CK1) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes isolated from Oryza sativa and Streptomyces hygroscopicus into the genome of the rice, Nakdongbyeo. With the potential problems of safeties, the evaluations on non-target organisms are essentially required for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. In the present study, we conducted the evaluation of acute toxicity on Daphnia magna that commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies for non-target organism evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effect of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna by each concentration were investigated in the disease resistant (OsCK1) rice and non-genetically modified (non-GM) rice, Nakdongbyeo, as concentration (0, 1,000, 1,800, 3,240, 5,830, 10,500 and 20,000 mg/L). The OsCK1 rice used for the test was confirmed to express the OsCK1/PAT gene by the PCR(Polymerase chain reaction) and western blot analysis. Feeding test showed that no significant differences in cumulative immobility and abnormal response of Daphnia magna fed on OsCK1 rice or non-GM rice. The 48hr-
values showed no difference between OsCK1 rice (3,147.18 mg/L) and non-GM rice (3,596.27 mg/L). CONCLUSION: This result suggested that there was no significant difference in toxicity to Daphnia magna between OsCK1 rice and non-GM counterpart.
Selection and Isolation of a Mutant Yeast Strain Tolerant to Multiple Targeted Heavy Metals
Lee, Sangman ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 129~133
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.129
BACKGROUND: This study was performed for selecting yeast mutants with a high tolerance for targeted metals, and determining whether yeasts strains tolerant to multiple heavy metals could be induced by sequential adaptations. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mutant yeast strain tolerant to the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) was selected by sequential elevated exposures to each metal with intermittent mutant isolation steps. A Cd-tolerant mutant was isolated by growing yeast cells in media containing
concentrations that were gradually increased to 1 mM. Then the Cd-tolerant mutant was gradually exposed to increasing levels of
in growth media until a concentration of 7 mM was reached, thus generating a strain tolerant to both Cd and Cu. In the subsequent steps, this mutant was exposed to
(up to 8 mM), and a resultant isolate was further exposed to
(up to 60 mM), allowing the derivation of a yeast mutant that was simultaneously tolerant to Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn. CONCLUSION: This method of inducing tolerance to multiple targeted heavy metals in yeast will be useful in the bioremediation of heavy metals.
Photodegradation of Butachlor and Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Rice Paddy Water under Natural Sunlight
Ok, Junghun ; Watanabe, Hirozumi ; Cho, Junglai ; An, Nanhee ; Lee, Byungmo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 134~137
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.134
BACKGROUND: Dissipation of herbicides in paddy water varies significantly, being dependent on environmental conditions such as sunlight. The photodegradation under natural sunlight may be one of natural degradation routes of herbicides dissipation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor the degradation of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water under natural sunlight. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 12 water sample bottles of treatment were covered by quart glass plates, which allow about 90% of UV radiation (280-2000 nm) to pass through, to minimize the UV attenuation. The other 12 water sample bottles of the control were covered by glass lids and wrapped with aluminum foils to prevent the sunlight. The concentration of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water samples bottles was monitored under ambient conditions with and without natural sunlight. The concentration of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl for treatment decreased from
, respectively, during consecutive 21 days after herbicide application under natural sunlight. CONCLUSION: The concentration of butachlor in paddy water decreased quickly under ambient conditions with natural sunlight. The degradation of butachlor in paddy water was enhanced by the natural sunlight. However, the degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was insignificant under natural sunlight.
Genotoxicity of Environment-friendly Organic Materials of Plant Origin in the Micronucleus Test Using Chinese Hamster Lung Cells
Cho, Hyeon-Jo ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Jeong, Mi Hye ; Park, Soo Jin ; Oh, Jin-Ah ; Kim, Won-Il ; Cho, Namjun ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.138
BACKGROUND: Azadirachta Indica extract(AIE) and Sophorae radix extract(SRE) are widely used as environment-friendly organic materials of plant origin in South Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the in vitro micronucleus(vitMN) tests of two samples of AIE and SRE were conducted to evaluate their genotoxicity using the Chinese hamster lung(CHL) cell. This study was composed of two parts; cytochalasin B(cyto B) test and non-cyto B test. Mitomycin C and colchicine were used as positive controls. As a result, the incidence of micronucleus(MN) in all AIE and SRE treated groups increased in dose-dependent manner, but were less than 2.2% in 1,000 binucleated cells. In addition, there were no significant increases of MN incidence in all AIE and SRE treated groups, compared with the negative control group. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest that AIE samples and SRE samples used in this study may have no genotoxicity in the in vitro micronucleus test using the CHL cells. In our previous study, we reported that AIE and SRE did not cause genotoxicity in Ames test. According to the genotoxicity battery system, we concluded that AIE and SRE used in this study have no genotoxic effects to humans.
Application Evaluation of Best Management Practices for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution using Delphi Survey Method
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Min-Young ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Hong, Seong-Chang ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 144~147
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.144
BACKGROUND: It is essential to prioritize the exact and clear understanding of agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) controls. The realistic policies and systems should also be developed based on this understanding. Therefore, this study aimed to present agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) applicable for the fields based on the Delphi survey result. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study deduced the evaluation items to assess each BMP for agricultural NPS control and conducted the surveying using the Delphi method based on agricultural BMP experts. In addition, its on-the-spot application were evaluated. Considering its importance, technical, social and economic proprieties showed that political support was ranked first and followed by cost investment, labor investment, reduction effect and resident participation. The survey findings by agricultural BMP experts showed the good performance of on-the-spot application can be achieved from fertilization by soil testing, residue and green manure application and contour plowing which are applicable within a field. Agricultural BMPs, highly applicable for the fields, were the countermeasures that farmers who are the principal bodies of agricultural NPS control could be participated directly. CONCLUSION: The active participation of farmers is essential for effective control of agricultural NPS. It is necessary to establish various incentive systems.