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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Influence of Various Biochars on the Survival, Growth, and Oxidative DNA Damage in the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida
Kim, Won-Il ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Jeong, Seon-Hee ; Kim, Gyeong-Jin ; Lee, Seul ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Cho, Namjun ; Lee, Ji-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.231
BACKGROUND: Biochar (BC) has a great potential for enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration while facilitating beneficial waste disposition. Therefore, it is essential to assess and mitigate any inadvertent consequences associated with soil biochar amendment. Earthworm activity is very vital in the soil system, yet there are a limited number of studies that have examined their impact resulting from biochar application to soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the survival, growth, reproductive tests, and oxidative DNA damage tests (measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and catalase (CAT) activities) to assess the potential toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in artificial soil amended with BCs were investigated. The BCs derived from perilla meal, sesame meal, and pumpkin seed were pyrolyzed at 300 and
, and then amended with soil at a rate of 5%. All the earthworms survived, but lost weight compared to control soil after 28 day incubation period. Moreover, the BC-amended soils did not significantly affect the cocoon numbers of earthworms. Slightly higher concentrations of 8-OHdG and CAT were observed in earthworms present in BC-treated soil than those in control soil. Furthermore, the 8-OHdG concentrations in the soil amended with BC produced at
were greater than those at
, and it slightly decreased as the incubation time increased. CONCLUSION: These observations could be due to higher contents of toxic metal(loid)s and also higher pH in BCs pyrolyzed at
. While BC is efficiently being used in agricultural fields, this study suggests that it is required to assess the unintended negative impacts of BC on soil ecosystems.
Distribution Correlation between Heavy Metals Contaminants and PAHs Concentrations of Soils in the Vicinity of Abandoned Mines
Ki, Seong-Kan ; Park, Ha-Seung ; Jo, Rae-Hyeon ; Choi, Kyoung-Kyoon ; Yang, Hyun ; Park, Jeong-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.239
BACKGROUND: Heavy metals contamination of soils in the vicinity of abandoned mines in South Korea has been investigated. However, PAHs contamination rarely has been studied. Both heavy metals and PAHs concentrations have been measured in this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The samples of soil and sediment were collected from the vicinities of three abandoned coal mines and two abandoned metal mines for analysis of heavy metals contaminants and PAHs concentration from April to September 2012. After preparation of these samples following the Korean standard test method for soils, the concentrations of heavy metals contaminants and PAHs were measured using ICP-OES and GC-MS, respectively. It was observed that the concentration of Arsenic was above the concern level based on 'area 1' suggested by Korean soil conservation law, resulting that Arsenic is the main contaminant in these areas. Also Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were observed as a partial contaminants. The concentrations of other investigated components including benzo(a)pyrene were less than the concern level. CONCLUSION: The correlation observed between Arsenic (as main contaminant) and PAHs concentrations suggested that the contaminant source and pathway are different for each other. The effect of mine activity on PAHs concentration was rarely observed.
Determining Effect of Oyster Shell on Cadmium Extractability and Mechanism of Immobilization in Arable Soil
Hong, Chang-Oh ; Noh, Yong-Dong ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 245~253
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.245
BACKGROUND: Oyster shell(OS) is alkaline with pH 9.8, porous, and has high concentration of
. It could be used as an alternative of lime fertilizer to immobilize cadmium(Cd) in heavy metal contaminated arable soil. Therefore, this study has been conducted to compare effects of calcium(Ca) materials [OS and
] on Cd extractability in contaminated soil and determined mechanisms of Cd immobilization with OS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Both Ca materials were added at the rates of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% (wt Ca wt-1) in Cd contaminated soil and the mixtures were incubated at
for 4 weeks. Both Ca materials increased pH and negative charge of soil with increasing Ca addition and decreased 1N
extractable Cd concentration. 0.1 N HCl extractable Cd concentration markedly decreased with addition of OS. 1 N
extractable Cd concentration was related with pH and net negative charge of soil, but not with 0.1 N HCl extractable Cd concentration. We assumed that Cd immobilization with
was mainly attributed to Cd adsorption resulted from increase in pH-induced negative charge of soil. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS) analyses were conducted to determine mechanism of Cd immobilization with OS. There was no visible precipitation on surface of both Ca materials. However, Cd was detected in innerlayer of OS by EDS analyses but not in that of
. CONCLUSION: We concluded that Cd immobilization with OS was different from that with
. OS might adsorbed interlayer of oyster shell or have other chemical reactions.
Influences of Silicate Fertilizer Application on Soil Properties and Red Pepper Productivity in Plastic Film House
Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Han, Soo-Gon ; Kim, Jong-Yeob ; Kim, Kab-Cheol ; Ko, Do-Young ; Jeong, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 254~261
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.254
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate effects of silicate fertilizer application on red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) productivity with improving soil chemistry under plastic film house in paddy field. METHODS AND RESULTS: The silicate fertilizer was applied as 0, 100, 200, and 300 kg/10a as basal dressing before transplanting pepper plant seedlings. Cultivar of the pepper plant was Cheon-Ha-Dae-Se. Amounts of inorganic fertilizer applied as
=19.0-6.4-10.1kg/10a was estimated depending on soil test values. After applying 50% of nitrogen, 100% of phosphorus, and 60% of potassium fertilizers as basal dressing, the seedlings of pepper plant were transplanted. The rests of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were applied as side-dressing after the first, second, and fourth harvests of red pepper. When comparing selected chemical properties of soils between before transplanting and after final(the fifth) harvest, soil pH, available
, and exchangeable
increased with increasing the applications of silicate fertilizer, whereas electrical conductivity(EC) decreased. However, exchangeable
was higher with the treatments of 100 and 200 kg/10a, and exchangeable
was higher with 300 kg/10a application. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of red pepper collected from the first harvesting stage decreased with increasing the applications of silicate fertilizer, but potassium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in red pepper were highest with 300 kg/10a application. Yield of red pepper increased between 9.0 and 11.8% with the applications of silicate fertilizer. Marketable fruit rate of res pepper was highest(97.3%) with 200 kg/10a application. CONCLUSION: The application of silicate fertilizer as basal dressing in paddy-converted fields improved soil chemistry and increased red pepper productivity.
Effect of Combined Application of Bottom Ash and Compost on Heavy Metal Concentration and Enzyme Activities in Upland Soil
Kim, Yong Gyun ; Lim, Woo Sup ; Hong, Chang Oh ; Kim, Pil Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 262~270
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.262
BACKGROUND: Coal combustion bottom ash(BA) has high carbon and calcium content, and alkaline pH, which might improve nutrient cycling in soil related to microbial enzyme activities as it is used as soil amendment. However, it contains heavy metals such as copper(Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc(Zn), which could cause heavy metals accumulation in soil. Compost might play a role that stabilize BA. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of combined application of BA and compost as soil amendment on heavy metals concentration, enzyme activities, chemical properties, and crop yield in upland soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: BA was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg/ha under different rate of compost application (0 and 30 Mg/ha) in radish (Raphanus sativus var) field. Combined application of BA and compost more improved chemical properties such as pH, EC, OM, total nitrogen, available phosphate, and exchangeable cations of soil than single application of BA. Water soluble Mn and Zn concentration in soil significantly decreased with increasing application rate of BA. Decrease in those metals concentration was accelerated with combined application of BA and compost. Urease and dehydrogenase activities significantly increased with increasing application rate of BA. Phosphotase activities were not affected with single application of BA but increased with combined application of BA and compost. Radish yield was not affected by application rate of BA. CONCLUSION: From the above results, combined application of BA and compost could be used as soil amendment to improve chemical properties and enzyme activities of soil without increase in heavy metal concentration and decrease in crop yield in upland soil.
Transfer Function for Phytoavailable Heavy Metals in Contaminated Agricultural Soils: The Case of The Korean Agricultural Soils Affected by The Abandoned Mining Sites
Lim, Ga-Hee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Seo, Byoung-Hwan ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 271~281
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.271
BACKGROUND: Application of the transfer functions derived from local soil data is necessary in order to develop proper management protocols for agricultural soils contaminated with heavy metals through phytoavailability control of the heavy metals. The aim of this study was to derive the transfer functions of Korean agricultural soils affected by the abandoned mining sites and evaluate suitability of the derived transfer functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: 142 agricultural soils affected by the abandoned mining sites were collected and analyzed. Two extraction methods, including 1 M
extraction and 0.01 M
extraction were applied to determine phytoavailable metal pools in soils. Multiple stepwise regression of phytoavailable metal pools against the corresponding total metal concentration and soil properties was conducted to derive suitable transfer functions for estimating phytoavailable heavy metal pools. Applicability of the derived transfer functions was examined by calculating NME and NRMSE. CONCLUSION: Soil pH and organic matter were valid variables for derivation of the transfer functions which were applicable for estimating phytoavailable metal concentrations in the soils being contaminated by heavy metals. In addition, it was confirmed that transfer functions need to be developed based on local soil conditions to accurately estimate heavy metal-phytoavailability.
Effective Suppression of Methane Production by Chelating Nickel of Methanogenesis Cofactor in Flooded Soil Conditions
Kim, Tae Jin ; Hwang, Hyun Young ; Hong, Chang Oh ; Lee, Jeung Joo ; Kim, Gun Yeob ; Kim, Pil Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 282~289
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.282
) is considered as the secondmost potent greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (
). Methanogenesis is an enzyme-mediated multi-step process by methanogens. In the penultimate step, methylated Co-M is reduced by methyl Co-M reductase (MCR) to
involving a nickel-containing cofactor F430. The activity of MCR enzyme is dependent on the F430 and therefore, the bioavailability of Ni to methanogens is expected to influence MCR activity and
production in soil. In this study, different doses of EDTA(Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid) were applied in flooded soils to evaluate their suppression effect on methane production by chelating Ni of methanogenesis cofactor. METHODS AND RESULTS: EDTA was selected as chelating agents and added into wetland and rice paddy soil at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 75, and
before 4-weeks incubation test. During the incubation, cumulative
production patterns were characterized. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were removed from their jars to analyze total soil Ni and water-soluble Ni content and methanogen abundance. Methane production from 100 mmol application decreased by 55 and 78% in both soils compared to that from 0 mmol. With increasing application rate of EDTA in both soils, water-soluble Ni concentration significantly increased, but total soil Ni and methanogen activities showed negative relationship during incubation test. CONCLUSION: The decrease in methane production with EDTA application was caused by chelating Ni of coenzyme F430 and inhibiting methanogenesis by methyl coenzyme M reductase. Consequently, EDTA application decreased uptake of Ni into methanogen, subsequently inhibited methanogen activities and reduced methane production in flooded soils.
Persistence of the Insecticide Clothianidin in Paddy and Upland Soils
Choi, Young-Joon ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Yun, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Young-Deuk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 290~297
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.290
BACKGROUND: The current study purposed to analyse the dissipation levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide and clothianidin in paddy and upland soils and clarify the effects of soil moisture on degradation and persistence of the insecticide. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to achieve the research purposes, clothianidin 8% SG was applied to the paddy and upland fields at the rate of 0.024 kg a.i./10a, while the analytical standard was treated at 0.25 mg/kg soil under laboratory conditions. Based on the multiple first-order kinetics, total clothianidin in soils was dissipated with
of 6.7-16.1 and 6.9-8.2 days in the paddy and upland fields, respectively, whereas the figures under the laboratory condition became larger showing 56.3 and 19.6 days. CONCLUSION: As affected by soil moisture, some differences in degradative pathways were observed. Flooding of soil caused evidently demethylation and delayed cyclization of a major metabolite, thiazolylmethylguanidine (TMG) and methylaminoimidazole(MAI), compared to the aerobic upland condition. More than 80% and 50% of the parent compound was dissipated by the 24th day after the final application in both soils and, transformation products had constituted most of soil residues after that.
Nitrogen Dynamics in the Soils Incorporated with Single and Mixture Application of Hairy vetch and Barley
Lim, Woo Sup ; Lee, Hyun Ho ; Hong, Chang Oh ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 298~305
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.298
BACKGROUND: The utilization of green manures as alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers is considered a good agricultural practice. Effect of incorporation of green manure to soil on change of inorganic nitrogen (N) is well literatured. However, there have been few studies on examining entire dynamic of N including inorganic N and N gases in soil incorporated with green manure. The objective of this study was to examine the changes of inorganic N and N gases with single and mixture applications of hairy vetch and barley in the soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hairy vetch(H) and barley (B) were applied at the mixture ratio of B:H=0:0, B:H=100:0, B:H=0:100, and B:H=50:50 in soil. The soil-green manure mixtures were incubated in the dark at
for 17 weeks under aerobic conditions. Cumulative emission of
from soils amended with mixture of barley and hairy vetch(B:H=50:50) were less than those from amended with mono hairy vetch(B:H=0:100). Incorporation of single hairy vetch or mixture of barley and hair vetch application could significantly increased concentration of plant available N (
) in early stage of plant growth and plant available N (
) in later stage. However, high concentration of
in soil could cause adverse environmental impact through
leaching from soil. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, it might be a good soil management practice to incorporate mixture of barely and hairy vetch in the view point of increase in plant available N concentration and decrease in N losses through volatilization, denitrification, and leaching.
Evaluation of Methane Oxidation Potentials of Alpine Soils Having Different Forestation Structure in Gajwa mountain
Park, Yong Kwon ; Kim, Sang Yoon ; Gwon, Hyo Suk ; Kim, Pil Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 306~313
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.306
BACKGROUND: Forest soils contain microbes capable of consuming atmospheric methane (
), an amount matching the annual increase in
concentration in the atmosphere. However, the effect of plant residue production by different forest structure on
oxidation is not studied in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Korean alpine soils having different forestation structure on
uptake rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: the
flux was measured at three sites dominated with pine, chestnut and oak trees in southern Korea. The
uptake potentials were evaluated by a closed chamber method for a year. The
uptake rate was the highest in the pine tree soil (
) and then followed by oak (
) and chestnut trees (
uptake rates were highly correlated to soil organic matter and moisture contents, and total microbial and methanotrophs activities. Different with the general concent, there was no any correlation between
oxidation rates, and soil temperature and labile carbon concentrations, irrespective with tree species. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the methane oxidation rate was correlated in positive manner with organic matter, abundance of methanotrophs. Methane oxidation was different among tree species. This results could be used to estimate methane oxidation rate in forest of Korea after complementing information about statistical data and methane oxidation of other site.
Toxicity Response of Biosensor Using Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria to Various Nitrogenous Compounds
Hwang, Ji-Hoon ; Kang, Woo-Chang ; Shin, Beom-Soo ; Chae, Kyu-Jung ; Oh, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 314~320
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.314
BACKGROUND: Run off from agricultural sites contaminates water bodies with nitrogen which is toxic and causes eutrophication when excessively accumulated. Hence, the interest in monitoring nitrogen toxicity in aquatic environment has been continuously increasing. METHODS AND RESULTS: To detect a real time toxicity of various nitrogen compounds, we applied biomonitoring method (biosensor) based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The toxicity biomonitoring test was conducted in semi-continuous mode in a reactor filled with sulfur particles (2~4 mm diameter) under aerobic condition. Relative toxicity was simply determined by measuring the change in electrical conductivity (EC). Various nitrogenous compounds at different concentrations were evaluated as a potential toxic substance. Nitrite was found to be very toxic to SOB with a 90% inhibition even when the concentration as low as 3 mg/L. However, nitrate and ammonia have any inhibitory effect on SOB's activity. CONCLUSION: The biosensor based on SOB responded sensitively to nitrite even at substantially low concentrations. Therefore, it can be used as a reliable biological alarm system for rapid detection of contaminants due to its simplicity and sensitive nature.
The Correlation between Stem Characteristics and Its Resistance to Hail Damage in Potato Cultivars
Jin, Yong-Ik ; Chang, Dong-Chil ; Cho, Ji-Hong ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Hong, Su-Young ; Kim, Su-Jeong ; Sohn, Whang-Bae ; Manjulatha, Mekapogu ; Park, Kyeong-Hun ; Kim, Yul-Ho ; Yoo, Hong-Seob ; Jeong, Jin-Cheol ; Chung, Ill-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 321~326
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.321
BACKGROUND: Recently, weather disasters such as hail and typhoon occur frequently. These threaten the stable cultivation of potatoes. It is very important to cultivate potatoes with stable under unexpected weather disasters. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between mophological characteristics of potato stem and its resistance to hail damage in different potato cultivars. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hail fall occurred for 8 minutes on May 31, 2012 in the field of Highland Agriculture Research Center located in Jinbu-myeon Gangwon-do. Potato crop grown in the field was affected by hail due to which the stems of potato were broken. The percentage of broken stem of potato was investigated as the level of damage by hail. To determine the difference in the ratio of broken stem among the potato cultivars, physical characteristics of potato stem such as diameter and hardness were measured. To evaluate recovery phase after hail damage, ground coverage and yield were measured. The percentage of broken stem of cv. Goun and cv. Saebong were 30%, 26%, respectively, whereas it was 5% in the cv. Atlantic. Damage by hail was the lowest in cv. Atlantic. Diameter of the stem was 15 mm in cv. Atlantic, 13 mm in cv. Goun and 11 mm in cv. Saebong. The hardness of potato cultivars was measured which was 74 N in cv. Atlantic. 71 N in cv. Goun and 59 N in cv. Saebong. The ground coverage in cv. Atlantic was 79%, which was the highest followed by 73% in cv. Saebong and 56% in cv. Goun. The yield of cv. Atlantic was monitored at 90 days after planting which was 40 MT/ha and that of cv. Saebong was 36 MT/ha, whereas in cv. Goun, it was 30 MT/ha which was the lowest. CONCLUSION: The ratio of broken stem in cv. Atlantic was the lowest compared to cultivars. In the physical characteristics of stem, cv. Atlantic was the highest in value of diameter and hardness. Based on these results, it was considered that cv. Atlantic was resistant to hail damage compared to other cultivars.
Floral Bud Cold Hardiness and Cultural Safety Zone in Rabbiteye Blueberry Cultivars
Kim, Hong-Lim ; Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Han, Jeom-Hwa ; Oh, Pill-Kyung ; Chae, Won-Byoung ; Kim, Seong-Cheol ; Kim, Mok-Jong ; Kim, Jin-Gook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 327~333
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.327
BACKGROUND: Rabbiteye blueberry(Vaccinium ashei) is one of the most widely grown blueberry types in the world, together with Northern and Southern highbush blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum). Rabbiteye blueberry have higher soil adaptability and fruit productivity but less cold tolerance to low temperature than highbush blueberry. The objective of this study is to investigate freezing tolerance of floral buds and establish a cultivation zone for rabbiteye blueberry cultivars. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bearing branches which have similar thickness and same number of floral buds were collected in the early January at the blueberry germplasm preservation plot located in Namhae Sub-station, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science in Gyeongsangnamdo. Cold response of bearing branches were investigated by electrolyte leakage and freezing tolerance of floral buds were determined by ovary browning ratio of 50%(
). Cultivation zone was established based on mean annual extreme minimum temperature for 30 years, from 1981 to 2010. The electrolyte leakage of bearing branches in rabbiteye blueberry increased as temperature decreased and was lowest in 'Brightwell' but highest in 'Bluegem' when they were kept in
. Besides, the electrolyte leakage increased in 'Brightblue', 'Brightwell', 'Climax', 'Delite', 'Gardenblue', 'Southland' and 'Woodard' in
. Freezing tolerance(
) was lowest in 'Bluegem' and 'Homebell'(
), and highest in 'Tifblue'(
) among different rabbiteye blueberry cultivars.
of 'Southland' was from -15.0 to
, that of 'Delite', 'Brightwell',' Austin' and 'Climax' was
, and that of 'Bluebelle', 'Woodard' and 'Powderblue' was
. CONCLUSION: This study indicate that The hardiness zones of rabbiteye blueberry were classified into Six cultivation zones and cultivation zones of most cultivars were the south of Jeollanam-do and Gyeongdangnam-do, except for 'Tifblue.'
Characteristics of Population Dynamics and Habitat Use of Shorebirds in Rice Fields during Spring Migration
Choi, Seung-Hye ; Nam, Hyung-Kyu ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 334~343
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.334
BACKGROUND: Shorebirds use a variety of wetlands as their stopover sites to replenish energy and nutrient reserves along the migration route. It is increasingly important to understand how birds use the remaining available habitats during migration period, because shorebird stopover sites are often altered and destroyed. Rice fields serve as a major inland stopover site for migrating shorebirds. However, the information on habitat use patterns of shorebirds in rice fields is very limited in Korea. Therefore, we studied the patterns of shorebird abundance and their habitat use in rice fields during spring migration period in western-central Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: Surveys were conducted at interval of 2-3 days during the spring migration period of 2014 at rice fields of mid-western Korea. We recorded the location of the observed birds on the rice field map according to the local habitat type. The habitat types were divided by physical structure and cultivation methods. Fifteen shorebird species and 7,852 individuals were recorded during the survey period. The number of shorebird species and their abundance began to increase from the beginning of flooding in late-April, and reached a maximum in early-May. After rice transplantation, the number of shorebird species and their abundance dramatically declined. Shorebirds selectively used paddy and levee rather than road and ditch and most species used shallow depth field type. Plowed field types were less attractive to most species. CONCLUSION: Flooding rice fields were functioned as stopover sites for a variety of shorebird species during spring migration period. Furthermore, these results provide that the appropriate agricultural practices can be improving the habitat quality for shorebirds.
Establishment of Analytical Method for Chlorophyll Using the N,N-Dimethylformamide and Dimethylsulfoxide in Citrus Leaves
Han, Seung-Gab ; Kang, Seok-Beom ; Moon, Young-Il ; Park, Jae-Ho ; Park, Kyung-Jin ; Choi, Young-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 344~349
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.344
BACKGROUND: Purpose of the study was to establish the extinction coefficients of chlorophyll a and b in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) and Dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO) solvents and to find out the conditions of optimal extraction temperature and time in citrus leaves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chlorophyll a and b standards were dissolved in DMF and DMSO. Extinction coefficients of chlorophyll pigments were determined and their contents were quantified using spectrophotometer. Chlorophyllous pigments of citrus(Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu wase) leaves were extracted at 25, 40, 60 and
for 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 hours to determine the optimal extraction condition. CONCLUSION: The extinction coefficients of chlorophyll a(Chl a) and chlorophyll b(Chl b) of DMF extracts for high extinction wavelength were 663.8 and 647.2 nm. Similarly, the high extinction wavelength of DMSO extracts were 665.8 and 649.0 nm for chl a and b respectively. Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll content of DMF extracts were Chl a =
, Chl b =
. Similarly, Chl a, Chl b and total Chl of DMSO extracts were Chl a =
, Chl b =
. The chlorophyll extracts of DMF and DMSO were very stable in dark. High chlorophyll contents of citrus leaves were found at
extraction for 6 hours in DMF and at
extraction for 24 hours in DMSO. However, the chlorophyll content was decreased significantly after 8 hours in DMF extraction while it was remained up to 30 hours in DMSO extraction.
Effect of Chloride-deicers on Growth of Wheat, Barley and Spinach
Kim, Soon-Il ; Lee, Dae-Weon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 350~357
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.350
BACKGROUND: Deicers such as calcium chloride (
) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in Korea have been commonly used to reduce traffic accidents as well as injuries. However there have been adverse effects of deciders such as pollution of water and soil, and reduced productivity of agriculture as well as forest. This study aimed to investigate biological effects of the deicers against wheat, barley, and spinach. METHODS AND RESULTS: The germination of tested crop seeds exposed to chloride-deicers,
and NaCl was significantly reduced at over 3% concentration of chloride-deicers compared to the control. In spraying deicers to the seedlings of the crops, there was no symptom such as inhibition of growth rate or leaf elongation. However the germination of tested crop seeds was affected at 2% concentration of deicers when they were exposed continuously to deicers in soils. The growth of the shoot against
and NaCl treatments was very similar in wheat and barley whereas the shoot of spinach was the most susceptible. Based on these results, the sensitivity of the crops to the tested deicers was as follows: NaCl >
> mixture (
+ NaCl). The length of shoots and roots of the seedlings grown in 1% treated soil was decreased. The biomass of all the seedlings decreased 1.5 to 4 times at 1%. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the effects of salt deicers by inputting into soil against growing tested crops are more severe in germination and growth inhibition as well as biomass decrease.
Effects of Daylength Extension by Red Light in Strawberry Cultivation
Hong, Seung-Chang ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choe, Soon-Kun ; Eo, Jin-Woo ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.358
BACKGROUND: Many strawberry growers are utilizing daylength extension by using incandescent bulb or fluorescent lamp to break dormancy of strawberry induced by low temperature and short day conditions. Conventional incandescent bulb and fluorescent lamp consume a lot of electricity and have short longevity. Red light known for most efficient wavelength for daylength extension light of short-day plant and long-day plant. This study was conducted to verify the effects of red light to enhance growth and to increase production of strawberry (Fragaria
ananassa Duch. cvs. "Seolhyang") METHODS AND RESULTS: Three red light (660nm) of 0.70, 0.87, and
(PAR) and conventional incandescent bulb of 40 Lux were treated respectively under the pot experiment. All treatment irradiated from 18:00 to 24:00 for 6 hours. Red light treatment tend to increase leaf stem number, flower stem number, weight of flower stem, crown weight, root weight, and leaf area of strawberry then incandescent bulb treatment. In field experiment, red light of
(PAR) and conventional incandescent bulb of 40 Lux were irradiated respectively. Field experiment showed that the leaf number, leaf weight, and crown weight of strawberry increased than those of incandescent bulb control with red LED of
(PAR). Red LED treatment increased the fruit number over 15g than incandescent bulb. Furthermore, red LED treatment decreased fruit number below 15g of strawberry than incandescent bulb treatment. Therefore, We believed that red LED treatment increased marketable fruit number by increment of weight of each fruit. Consequently, marketable fruit number, fruit weight, and fruit production of strawberry were increased than those of incandescent bulb by 5 %, 2.9 %, and 8.5 % respectively, but not showed significantly differences. CONCLUSION: These results presumably due to directly enhanced photosynthesis of strawberry leaves and activated action of Pfr phytochrome form by red light. In conclusion, red LED of 660nm could be used for daylength extension light source to enhance production of strawberry.
Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Onion Affected by Rapid Temperature Changes
Lee, Hyeong-Jin ; Han, Hyo-Shim ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Kim, Dong-Kwan ; Kwon, Hyun Sook ; Lee, Kyung Dong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 364~371
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.364
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of rapid temperature change at spring and the early summer seasons in climate change, we have investigated the physiological response and yield of onion in a greenhouse with thermostat control system. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seedlings of onion(cv. Sunshine) were planted on October 30, 2012 and harvested on May 30, 2013. The used treatments(March-April-May) for a rapid temperature change were T0(control):
. Total yields of bulb within the temperature change as high temperature treatment T2 and control treatment T0 were increased significantly(p<0.05), as compared to the low temperature treatment T1. Low temperature conditions significantly (p<0.05) reduced plant height, SPAD reading, crude protein and fiber etc., as compared to the TO and T2. CONCLUSION: The rapid temperature changes were highly affected by low temperature than high temperature. These results suggest that rapid climate change of future could need systematic standard model for physiological characteristics and yields of onion.
Growth and Physiological Responses of Indeciduous Quercus L. in Container by Fertilizing Treatment
Kim, Jong Jin ; Lee, Seung Hak ; Song, Ki Seon ; Jeon, Kwon Seok ; Choi, Jin Young ; Choi, Kyu Seong ; Lee, Seok Noh ; Sung, Hwan In ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 372~380
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.372
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in order to closely examine the influence of fertilization upon growth in container of seedling in indeciduous Quercus species (Q. mysinaefolia, Q. acuta and Q. glauca). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fertilizer level was made by adjusting water soluble compound fertilizer (N:P:K=19: 19:19, v/v) to 1000, 2000,
level along with non-fertilizing plot. Fertilization increased height, root collar diameter growth, and dry weight in these three species of trees. The more increase in fertilizer level led to the more rise even in growth of these species. H/D ratio and T/R ratio also showed tendency of getting bigger in the more rise in fertilizer level. Photosynthetic rate was shown to get higher in the higher fertilizer level according to fertilization in all the three species. In the analysis of root morphological traits, the total root length was surveyed to be longer in the more rise in fertilizer concentration. As even a case of root project area, surface area, and root volume is the similar tendency to characteristics in the total root length, a rise depending on fertilization was observed. CONCLUSION: In light of the results in this experiment, the fertilizer level is judged to be
level that is proper for production of 1-year-old container seedling in indeciduous Quercus species with excellent root development and high seedling quality index.
Determination of Dimethyl Disulfide, Diallyl Disulfide, and Diallyl Trisulfide in Biopesticides Containing Allium Sativum Extract by Gas Chromatography
Lim, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Cho, Geun-Hyoung ; Cho, Nam-Jun ; Park, Byung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 381~387
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.381
BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum) extract has been allowed as commercial biopesticide material for pesticidal activity in the Environmentally-friendly Agriculture Promotion Act. Nine commercial biopesticides containing A. sativum extract have been marketed in Korea. However, the analytical method of the active substances in these materials has not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cartridge clean-up method for the determination of dimethyl disulfide(DMDS), diallyl disulfide(DADS), and diallyl trisulfide(DATS) in biopesticides containing A. sativum extract was developed and validated by gas chromatography(GC). The clean-up method was optimized using hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase extraction(SPE) cartridges for the bioactive sulfides in biopesticides containing A. sativum extract, and the eluate was analyzed to quantify the DMDS, DADS, and DATS using the GC. The developed method was validated, and the LOQ and recovery rates of DMDS, DADS, and DATS were 0.226, 0.063, and
and 80.6, 84.8, and 73.1%, respectively. From the nine commercial biopesticide samples, contents of DMDS, DADS, and DATS were analyzed using the developed method and results showed
, respectively. CONCLUSION: The developed method could be used in determining the quality of biopesticides for the manufacture of commercial biopesticides containing A. sativum extract.
Development of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Aclonifen in Agricultural Products Using GC-ECD
Ko, Ah-Young ; Kim, Hee-Jung ; Jang, Jin ; Lee, Eun-Hyang ; Joo, Yoon-Ji ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Son, Young-Wook ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Rhee, Gyu-Seek ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 388~394
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.388
BACKGROUND: Aclonifen is used as a systemic and selective herbicide to control a wide spectrum broad-leaf weeds by inhibition carotenoid biosynthesis, and then its MRLs(Maximum Residue Limits) will be determined in onion and garlic. In this study, a new official method was developed for aclonifen determination in agricultural products to routinely inspect the violation of MRL as well as to evaluate the terminal residue level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aclonifen was extracted from crop samples with acetone and the extract was partitioned with dichloromethane and then purified by silica solid phase extraction(SPE) cartridge. The purified samples were detected GC using an ECD detector. Limits of detection(LOD) was 0.001 mg/kg and quantification(LOQ) was 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at three different concentration levels (LOQ,
, n=5). The recoveries were ranged from 74.3 to 95.0% with relative standard deviations(RSDs) of less than 8%. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines(CAC/GL 40). CONCLUSION: The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for aclonifen determination and it will be used to as an official method in Korea.
Effects of Aqueous Azadirachta indica Extract on Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Park, Kyung-Hun ; Yoon, Hyunjoo ; Han, Beom Seok ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Jeong, Mi Hye ; Cho, Namjun ; Om, Ae Son ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 395~402
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.395
BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica Extract(AIE) containing azadirachtin as active ingredient have been used worldwide as environment-friendly organic material having pest control properties. However, the extracts prepared with different solvent and from different plant site is very diverse and have different toxicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the four week repeated oral dose toxicity test of aqueous AIE in Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of liver, main toxicity target organ of AIE. The male and female rats were divided into 4 groups, respectively; control(0 g/Kg bw), low-dose group(0.5 g/Kg bw), middle-dose(1.0 g/Kg bw) and high-dose group(2.0 g/Kg bw). As a results, relative liver weight increased with dose-dependent of AIE(p<0.05). Serum LDH in all AIE-treated groups were significantly lower than the control in male rats(p<0.05). However, serum GOT and GPT were significantly increased in all male AIE-treated groups in male rats(p<0.05) and, in particular, increase of serum GPT in dose-dependent manner raise the possibility of liver damage. Even through serum GLU was increased significantly in high-dose group in male rats compared to control, there were no significant differences of urinary GLU among all groups(p<0.05). In addition, histopathological examination of the liver did not reveal any lesions in all AIE-treated groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 4 weeks of the repeated oral administration of AIE 2.0 g/Kg to rats has resulted no toxic response in liver. Therefore, AIE was no indicated to have any toxic effect in the SD rats, when it was orally administrated below the dosage 2.0 g/Kg/day for 4weeks.
The Influence of Insulation Wraps on the Temperature Change of Kiwifruit Trunk Surface During Winter
Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Kim, Hong Lim ; Kim, Seong-Cheol ; Kim, Mok-Jong ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 403~408
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.403
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit is a warm-temperate, deciduous fruit tree. It is sensitive to frost or freeze damage during winter. Therefore, the farmers cover kiwifruit trunk with rice straw to preclude freeze injury. This study was conducted to evaluate trunk wraps for protection of freeze injury of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experimental orchard was located in Sacheon (lat.
) of Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. The vines were 5-6-year-old 'Hayward'. Two wrap materials, rice straw and silver-cushioned mat (reflective foil-coated, plastic-foamed mat, Ganan Industry, Rep. of Korea) were evaluated for their heat-retaining ability. The trunks of kiwifruit vines were wrapped in late December, and the wraps were removed in mid-April the following year (2012/13 and 2013/14). Temperature inner wraps were recorded from January to March in 2013 and 2014 by WatchDog 2450 (Spectrum Technologies, Inc., USA). In 2013, the lowest ambient temperature of January and February was
, respectively. The lowest temperature of inner-wrap of silver -cushioned mat was
in January and February, respectively. However, rice straw showed
in its lowest value of January and February. And also silver cushioned mat appeared to be superior to rice straw in its ability of heat-retaining during night time.
Occurrence of Tetracyclines Resistant Bacteria in the Soil Applied with Livestock Manure Compost
Kim, Song-Yeob ; Kim, Jang Hwan ; Kim, Sung Chul ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.409
BACKGROUND: Large amount of veterinary antibiotics have been used in the livestock industry to prevent diseases and promote growth. These antibiotics are excreted through feces and urine in unchanged form and reach to agricultural fields via application of the livestock manure based composts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tetracyclines-resistant bacteria in the soil received livestock manure compost for a long term. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tetracyclines (tetracycline TC, chlortetracycline CTC, and oxytetracycline OTC) resistance bacteria in the soil of rice-onion field applied pig manure compost (PM), in the soil of grass-rye field received cow manure compost (CM), and in the soil of rice field applied inorganic fertilizer (NPK) were determined. The soil received livestock manure composts clearly showed higher number of TC, CTC, and OTC resistance bacteria compared with the soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. The antibiotic resistant bacteria recovered appeared at 80 mg/L of tetracyclines was identified 1 specie, 6 genera 7 species, and 6 genera 7species in the soils received CM, PM, and NPK, respectively. The dominant resistant bacteria with the CM and PM application were Ochrobactrum and Rhodococcus. CONCLUSION: The application of livestock manure compost in the agricultural field is likely to contribute the occurrence of antibiotic resistance bacteria in the agricultural environment.
Monitoring of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) Residues in Arable Lands around Oil Reservoir
Lim, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Choi, Geun-Hyoung ; Cho, Nam-Jun ; Hong, Jin-Hwan ; Park, Byung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 33, issue 4, 2014, Pages 414~418
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.4.414
BACKGROUND: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), which are volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and main constituents of gasoline, are neuro-carcinogenic organic pollutants in soil and groundwater. Korea Ministry of Environment has established the maximum permissible level of BTEX in arable soil to 1, 20, 50 and 15 mg/kg, respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: To understand an arable soil contamination by BTEX, we collected 92 samples from the arable lands around oil reservoir, and analyzed the BTEX residue using a GC-MS with head-space sampler. A linear correlation between BTEX concentration and peak areas was detected with coefficient correlations in the range of 0.9807-0.9995. The method LOQ of BTEX was 0.002, 0.014, 0.084, and 0.038 mg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of 0.5 mg/kg BTEX were found to be 73.7-96.9%. The precision was reliable since RSD percentage (0.7-7.5%) was below 30, which was the normal percent value. Also, BTEX in all samples were detected under the LOQ. CONCLUSION: These results showed that the investigated arable soils around airport and oil reservoir in Korea were not contaminated by oils.