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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Soil Contamination of Heavy Metals in National Industrial Complexes, Korea
Jeong, Tae-Uk ; Cho, Eun-Jeong ; Jeong, Jae-Eun ; Ji, Hwa-Seong ; Lee, Kyeong-Sim ; Yoo, Pyung-Jong ; Kim, Gi-Gon ; Choi, Ji-Yeon ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Seong-Heon ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.19
BACKGROUND: Contamination of soils by heavy metals is the serious environmental problem. In particular, industrial processing is one of the main sources of heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soils collected from industrial complex. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the soil contamination and enrichment factor (EF) of heavy metals were investigated in three national industrial complexes such as Yeosu, Ulsan and Sihwa Banwal industrial complexes. The target heavy metals includes Cd, Cu, As, Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni. The results showed that the contents of Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn and Ni in Yeosu and the contents of Cu, As and Cr in Sihwa Banwal were higher than in any other industrial complex. The results of principal component analysis(PCA) in Yeosu, Ulsan and Sihwa Banwal complex could be explained up to approximately 81.4, 69.1 and 70.9% by two factor, respectively. Enrichment factors of Cd, Pb and Zn in all the investigated industrial complexes were above 1.0 that was the value judged to be a high contamination. And EF of Cr was above 1.0 in Sihwa Banwal complex. EF of Zn in all sites was generally high from the other heavy metals. CONCLUSION: Therefore, soils maybe significantly affected by heavy metals (especially, Cd, Pb and Zn) present in the emissions from industrial complexes.
Characteristics of Flora on Dry Field Margins in Korean Peninsula
Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Choe, Lak-Jung ; Hong, Seong-Chang ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Han, Donguk ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Lee, Wook-Jae ; Yang, Dongwoo ; Park, Sangkyu ; Na, Young-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 77~90
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.11
BACKGROUND: The field margins, which are uncultivated area of permanent vegetation located adjacent to field, play an important role in enhancing biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. This study focused on floristic characteristics on dry field margins in Korea Peninsula. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted at margins of 196 dry fields in 32 areas in 8 provinces in May and September 2013. The vascular plants of the dry field margins were listed 347 taxa which contain 73 families, 219 genera, 311 species, 1 subspecies, 30 varieties and 5 forms. Of these 347 taxa, 48 taxa were woody plants and 299 taxa were herbaceous plants. Among total 73 families, Compositae (17.6%) was the most dominant family, and followed Gramineae (15.9%), Polygonaceae (5.8%), Leguminosae (4.9%) and Cyperaceae (3.8%). Based on relative frequency values of survey fields, the appearance frequency of Digitaria ciliaris (89.8%) was the highest, and followed Acalypha australis (86.2%), Artemisia princeps (82.1%), Commelina communis (80.6%) and Portulaca oleracea (80.6%). Disturbance index of dry field margins was 55.0% at national level, and Gangwon region was the highest among the 8 regions at regional level. Life form spectrum was determined to be
. CONCLUSION: These results will be used fundamental data for studies to improve or even stabilize the current state of plant biodiversity in agricultural environments.
Change of Cast Amount and Pollutant Contents before and after the Eating of the Organic Waste and Upland Soil with Earthworms, Eisenia andrei and Amynthas agrestis
Na, Young-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.17
BACKGROUND: Earthworms are essential detritus feeders that play a vital role in the process of decomposition of organic matter and soil metabolism. The complex process of partial breakdown of organic matter and mixing with mucous and gut microbial flora in the form of earthworm cast results in the reduction of the toxicity. This study focused on the change of cast amount and pollutant contents before and after the eating of the organic waste and upland soil with the two species of earthworm. METHODS AND RESULTS: The two species of earthworms were compared to the cast production. In the upland soil material, the daily amount of worm's cast was 1.42 g in E. andrei and 0.40 g in A. agrestis. In the organic waste material, the cast of E. andrei was 0.78~0.83 g and the cast of A. agrestis. have not been collected because all earthworms died after the treatment. The heavy metals treated in the upland soil were evaluated the impact of the worm excretion. With the E. andrei, the cast production was decreased 0.1~0.8 times in zinc, 0.2~0.5 times in copper, and 0.1~0.7 times in cadmium compared to the control treatment according to the levels of concentration. With A. agrestis, the cast amount was decreased 0.3~1.1 times in zinc, 0.2~0.3 times in copper, and 0.1~2.1 times in cadmium, respectively. The changes of pollutant contents before and after the eating of the organic wastes with E. andrei were studied. In the treatment of the Alcohol Fermentation Processing Sludge and the Fruit Juice Processing Sludge, heavy metal content of the cast was increased 0.7~53.3% compared to the sludge materials. PAHs contents were decreased 50.1% in the cast of the Alcohol Fermentation Processing Sludge and 36.6% in the cast of the Fruit Juice Processing Sludge, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, although the A. agrestis was bigger than E. andrei in size and weight, the cast amount of A. agrestis was small. The two species of earthworm was less excretion with high concentration of heavy metals. While the heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and cadmium were considerably accumulated in the cast, the total compounds, PAHs were fairly decomposed. There results would provide us for restoring contaminated soil and cleaning organic wastes.
Treatment Effect of Green Manure Crops on Content of γ-Oryzanols from Korean Rice Variety, Unkwangbyeo
Kim, Heon-Woong ; Shin, Jae-Hyeong ; Lee, Min-Ki ; Lee, Sung-Hyeon ; Jang, Hwan-Hee ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kim, Jung-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 98~104
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.20
-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. The
-Oryzanol content and composition were found to vary with enviromental factors such as growth temperature, varietal origin, and cultivation method. Therefore, the effect of green manure treatments will be also be an important factor in their content. METHODS AND RESULTS: The
-Oryzanols extracted using dichloromethane/methanol were analyzed equipped liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. A total of ten components of
-stigmastenyl ferulate were isolated of which, cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and sitosteryl ferulate were identified as the major components in Korean rice variety, Unkwang. The
-oryzanol content in rice, in the presence of nitrogen fertilization using green manure was similar to conventional nitrogen fertilization, but was higher than the control(no fertilizations). The
-oryzanol ontent in rice, in the presence of hairy vetch as green manure crop was the highest compared to other crops (opium-poppy, crimson clover, cornflower). As a result of PLS-DA using SIMCA 11.0 ver. as multivariate analysis program on the basis of total data, in all samples, the specific pattern and cluster of
-oryzanol scores according to green manure crops and conditions were confirmed with possible distinguishing nitrogen effects. CONCLUSION: The nitrogen contained in the green manure crops is considered to play a major role in the formation of
-oryzanol. Hairy vetch which contains higher nitrogen increased the concentration of
-oryzanol in rice.
Effect of Thermal Treatments on Flavonoid Contents in Domestic Soybeans
Shin, Jae-Hyeong ; Kim, Heon-Woong ; Lee, Min-Ki ; Jang, Ga-Hee ; Lee, Sung-Hyen ; Jang, Hwan-Hee ; Hwang, Yu-Jin ; Park, Keum-Yong ; Song, Beom-Heon ; Kim, Jung-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 105~110
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.21
BACKGROUND: Soy isoflavones, structurally similar to endogenous estrogens, may affect human body through both hormonally mediated and non-hormonally related mechanisms. Heat processing could change chemical compositions. The effects of different thermal processes, boiling and HTHP(high temperature and high pressure) on the composition of isoflavone compounds and total amount of domestic soybeans were investigated in this study. METHOD AND RESULTS: Three different kinds of soybean samples were collected from RDA-Genebank. The samples were extracted using methanol, distilled water, and formic acid based solvent. Also the same solvents were used for mobile phase in UPLC/ToF/MS. All of the isoflavone compounds were analyzed based on the aglycone type of external standard for quantification. The standard calibration curve presented linearity with the correlation coefficient R2 > 0.98, analysed from 1 to 50 ppm concentration. The total isoflavone contents does not change by treatment within the same breed. While "boiling" and "HTHP" processes tend to increase the contents of aglycone and
-glucosides, "fresh" soybeans retained the high concentration of malonylglucosides. CONCLUSION: These results have to be considered while developing an effective functional food, from the health while point of view using soybeans.
Establishment of Analytical Method for Residues of Ethychlozate, a Plant Growth Regulator, in Brown Rice, Mandarin, Pepper, Potato, and Soybean Using HPLC/FLD
Kim, Jae-Young ; Lee, Jin Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Mok ; Chae, Young-Sik ; Rhee, Gyu-Seek ; Chang, Moon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 111~119
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.14
BACKGROUND: Ethychlozate (ECZ) is a plant growth regulator of synthetic auxin for agricultural commodities (ACs). Accurate and sensitive method to determine ECZ in diverse ACs on global official purpose is required to legal residue regulation. As the current official method is confined to the limited type of crops with poor validation, this study was conducted to improve and extend the ECZ method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in all the registered crops with method verification. METHODS AND RESULTS: ECZ and its acidic metabolite (ECZA) were both extracted from acidified samples with acetone and briefly purified by dichloromethane partition. ECZ was hydrolyzed to form ECZA and the combined ECZA was finally purified by ion-associated partition including hexane-washing. The instrumental quantitation was performed using HPLC/ FLD under ion-suppression of ECZA with no interference by sample co-extractives. The average recoveries of intra- and inter-day experiment ranged from 82.0 to 105.2% and 81.7 to 102.8%, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility for intra- and inter-day measurements expressed as a relative standard deviation was less than 8.7% and 7.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Established analytical method for ECZ residue in ACs was applicable to the nation-wide pesticide residues monitoring program with the acceptable level of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility.
Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit(PHRL) of the Fungicide Amisulbrom during Cultivation of Winter-Grown Cabbage
Ahn, Kyung-Geun ; Kim, Gyeong-Ha ; Kim, Gi-Ppeum ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Son, Young Wook ; Lee, Young Deuk ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 120~127
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.15
BACKGROUND: Supervised residue trials were conducted to establish pre-harvest residue limit(PHRL), a criterion to ensure the safety of the pesticide residue in the crop harvest, of amisulbrom for winter-grown cabbage in two fields. Following to application of amisulbrom on the crop, time-course study was carried out to obtain the amisulbrom dissipation of statistical significance which enabled to calculate the predicted values of PHRL. METHOD AND RESULTS: During cultivation under greenhouse condition, samples of winter-grown cabbage were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after amisulbrom application, and subjected to residue analysis. Analytical method was validated by recoveries ranging 93.7~100.0% as well as limit of quantitation(LOQ) of 0.04 mg/kg. Amisulbrom residues in winter-grown cabbage gradually decreased as time elapsed. The dissipation rate of the residue would be affected by intrinsic degradation along with dilution by the cabbage growth. The decay pattern was well fitted by the simple first-order kinetics. CONCLUSION: Biological half-lives of amisulbrom in winter-grown cabbage ranged 3.7~4.1 days in two field conditions. Based on the regression of amisulbrom dissipation, PHRLs of amisulbrom in winter-grown cabbage were recommended as 8.86~9.47 and 4.21~4.35 mg/kg for 10 and 5 days before harvest, respectively.
Residue Patterns of Active Ingredients Derived from Melia Azedarach, Nerium Ndicum, and Coptis Chinensis in Rice Using LC-MS/MS
Park, Joon-Seong ; Nam, Hyo-Song ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Do-ik ; Kim, Sun-Am ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 128~133
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.16
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts have been used as environment friendly agricultural materials for organic farming in South Korea. However safety evaluation on the plant extracts was not properly tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety of the extracts from Melia azedarach, Nerium indicum and Coptis chinensis on cultivating rice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pant extarcts 300-fold diluted were treated on rice, and residues of M. azedarach, N. indicum and C. chinensis were determined. The analytes from the rice samples were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated, and good linearities (
), specificity, and recoveries were obtained. Limits of detection were 0.01 mg/kg for all of the target compounds. Recoveries were 79.3-118.3% at 0.1 mg/kg and 75.2-111.5% at 0.5 mg/kg. The residue levels were below 0.030 mg/kg for azadirachtin, 0.320 mg/kg for oleandrin and 1.460 mg/kg for berberine. CONCLUSION(S): The extracts of M. azedarach, N. indicum and C. chinensis contained azadirachtin, oleandrin and berberine as an active ingredient, respectively. The residue of three active ingredients dramatically decreased after treatment in all fruits, stems and roots of rice.
Development of Mobile Vortex Wet Scrubber and Evaluation of Gas Removal Efficiency
Kwak, Ji Hyun ; Hwang, Seung-Ryul ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Song, Ki Bong ; Kim, Kyun ; Kang, Jae Eun ; Lee, Sang Jae ; Jeon, Junho ; Lee, Jin Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 134~138
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.18
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several researchers have focused on odour control methods to remove the harmful chemicals from chemical accidents and incidents. The present work deals with the system development of the hazardous. METHODS AND RESULTS: For on-site removal of hazardous gaseous materials from chemical accidents, mobile vortex wet scrubber was designed with water vortex process to absorb the gas into the water. The efficiency of the mobile vortex wet scrubber was evaluated using water spray and 25% ammonia solution. The inlet air velocity (gas flow rate) was according to the damper angle installed within the hood and with increase of gas flow rate, consequently the absorption efficiency was markedly decreased. In particular, when 25% ammonia solution was exposed to the hood inlet for 30 min, the water pH within the scrubber was changed from 7 to 12. Interestingly, although the removal efficiency of ammonia gas exhibited approximately 80% for 5 min, its efficiency in 10 min showed the greatest decrease with 18%. Therefore, our results suggest that the ammonia gas may be absorbed with the driving force of scrubbing water in water vortex process of this scrubber. CONCLUSION: When chemical accidents are occurred, the designed compact scrubber may be utilized as effective tool regarding removal of ammonia gas and other volatile organic compounds in the scene of an accident.
The Algicidal Activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its Algicide against Alexandrium catenella and other Harmful Algal Bloom Species
Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Jeoung, Nam Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 139~148
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.12
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify algicidal bacterium that tends to kill the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, and to determine the algicidal activity and algicidal range of algicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among of algicidal bacteria isolated in this study, NH-3 isolate was the strongest algicidal activity against A. catenella. NH-3 isolate was identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The NH-3 isolate showed over 99% homology with Arthrobacter oxydans, and was designated as Arthrobacter sp. NH-3. The optimal culture conditions were
, initial pH 7.0, and 2.0% (w/v) NaCl concentration. The algicidal activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 was significantly increased to maximum value in the late of logarithmic phase. Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 showed algicidal activity through indirect attack, which excreted active substance into the culture filtrate. When 10% culture filtrate of NH-3 was applied to A. catenella, 100% of algal cells were destroyed within 30 h. In addition, the algicidal activities were increased in dose and time dependent manners. The pure algicide was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of NH-3 by using silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We investigated the algicidal activity of this algicide on the growth of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including A. catenella. As a result, it showed algicidal activity against several HAB species at a concentration of
and had a relatively wide host range. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its algicide could be a candidate for controlling of toxic and harmful algal blooms.
Phylogeny of the Yeast Species Isolated from Wild Tiger Lily (Lilium lancifolium Thunb.)
Kim, Jong-Shik ; Kim, Dae-Shin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 149~154
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.2.13
BACKGROUND: Yeast isolates associated with the leaves, stems, and flowers of the tiger lily needed to be identified using isolation methods that have previously been used effectively in yeast biotechnology. A culture-based approach was necessary for the isolation of many yeast strains associated with tiger lily. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the homogenized leaves, stems, and flowers of tiger lily were spreaded onto GPY medium containing chloramphenicol, streptomycin, Triton X-100, and L-sorbose. A total of 82 yeast strains from the leaves, 94 and 97 yeast strains from the stems and flowers were isolated, respectively. Yeast isolates were identified by phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The yeast species isolated from the leaves comprised of 31 isolates of the genus Pseudozyma, 28 of Aureobasidium pullulans, and 11 of the genus Cryptococcus. Those isolated from the stems comprised of 40 of A. pullulans and 11 of Cryptococcus, and 95 of A. pullulans While, 1 isolate each of the genera Rhodotorula and Metschnikowia were isolated from the flowers. CONCLUSION: We identified site-specific yeast communities associated with tiger lily. These yeast isolates may have high potential for application in the field of biotechnology.