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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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The applicability of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer
Kim, Min-Suk ; Min, Hyungi ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.06
BACKGROUND: Burcucumber(Sicyos angulatus L.) is an invasive plant species and disturbs ecosystems in Korea. The main method for prevention of burcucumber is cutting or pulling out. However, the studies accounting for the use of the by-product of burcucumber after cutting remain incomplete. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of burcucumber as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.METHODS AND RESULTS: Burcucmber plants only including stem, leaves, and petiole were collected from the Sky Park in Seoul and divided in to three categories based on the length of stem of burcucumber; 10-30 cm, 30-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. And they were input into soil with 20 kg-N/10 a. After 4 weeks aging, chemical properties of treated soils and the productivity of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) were examined. Both the inorganic nitrogen contents in soils and the growth of lettuce were increased with the decreases in length of burcucumber standing for young plant. And the inorganic nitrogen content and the productivity of lettuce were positively correlated(r= 0.9409).CONCLUSION: The C/N ratio of burcucumber was low, indicating fast decomposition and nitrogen supplying rate, resulting in the increase in lettuce growth. Burcucumber could be a good substitute for nitrogen organic fertilizer.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Residues in Greenhouse Soil and Strawberry Organochlorine Pesticides
Lim, Sung-Jin ; Oh, Young-Tak ; Jo, You-Sung ; Ro, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Geun-Hyoung ; Yang, Ji-Yeon ; Park, Byung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 6~14
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.05
BACKGROUND: Residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effect to human health and the environment. They were designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Stockholm Convention. Greenhouse strawberry is economic crop in agriculture, and its cultivation area and yield has been increased. Therefore, we tried to investigate the POPs residue in greenhouse soil and strawberry.METHODS AND RESULTS: Extraction and clean-up method for the quantitative analysis of OCPs was developed and validated by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD). The clean-up method was established using the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe(QuEChERS) method for OCPs in soil and strawberry. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and recovery rates of OCPs in greenhouse soil and strawberry were 0.9-6.0 and 0.6-0.9 μg/kg, 74.4-115.6 and 75.6-88.4%, respectively. The precision was reliable sincerelative standard deviation (RSD) percentage (0.5-3.7 and 2.9-5.2%) was below 20, which was the normal percent value. The residue of OCPs in greenhouse soil was analyzed by the developed method, and dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate were detected at 1.6-23, 2.2-28.4 and 1.8-118.6 μg/kg, respectively. Those in strawberry were not detected in all samples.CONCLUSION: Dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in a part of investigated greenhouse soil were detected. But those were not detected in investigated greenhouse strawberry. These results showed that the residue in greenhouse soil were lower level than bioaccumulation occurring.
Contamination Sources of Several Potentially Hazardous Compounds Found at the Gap Stream and the Miho Stream, Two Major Tributaries of the Geum River
Lee, Jun-Bae ; Lee, Jay-Jung ; Cho, Yoon-Hae ; Yoon, Jo-Hee ; Hong, Seoun-Hwa ; Lee, Dae-Hee ; Lee, Dae-Hee ; Cho, Young-Hwan ; Shin, Ho-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 15~23
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.02
BACKGROUND: Water quality is of concern to water utility operators, public health officials, and populations using the water. If any contaminant is released from a point of entry, it could be spread rapidly throughout the water stream. So the identification of the location of the points of entry and its release history are critical informations to establish the management strategy.METHODS AND RESULTS: Aniline, nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and formaldehyde in 39 surface water samples were analysed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Formaldehyde, aniline and nonylphenol were mainly detected in the near sites where industrial waste water and domestic sewage were discharged into stream. But pentachlorophenol was detected in the downstream samples where pulp manufacturing plants were operated.CONCLUSION: Results indicate that pentachlorophenol found in main stream of Guem river was mainly introduced from pulp manufacture industries. Otherwise, formaldehyde, aniline and nonylphenol were mainly contaminated from the industrial waste water and domestic sewage.
Competitive Adsorption Characteristics of Rapid Cooling Slag in Single- and Multi-Metal Solutions
Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Hong-Chul ; Kim, Seong-Heon ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Kang, Byung-Hwa ; Kang, Se-Won ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 24~31
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.10
BACKGROUND: Heavy metal adsorption not only depends on rapid cooling slag(RCS) characteristics but also on the nature of the metals involved and on their competitive behavior for RCS adsorption sites. The goal of this study was to investigate the competitive absorption characteristics of Cu, Cd and Zn in single- and multi-metal forms by RCS.METHODS AND RESULTS: Both single- and multi-metal adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption characteristics of RCS for the heavy metals. Adsorption behaviors of the heavy metals by RCS were evaluated using both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by RCS were in the order of Cu(16.6 mg/g) > Cd(8.1 mg/g) > Zn(6.2 mg/g) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu(14.5 mg/g) >> Zn(1.3 mg/g) > Cd(0.6 mg/g) in the multi-metal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models and three-dimensional simulation, multi-metal adsorption behaviors differed from single- metal adsorption due to competition. Cadmium and Zn were easily exchanged and substituted by Cu during multi-metal adsorption.CONCLUSION: Results from adsorption experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals.
Responses of Soil Chemical Properties and Microbiota to Elevated Temperature under Flooded Conditions
Eo, Jinu ; Hong, Seung-Chang ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 32~38
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.03
BACKGROUND: Our study aims to investigate the impact of temperature on the abundance and structure of soil microbial community in a temperature gradient tunnel.METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the interaction between temperature and input of C and N, rice straw and urea were applied to the study plots, respectively. We also studied the impact of plants by comparing plots cultivated with rice and unplanted plots. Soil microbial response was measured using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil chemical properties, including pH and ammonia and phosphate concentrations were influenced by warming and material addition. Microbial PLFA was partially influenced by material inputs, and actinomycetes PLFA was decreased by warming. In cultivated rice plots, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen ratio illustrated the effect of plant on microbiota caused by carbon addition through the root residues. Results from the principal component analysis of PLFA data showed that warmed and control plots applied with rice straw could be separated by principal component analysis.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that plant influence both the microbial community structure and abundance, and temperature change has a minimal impact on soil microorganisms in flooded soil.
Effect of Continuous use of Inorganic Fertilizer on the Soil Organisms and Food Chain
Eo, Jinu ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Bang, Hea-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.04
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of three components (NPK) of chemical fertilizers with basal application of compost on soil organisms.METHODS AND RESULTS: The soil was treated with five treatments continuously for 15 years: control, PK, NK, NP and NPK. The application of N increased plant growth or biomass, and enhanced organic matter content in the soils. Levels of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the soils did not show marked differences among the soils treated with different treatments. However, the principal component analysis showed the changes in the structure of the microbial community in the soil, depending on treatments added. Nitrogen application caused a decrease of pH and an increase of EC in the soils, and these environmental stresses appeared to offset the promoting effect of increased organic matter content on microbial abundance. The abundance of bacterivorous nematodes was the highest in the soils after treating NPK; however, the abundance of fungivorous nematodes was unaffected. There was no significant correlation between the abundances of microbial groups and their feeders. Organic matter content was significantly correlated with the abundance of nematodes in the soils.CONCLUSION: Our results showed that chemical fertilizers affect the soil food chains through both biotic and abiotic factors, and a trophic cascade in the soils may not occur in response to long-term fertilization.
Colors and Sizes of Insect Screen Net Influence Physical Control of Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis under Controlled Environments
Jung, Chung-Ryul ; Yoon, Jung-Beom ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Lee, Guang-Jae ; Heo, Jeong-Wook ; Kim, Hyun-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 46~54
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.01
BACKGROUND: The tobacco whitefly(Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and western flower thrips(Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) seriously damaged to several greenhouse crops and transmitted plant viruses such as the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus(TYLCV) and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus(TSWV). Objective of this study was to elucidate exclusion effects of insect screen nets by various hole sizes and colors for control of the two insect pests in controlled environments such as a closed plant production system.METHODS AND RESULTS: The exclusion effects to various hole sizes of three other colors with 30 individuals of two insect pests was evaluated. B. tabaci was not showed not difference to different colors and sizes. F. occidentalis showed that 0.2 mm black screen was the most effective exclusion than other colors of 0.6 and 0.8 mm.CONCLUSION: The two insects were different reponses to various hole sizes of white and other color screen nets. It was proved that the 0.4 mm white screen net used in this experimental condition was suitable for exclusion of B. tabaci and 0.2 mm black forF. occidentalis.
Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Perennial Root Vegetables
Cho, Min-Ja ; Choi, Hoon ; Kim, Hye-Jeong ; Youn, Hye-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.07
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to survey the levels of heavy metals in perennial root vegetables and to assess dietary exposure and risk to the Korean population health.METHODS AND RESULTS: Perennial root vegetables (n=214) including Panax ginseng C.A mayer, Woodcultivated ginseng, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Platycodon granditloum were collected from markets or harvested from farmhouse in Korea. Lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd) and arsenic (As) analysis were performed with microwave device and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Limit of detection for heavy metals were 0.010~0.050 μg/kg, while limit of quantitation were 0.035~0.175 μg/kg. The recovery results were in the range of 76~102%. The average contents of heavy metals in perennial root vegetables were in the range of Pb 0.013(Panax ginseng C.A Mayer)~0.070 (Wood-cultivated ginseng) mg/kg, Cd 0.009(Panax ginseng C.A Mayer)~0.034(Codonopsis lanceolata) mg/kg, and As 0.002(Panax ginseng C.A Mayer)~0.004(Plafycodon grandiflorum) mg/kg, respectively. For risk assessment, daily intakes of heave metals were estimated and risk indices were calculated in comparison with reference dose. The dietary exposures of heavy metals through usual intake were Pb 0.070 μg/day, Cd 0.041 μg/day and As 0.008 μg/day, taking 0.03%, 0.08% and 0.0003% as risk indices, respectively.CONCLUSION: The risk level for Korean population exposed to heavy metals through intake of perennial root vegetables was far low, indicating of little possibility of concern.
Comparison of Isoflavone Contents and Antioxidant Effect in Cheonggukjang with Black Soybean Cultivars by Bacillus subtilis CSY191
Azizul Haque, Md. ; Hwang, Chung Eun ; Lee, Hee Yul ; Ahn, Min Ju ; Sin, Eui-Cheol ; Nam, Sang Hae ; Joo, Ok Soo ; Kim, Hyun Joon ; Lee, Shin-Woo ; Kim, Yun-Geun ; Ko, Keon Hee ; Goo, Young-Min ; Cho, Kye Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 62~71
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.11
BACKGROUND: Soybeans are the rich sources of isoflavones. To date, the changes of isoflavone contents in various black soybeans cheonggukjang during fermentation by Bacillus subtilis CSY191 has not been investigated.METHODS AND RESULTS: This study investigated the changes of total phenolic and isoflavone contents and antioxidant effects during cheonggukjang fermentation made with four black soybean (BS) cultivars including Cheongja, Cheongja#3, Geomjeong#5, and Ilpumgeomjeong with a potential probiotic Bacillus subtilis CSY191. The total phenolic contents, isoflavone-malonylglycoside and -aglycone contents, and antioxidant activity were increased in cheonggukjang at 48 h fermentation, while the content of isoflavone-glycosides was decreased during cheonggukjang fermentation. In particular, the Cheongja#3 soybean fermented at 37℃ for 48 h displayed the highest antioxidant activities, compared to those of the other BS cultivars tested. Also, the highest levels of total phenolic, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were present at concentrations of 17.28 mg/g, 283.7 g/g, 39.9 g/g, and 13.2 g/g at the end of Cheongja#3 soybean fermentation.CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggested that the enhanced antioxidant activity of cheonggukjang of BS might be related to increased levels of total phenolic, isoflavon-aglycone, and malonyl-glycoside contents achieved during fermentation. Furthermore, fermented Cheongja#3 soybean showed the highest levels of enhanced antioxidant activities than the other BS cultivars.
Culture Method of Spore for Entomopathogenic Fungus Using Natural Zeolite Ceramic Ball
Lee, Jung-Bok ; Kim, Beaum-Soo ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 72~78
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.08
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi have been studied to develop for biological control agents as an alternative to chemical control agents in insect pest management. This investigated to determine the optimal culture conditions in ceramic balls for maximal sporulation of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana M130 by use rice bran extract.METHODS AND RESULTS: METHODS AND RESULTS: A culture of entomopathogenic fungi for 12day on rice bran extract(1:8, w/v) incubated in ceramic matrix at 28℃. Natural zeolite ceramic ball was high production of 4.2×108 conidial/mL. The culture condition optimized initial pH, temperature, rice bran extract concentration, adhesives substance and concentration of NaCl, respectively. The high production of spore optimal conditions were temperature 28℃, initial pH 3, rice bran extract 3 mL, starch 33 g, 5 % NaCl and sopre suspension 7 mL, respectively.CONCLUSION: This study was carried out for the mass production of entomopathogenic fungi conidia recover rate 65% in matrix of natural zeolite ceramic ball, and to develop ingredient-used formulation of Beauveria bassiana M130 conidia for biological control agents.
Toxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Heavy Metals on the Growth and P Removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp.
Kim, Deok Hyun ; Yoo, Jin ; Chung, Keun Yook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 1, 2016, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.09
BACKGROUND: This study was initiated to quantitatively evaluate the effects of five heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp., known as the Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs). It was cultivated in the batch system with five heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, added in single and binary mixtures, respectively.METHODS AND RESULTS: IC
(half of inhibition concentration of bacterial growth) and EC
(half of effective concentration of phosphorus removal Efficiencies) were used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. In addition, Additive Index Value (A.I.V.) method was used to evaluate the interactive effects between Alcaligenes sp. and heavy metals. As a result, as the five heavy metals were singly added to Alcaligenes sp., the greatest inhibitory effects on the growth and P removal efficiencies of each bacteria was observed in the cadmium (Cd). In the binary mixture treatments of heavy metals, the treatments of lowest IC
were the Cd + Cu treatment. Based on the IC
of the binary mixtures of heavy metals treatments, most interactive effects between the heavy metals were found to be antagonistic.CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that they could provide the basic information about the toxic effects of the respective treatments of single and binary mixtures of heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. through further study about the characterization of functional proteins involved in toxic effects of heavy metals.