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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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A Research of Soil Environmental Health in Urban Garden, Gwangju
Jang, Gil-Sik ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Choi, Young-Seop ; Kim, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Min ; Bae, Seok-Jin ; Cho, Young-Gwan ; Koo, Tae-Hyoung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 87~96
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.14
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the soil quality to cultivate crops in urban garden.METHODS AND RESULTS: During the period of six month from March to August 2015, measured eight heavy metals, seven Organic items and Fluorine on seventeen urban sites and thirty-one suburban sites in Gwangju city.METHODS AND RESULTS: The average concentration and range of heavy metal in soil are 0.15 mg/kg(ND-0.6) for Cd, 14.9 mg/kg(1.5-33.3) for Cu, 4.4 mg/kg(0.4-71.8) for As, 0.05 mg/kg(ND-1.366) for Hg, 24.7 mg/kg(13.1-62.7) for Pb, 102.5 mg/kg(49.1-276.4) for Zn and 9.2 mg/kg(ND-90.1) for Ni but Cr
is not detected. The average value and range of soil fertility items are 253.5mg/kg(76.6-1766.0) for fluorine, 6.4(4.8-7.7) for pH, 20.3 g/kg(5.0-44.0) for orangic matters, 562.7 mg/kg (28.0-1672.0) for available phosphate, 0.6 cmol
/kg (0.1-2.3) for K, 9.7 cmol
/kg (2.7-22.0) for Ca, 3.0 cmol
/kg (0.9-7.4) for Mg, 1.0 ds/m(0.2-2.9) for conductivity. The concentration of Hg in Suburban area is 0.005 mg/kg lower than 0.134 mg/kg in urban area. Also, the concentration of As, Cd, Ni and Zn is lower than urban area as 32%, 37%, 51%, 71% respectively.CONCLUSION: According to SPI index of soil contamination, 39 sites are first degree and 8 sites are second degree and 1 site(41th) is fourth degree. Pb and Cd are not detected and As is detected tiny amounts in plants grown polluted soil, so heavy metals have not moved to plants.
Effect of Phyllite Application on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Growth and Inorganic Nutrient Uptake of Crops
Kim, Hyun-Tae ; Kang, Se-Won ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Moon, Sung-Dong ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 97~103
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.20
BACKGROUND: Clay mineral is well known to improve physico-chemical of soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics and inorganic nutrient contents of crops with application levels of phyllite.METHODS AND RESULTS: Both young radish and lettuce were selected as target crops for this study. The experiment was conducted in a wagner pot(1/5000a) in glass house at Sunchon National University. Treatment conditions were divided P0NPK(No phyllite + NPK), P5NPK(phyllite 5 Mg/ha + NPK), P10NPK(phyllite 10 Mg/ha + NPK) and P15NPK(phyllite 15 Mg/ha + NPK) by crops, respectively. Bulk density and porosity of soil in control without treatment conditions were ranged from 1.02 ∼1.04 g/cm
and 56.5∼57.0%, respectively, and those for treatments with phyllite were in the ranged from 0.94∼1.00 g/cm
and 58.4∼63.5%, respectively. Dry weights of young radish and lettuce were higher in P15NPK treatment than those in other treatments. The amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake in young radish with phyllite application treatments were increased 36∼115, 18∼67 and 20∼76% than without phyllite application treatment, respectively. In lettuce treatments, amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake were intended to all tested treatments similar with result of young radish treatment.CONCLUSION: Therefore, these results confirm that phyllite application to the soil improves physico-chemical of soil in addition to improving growth of young radish and lettuce.
Free Amino Acid Composition of Korean Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cultivars as Influenced by Different Harvesting Time
Yoon, Young-Eun ; Kuppusamy, Saranya ; Kim, Song Yeob ; Kim, Jang Hwan ; Lee, Yong Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 104~110
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.21
BACKGROUND: There is lack of comprehensive compositional data of the amino acid profile of spinach with regard to different cultivars. A more detailed knowledge in this aspect will be of benefit in the future selection of spinach genotypes with improved nutritional quality.METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of cultivar type (Jeoncheonhu, Sagyejul, Namdongcho and Mustang) and harvest time (79
days after sowing or DAS) on the concentrations of free amino acids in field-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were examined. About 35 different free amino acids were detected and quantified by the amino acid analyzer. Glutamic acid and proline were identified as the major amino acids, while α -aminoadipic acid and α-aminobutyric acid were present in much lower concentrations. Spinach constituted 1468.4 mg/100 g total free amino acids (TAA), of which essential amino acids, neutral/acidic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids constituted around 15, 45 and 2% of the TAA, respectively. The most limiting amino acids among the leafy vegetables - cysteine was recorded only in Mustang harvested at 116 DAS. Free amino acid contents did not differ significantly among the spinach cultivars and also at different harvest times.CONCLUSION: The data show that, either of the spinach cultivars, preferably Mustang harvested on or after 116 DAS can serve as a significant source of nutritionally relevant amino acids to meet the demand of the growing populations.
Phytoremediation Potential of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), Mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in Arsenic-contaminated Soil
Uddin Nizam, M. ; Wahid-U-Zzaman, M. ; Mokhlesur Rahman, M. ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.15
BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater used for long-term irrigation has emerged as a serious problem by adding As to soils. Phytoremediation potential of fiber crops viz., kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) was studied to clean up As-contaminated soil.METHODS AND RESULTS: Varieties of three fiber crops were selected in this study. Seeds of kenaf, mesta, and jute varieties were germinated in As-contaminated soil. Uptake of As by shoot was significantly higher than that by root in the contaminated soil. In As-contaminated soil, kenaf and mesta varieties accumulated more As, than did jute varieties. In the plant parts above ground, mainly the shoots, the highest As absorption was recorded in kenaf cv. HC-3, followed by kenaf cv. HC-95. Kenaf varieties produced more biomass. In terms of higher plant biomass production, and As absorption, kenaf varieties showed considerable potential to remediate As-contaminated soil.CONCLUSION: The overall As absorption and phytoremediation potentiality of plant varieties were in the order of kenaf cv. HC-3 > kenaf cv. HC-95 > mesta cv. Samu-93 > jute cv. CVE-3 > jute cv. BJC-7370. All varieties of kenaf, mesta, and jute could be considered for an appropriate green plant-based remediation technology in As-contaminated soil.
Effects of Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on Biochemical Methane Potential in Thermal Hydrolysate of Poultry Slaughterhouse Sludge
Oh, Seung-Yong ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 121~127
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.12
BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestion is the most feasible technology because not only the energy embedded in organic matters can be recovered, but also they are stabilized while being degraded. This study carried out to improve methane yield of slaughterhouse wastewater treatment sludge cake by the thermal pre-treatment prior to anaerobic digestion.METHODS AND RESULTS: Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment sludge cake was pre-treated by the closed hydrothermal reactor at reaction temperature of 190℃. BMPs (Biochemical methane potential) of the thermal hydrolysate was tested in the different S(Substrate)/I(Inoculum) ratio conditions. COD(Chemical oxygen demand) and SCOD(Soluble chemical oxygen demand) contents of thermal hydrolysate were 10.99% and 10.55%, respectively, then, the 96.00% of COD was remained as a soluble form. The theoretical methane potential of thermal hydrolysate was 0.51 Nm
. And BMPs were decreased from 0.56 to 0.22 Nm
when S/I ratio were increased from 0.1 to 2.0 in the VS content basis. Those were decreased from 0.32 to 0.13 Nm
when S/I ratio were increased from 0.1 to 2.0 based on COD content. The anaerobic degradability of VS basis have showed 196.9%, 102.2%, 80.7%, 67.4%, and 39.4% in S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, respectively. Also the COD of 119.6%, 76.3%, 70.1%, 69.0%, and 43.1% were degraded anaerobically in S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, respectively.CONCLUSION: BMPs obtained in the S/I ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 was overestimated by the residual organic matters remaining at the inoculum. And inhibitory effect was observed in the highest S/I ratio of 2.0. The optimum S/I ratios giving reasonable BMPs might be in the range of 0.5 and 1.0 in S/I ratio. Therefore VS biodegradability of thermal hydrolysate was in 67.4-80.7% and COD biodegradability showed 69.0-70.1%.
Assessment of Methane Potential in Hydro-thermal Carbonization reaction of Organic Sludge Using Parallel First Order Kinetics
Oh, Seung-Yong ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 128~136
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.13
BACKGROUND: Hydrothermal carbonization reaction is the thermo-chemical energy conversion technology for producing the solid fuel of high carbon density from organic wastes. The hydrothermal carbonization reaction is accompanied by the thermal hydrolysis reaction which converse particulate organic matters to soluble forms (hydro-thermal hydrolysate). Recently, hydrothermal carbonization is adopted as a pre-treatment technology to improve anaerobic digestion efficiency. This research was carried out to assess the effects of hydro-thermal reaction temperature on the methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability in the thermal hydrolysate of organic sludge generating from the wastewater treatment plant of poultry slaughterhouse .METHODS AND RESULTS: Wastewater treatment sludge cake of poultry slaughterhouse was treated in the different hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 170, 180, 190, 200, and 220℃. Theoretical and experimental methane potential for each hydro-thermal hydrolysate were measured. Then, the organic substance fractions of hydro-thermal hydrolysate were characterized by the optimization of the parallel first order kinetics model. The increase of hydro-thermal reaction temperature from 170℃ to 220℃ caused the enhancement of hydrolysis efficiency. And the methane potential showed the maximum value of 0.381 Nm
in the hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 190℃. Biodegradable volatile solid(VSB) content have accounted for 66.41% in 170℃, 72.70% in 180℃, 79.78% in 190℃, 67.05% in 200℃, and 70.31% in 220℃, respectively. The persistent VS content increased with hydro-thermal reaction temperature, which occupied 0.18% for 170℃, 2.96% for 180℃, 6.32% for 190℃, 17.52% for 200℃, and 20.55% for 220℃.CONCLUSION: Biodegradable volatile solid showed the highest amount in the hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 190℃, and then, the optimum hydro-thermal reaction temperature for organic sludge was assessed as 190℃ in the aspect of the methane production. The rise of hydro-thermal reaction temperature caused increase of persistent organic matter content.
Yeasts Associated with Roots of the Endemic Plant Mankyua chejuense
Kim, Jong-Shik ; Kim, Dae-Shin ; Jeon, Sang-Mi ; Ko, Suk-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 137~142
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.18
BACKGROUND: Identification of endophytic yeasts inhabiting the internal roots of the Mankyua chejuense tree requires techniques involving biotechnology. There is a need for a culture-based method to isolate and identify yeast strains associated with M. chejuense.METHODS AND RESULTS: We spread homogenized M. chejuense root samples onto glucose-peptone- yeast agar containing antibiotics, Triton X-100, and L-sorbose. A total of 152 yeast isolates were obtained and identified via phylogenetic analysis based on ITS gene sequencing. The results revealed that the root-associated yeast species included the genera Cyberlindnera (140 isolates), Candida (11 isolates), and Kluyveromyces (one isolate). Additionally, three yeast isolates showed high bioethanol production.CONCLUSION: We identified the specific yeast community associated with M. chejuense roots. These yeast isolates may have industrial applications as bioethanol producers. Our findings revealed that Cyberlindnera isolates included C. suaverolens and C. satumus, while Kluyveromyces isolates showed high bioethanol production.
Status of Birds using Rice Fields in Mid-western Part of Korean Peninsula
Nam, Hyung-Kyu ; Kim, Miran ; Choi, Green ; Jang, Dooly ; Choi, Seung-Hye ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Choe, Lak-Jung ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Na, Young-Eun ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 143~147
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.16
BACKGROUND: Rice fields are one of the most important habitats for various bird species. The list of bird species occurred in rice fields in Korean peninsula have been documented. However, information of listed bird species is included not only rice fields but also other wetland habitats such as lakes, tidal flats and rivers. Therefore, the study was conducted to clarify the status of bird observed in rice fields of Korea.METHODS AND RESULTS: Birds using rice fields defined as birds which forage or rest on rice paddies, levees, ditches and farming roads. Birds using rice fields recorded as total 124 species belonging to 40 families. Anatidae and Scolopacidae were the best represented family, followed by Ardeidae, Accipitridae, Motacillidae and Emberizidae; 50% of species belonged to these six families. 18 of 124 endangered wild species, which designated threatened at the national scale, found in this study regions.CONCLUSION: Despite interest in birds using rice fields of Korean peninsula, knowledge of birds and rice fields there is extremely limited. We need more studies to understand and conserve for birds in rice fields of Korea.
Monitoring of Water Quality in Agricultural Reservoirs According to Trapa japonica Death Effect
Choi, Eunhee ; Yoo, Suna ; Kim, Hyungjoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 148~151
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.17
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on the impacts of hydrophytes on water quality, so there is a need to research the effects of death of hydrophytes on the worsening of water quality. This study aimed to monitor the effects of Trapa japonica death on reservoir water quality.METHODS AND RESULTS: T.japonica shows the life cycle that highest growth in summer and rapid death in fall decomposing their body in general. T.japonica contains comparatively large portion of nutrients and minerals. Through the field survey using Mesocosm to identify the effects of excessive population of T.japonica on water quality, the water quality of plots planted T.japonica is gradually worse compared with the control plot. And the result of Wilcoxon-test also shows that the negative effect of T.japonica on water quality with significant (p<0.05).CONCLUSION: It is necessary to control the population growth of T.japonica in order to prevention of water pollution in fall.
The Effect of Bottom ash in Reducing Cadmium Phytoavailability in Cadmium-contaminated Soil
Kim, Sung Un ; Kim, Yong Gyun ; Lee, Sang Mong ; Park, Hyean Cheal ; Kim, Keun Ki ; Son, Hong Joo ; Yun, Sung Wook ; Kim, Sang Yoon ; Hong, Chang Oh ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 35, issue 2, 2016, Pages 152~157
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.19
BACKGROUND: Since bottom ash (BA) contains considerable amounts of CaO and MgO, it could be a useful amendment to increase soil pH and to immobilize cadmium (Cd). This study was conducted to evaluate effect of BA application in reducing Cd phytoavailability.METHODS AND RESULTS: Bottom ash was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg/ha to Cd contaminated soil, and then lettuce was cultivated under field condition. soil pH and net negative charge increased slightly with increasing BA application; however, there was no statistical difference among the rates. Water soluble, exchangeable+acidic, reducible, and oxidizable fraction of Cd decreased with increasing bottom ash application rate, whereas residual fraction of Cd increased with increasing bottom ash application rate. Lettuce yield increased with rate of bottom ash up to 40 kg/ha. Visual evidences of cadmium toxicity and growth inhibition were not found during lettuce cultivation.CONCLUSION: Bottom ash was effective to reduce phytoextractability of Cd and to increase lettuce yield. Conclusively, BA could be a good soil amendment to reduce Cd phytoavailability in contaminated arable soil.