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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 1986
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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Effects of Paper Sludge Application on the Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil and Growth of Paddy Rice II. Effects of Paper Sludge Application on the Seasonal Variations of Humus in Paddy Soil
Heo, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 1~10
To investigate the effects of paper sludge on the seasonal variations of soil humus, paper sludges were applied to the pots at the rates of 600㎏/10a which was either preadjusted C/N ratio to 30 : 1 or not adjusted. The effects were compared with those of control. 1) The contents of ether soluble materials, resins, water soluble polysaccharides, hemicellulose, cellulose, ligno-protein, humic acid and fulvic acid were higher in the sludge treated soil than in the control, furthermore, the content of ligno-protein had positive correlation with that of organic nitrogen in soil. 2) Optical density of UV and visible spectra of humic acid obtained from all the treated soil was decreased with increasing wavelength. In functional groups of humic acid, phenolic-OH/alcoholic-OH ratio was slightly higher in the sludge treated soil than in the control. The types of humic acid in all treated soil were P and Rp types. 3) The infrared spectra of humic acid extracted from the soil were characterized by main absorption bands in the regions of
(aliphatic C-H stretching),
(aromatic C=C and/or H-bonded C=O) and
(Si-O of silicate impurity).
Heavy Metals in Paddy Rice and Soils in Mangyeong River Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Ryang, Hwan-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 11~23
Soils and rice plants in wastewater irrigated area of the Mangyeong River receiving waster from the Jeonju Industrial Complex and municipal sewage were sampled at two depths to assess the nature and content of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, particularly with respect to distance from wastewater source. For metal levels of soils in these area, no difference in the heavy metal contents between the surface and the subsurface soils was found. Total contents of Cu, Pb and Zn in soils were negatively correlated with distance from the source. A positive correlation was found between contents of total and 0.1N-HCl extractable or
extractable heavy metals in surface soils of these area. Total contents of heavy metals in soils were positively correlated with clay, soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Heavy metal contents of brown rice sampled at the Jeon-ju Industrial Complex area ranged from 0.15 to 0.91 ppm for Cd, from 1.13 to 5.68 ppm for Cu, from 0.22 to 7.16 ppm for Pb and from 11.74 to 38.66 ppm for Zn. Negative correlation was found between the contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the brown rice and the distance from the source. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn in rice straw were positively correlated with those in the brown rice.
Investigation of Heavy Metal (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) Contents in the Effluents, Soils and Plants at Keumho Riverside
Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 24~29
This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal contents in effluents, soils and plants grown on the soils from 1982 to 1983. The heavy metal pollution of Keumho river was resulted from Sincheon, Kongdancheon and Dalseocheon. The urban sewage influxes in Sincheon and Dalseocheon whereas the industrial wastewater flows in Kongdancheon. The average heavy metal contents of effluents in these streams exceeded the Korean Standard Environmental value. The high level of heavy metal contents in soils and plant tissues should be originated from the polluted river water. The heavy metal contents of soils were significantly positively correlated with that of plant.
Heavy Metal (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) Distribution and its Form of the Sludges on Keumho River and Her Branches
Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 30~34
This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal contents in sluges of Keumho river and her branches. The heavy metal contents of sludge are the highest in Sincheon, Kongdancheon and Dalseocheon among the branches. The large part of heavy metal exists in
from sludge surface. The sequential extraction with various reagents showed that the residual and organically bound fraction were the most abundant pool. Decomposition of organic matter caused sludge to release heavy metals. On the extraction of sludge with various solution having different pH, it was found that the lower the pH, the more heavy metal was extracted. However, considerable amount of heavy metal was not extracted even with pH 3 solution.
Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristic of Rice Plant I. Distribution of Arsenic Fractions in Paddy Soils and their Relations to Arsenic Content in Brown Rice
Lee, Min-Hyo ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 35~42
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of arsenic (As) fractions in paddy soils in relation to some soil characteristics and to find out the relationship between As fractions in soil and As content in brown rice. Soils and rice samples were collected from paddy field adjacent to arsenic mining and refinery sites. Sequential extraction procedures were used to fractionate As in soils into the designated forms of water soluble-As, Al-As, Fe-As, Ca-As, and residual-As. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The percent distribution of As fractions in soil showed a wide difference depending on some soil properties. The relative abundance of the extractable inorganic As fractions was in the order of Fe-As>Al-As>Ca-As>Water soluble-As regardless of mining and refinery sites. Residual-As fraction was more abundant in mining site than in refinery site. 2. With increasing soil pH, the percent distribution of Fe-As and Al-As fractions were decreased, but that of Ca-As and Residual-As fractions increased. The percent distribution of Al-As fraction in soil was negatively correlated with soil CEC, but others showed positive relationships. 3. Active Al and Fe content, and exchangeable Ca content in soil were positively correlated with the percent distribution of Al-As, Fe-As, and Ca-As fractions in soil respectively, and higher correlation between them was shown in mining site than in refinery site. 4. Soil As fractions, except for water soluble-As, showed significant correlation with among each others and also with 1N HCl extration method using as the common soil As extractant in Korea. 5. Arsenic content in brown rice had highly significant correlation with Al-As fraction in soil and it also showed significant correlation with Fe-As and Ca-As fractions, Total-As, and 1N-HCl extractable As.
A Survey on the Heavy Metal Concentrations of Crop Materials Grown near Onsan Industrial Complex
Lee, Su-Rae ; Song, Ki-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 43~47
In order to evaluate the pollution potential of agricultural crops after the construction of Onsan Industrial Complex (non-ferrous metal refineries), concentrations of hazardous heavy metals were analyzed for crop samples (rice, barley, soybean, vegetables and fruits) grown near the Complex in 1978. Although a slight difference was found among the kinds, parts and growing regions of the crops, no definite tendency was observed. The mean/maximum concentrations of crop samples were 0.23/4.0ppm As, 0.4/1.2 ppm Cd, 4.88/12.7ppm Cu, 0.09/0.4 ppm Hg, 3.86/5.0 ppm Pb and 41.3/105 ppm Zn, which may serve as the natural background data for this region.
The Uptake of
by Paddy Rice from Soil and its Distribution in the Plant
Lim, Soo-Kil ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Young-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 48~54
Because of the drastic development of nuclear industries, the contamination of natural environments by the disposal of radioactive materials which are released from nuclear facilities have aroused a considerable concern in relation to agricultural practices. Therefore the present investigation, through pot experiment, was performed to find out the aspect of the uptake of
by rice plants and its distribution in them in five different types(physicochemical and minerallogical properties) of paddy soils. The results obtained were as follows; 1) Visual toxic symptoms on the growth of rice plant due to treatment of
in a pot were not observed even though uptake of
by rice plant was proportionally increased with the
treatment. 2) Distribution of
in the rice plant was the highest in the leaves (84.5%) followed in the order by stems (13.5%) and rough grain (2.0%). The ratio of
to Ca was higher in the leaves (872) and stems (667) than in the rice grain (89). 3)
absorption in the rice plant ranged
at harvesting time. Uptake of
by rice plants decreased by the increase of soil pH and exchangeable canons in the soils, but
uptake increased when nitrogen, organic matter and clay content in soil was high, and uptake of this nuclide in the rice plant was higher with low Illite and Vermiculite content in the soils.
The Effects of Bark on Heavy Metal Adsorption I. The Effects of Pine and Oak Barks on Adsorption of
Kim, Kyung-Jig ; Paik, Ki-Hyon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 55~60
The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical factors of Pinus densiflora SIEB. et ZUCC. and Quercus mongolica Fisher barks affecting on the adsorption of heavy metals. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. With decreasing the particle size of bark, the adsorption rate of two heavy metal ions were increased. In case of using same particle size, the adsorption of
by Quercus bark showed higher than by Pinus bark. 2. The effect of untreated bark on the adsorption of heavy metal was more or less 5% higher than that of HCHO-treated bark in both species. But the color absorbances of the filtrates from HCHO-treated Pinus and Quercus barks were 5.8 and 11.8 times smaller than those of the filtrate from untreated Pinus and Quercus barks, respectively. 3. The maximum adsorption of
by bark was shown after 30 min. of the reaction. 4. With increasing the concentration of heavy metal, the amount of adsorption by bark was increased, but the adsorption ratio were decreased. 5. The maximum adsorption of
appeared at final pH of
, and pH of
in filtrate, respectively. 6. With increasing the bark weight per a given heavy metal solution, the adsorption ratio were increased, but the amount of adsorption per gram of bark was the highest on the reaction with 2g of bark in a economical sense showing the amount of adsorption of 21mg
/g and 7mg
/g of Pinus bark, 36mg
/g and 9mg
/g of Quercus bark, respectively.
Effect of Combined Application of Lime and Organic Matter , and of Calcium Silicate on the Growth and Cadmium Content of Chinese Cabbage
Ohh, W.K. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 61~66
A small pot experiment, filled with one hundred fifty gram of Cd amended soil, was conducted in order to learn the effect of combined application of lime and organic matter and of calcium silicate on Chinese cabbage(Brassica pekinensis, Var. Seoul, Heungnong, Miho 70 days). Results obtained are as follows: 1. The application of lime without organic matter depressed the growth of cabbage at the first and second harvests, but, at the later part of third harvest the growth was facilitated so as to harvest very good yield. 2. The combined application of lime and organic matter gave not only a good growth of cabbage from the first crop, but also lowered the cadmium content of dry cabbage bellow that of cabbage harvested from the plot applied with slaked lime alone. Those effect of combined application of both materials were lasted untill the third harvest. 3. Although gave little effect on soil pH, calcium silicate raised a normal good cabbage, and depressed the cadmium content of dry cabbage, by 0.21 me per 100g, which is higher than that of slaked lime plot cabbage, but within the range of no harm to cabbage growth. 4. The control and organic matter plots resulted in a remarkable soil pH drop and high cadmium content in dry cabbage, which lead the crop to a death from the second crop. 5. A negative correlation was observed between the contents of cadmium and calcium in dry cabbage crop, but positive correlations between those of cadmium and magnesium or cadmium and potassium. These relations were grown up as the harvesting were proceeding.
Adsorption and Activity Changes of Nitrofen by Clay Minerals
Kim, Dong-Cheol ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 1, 1986, Pages 67~72
The nitrofen adsorption on several clay minerals was determined by sludge method to know the effect of clay minerals on the nitrofen activity. The bioassay was conducted with wheat seedlings to study the influence of the adsorbed nitrofen on the nitrofen activity. It is apparant that a four hours shaking was enough to reach the equilibrium concentration. The more the amount of sample, the more nitrofen was adsorbed by clay minerals, whereas the more nitrofen adsorption per unit gram of sample was observed at a 200 mg addition than a 400 mg in the same nitrofen solution. A little amount of nitrofen was adsorbed on Ca-zeolite or Ca-kaolinte, and much more nitrofen was adsorbed on Na-montmorillonite than the other clay minerals in the experiment. Little effect of pH on the adsorption would be attributed to physical adsorption between nitrofen molecule and clay surface. Na-and Ca-montmorillonite were the most effective in reducing the phytotoxicity of nitrofen to the growth of wheat seedlings among clay minerals which nitrofen was added to the growth media.