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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 1986
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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Fate of C-14 Iabelled carbofuran in paddy plants and soil
Park, Chang-Kyu ; Oh, Sae-Ryang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 85~94
To study fate of carbofuran in paddy system, C-14 labelled carbofuran was applied to paddy water containing rice seedlings and time course study was made on the distribution, metabolism and chemical transformation of the systemic insecticide. Carbofuran was readily absorbed by plant root and translocated to shoots where most of the radioactivities were confined to leaf tips. The fact that gradual increases in radioactivities of both aqueous phase extracts and non-extractable fractions of plants (shoots and root) increased with incubation is taken as an evidence that reactions (phase I and II) proceed in rice plants. Carbofuran and its five metabolites were all detected by TLC in organic phase extracts of paddy plants or soil. Evidence was put forward that carbofuran and its five metabolites were all identified as aglycones of conjugates. 7-benzofuranol and 3-hydroxycarbofuran were the most abundant aglycones. Soil microbes appears to have little effects on the metabolism of carbofuran. They increased radioactivity of non-extractable fraction and reduced that of organic phase extracts of paddy soil.
Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristic of Rice Plant
Lee, Min-Hyo ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 95~100
A pot experiment was conducted to find out As uptake and critical levels affecting yield loss of rice plant. The arsenic was added to two soils of sand loam and loam in the from of
at different As concenterations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 ppm, respectively. Rice yields significantly decreased with increasing soil As levels and the critical As levels in soils were estimated to be 6.79 ppm for loam and 2.75 ppm for sandy loam. Yield components also decreased with higher soil As levels and the weight of 1000 grains showed the highest significant correlation with As level in soil. Most of arsenic was retained by the roots and a small amount of arsenic was translocated to the shoots. Arsenic content in plant organs was high in the order of root>stem>leaf blade>leaf sheath>brown rice. The number of sterillized grains also increased with higher As level in soil and it was much higher in sandy loam than in loam.
Cadmium Adsorption by Natural Zeolite
Kim, Young-Kyung ; Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 101~105
An adsorption and desorption experiment was conducted to utilize natural zeolite as cadmium adsorbent in wastewater. Adsorption of cadmium by natural zeolite was conformed to Freundlich's adsorption equation and natural zeolite was found to be effective adsorbent. The higher the cadmium concentration of solution, the more the adsorption amount of cadmium was and the adsorption was in the order of
. Ion selectivity of natural zeolite in mixed solution increased in the order of Cd
Studies on the Effects of Ozone Gas in Paddy Rice 3. Biochemical effects of ozone gas on rice plant
Kim, Bok-Young ; Cho, Jae-Kyu ; Lee, Suk-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 106~112
Biochemical and histological effects of ozone gas (0.3 ppm) on rice plant were discussed. After ozone expoure, damage symptom, percentages of destroyed leaves, activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and the contents of flavonoid, protein and sugar were examined on two rice varieties (Seokwangbyeo, Jinjubyeo), on tillering stage, and at different exposure time (0, 1, 3, 5 hr). The result were as followed. 1. The ozone-injured cell adjoining stomata become pigmented red-brown. 2. The percentage of injured leaves in Jinjubyeo was higher than that in Seokwangbyeo. 3. The activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase increased on ozone-injured leaves. 4. The peroxidase activity increased with time in Jinjubyeo compared to Seokwangbyeo. 5. Peroxidase isozyme spectrum was altered after ozone exposure. 6. The content of flavonoid and reducing sugar in the rice leaves was increased, but the contents of protein was reduced.
Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Mud Flat
Suh, Yong-Tack ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Shim, Jae-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 113~118
After selecting four places in the main shellfish habitat, 118 items of the sample were collected in the mud flat from August to October in 1983, in order to analyze organochlorine pesticide residues by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The results obtained were summarized as follows;
p, p'-DDE, dieldrin, o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT were detected in the range from 2 to 98 percent and their levels of mean residues ranged from trace to 0.041ppm, in the order of
o, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDT. The mean of total residues in regions was Kangjin(0.058ppm), Kwangyang(0.080ppm), Yoch'on (0.016ppm), and Yonggwang(0.75ppm).
peak were separated by column packed with DC-200. PCNB was identified by making a PCA(pentachloroaniline), the reduced derivative of PCNB, and this confirmed that PCNB residues were detected in the soil sample.
Environmental Fate of Trichlorfon Used to Control Agelastica coerulea B. in Forest by Aerial Application
Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 119~129
Disappearence of the trichlorfon (Dipterex) in the forest, following aerial to control Agelastica coerulea B., were studied by sampling deposits on slide glasses, soils, water, and leaves, and analysing with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. By analysing the amount remained on slide glasses, it was shown that the pesticide was adequately sprayed and nearly all deposit was lost in a day. The amount deposited under the tree was about 1/100 of the amount at an exposed site. Concentration of trichlorfon in creek water was 10 to 100 times as high as the acute toxic level to zooplankton for 6 to 24 hours, The rain could recontaminate the stream water up to the toxic level. Loss rate of trichlorfon from soils showed variations by sampling sites and was generally slower than from slide glasses. Amount deposited on leaves were less than the calculated or expected amount. The loss from leaves were similar to that from soil.
Comparison of the Susceptibility of Freshwater Organisms for the Acute Toxicity Test of Pesticides.
Shin, Chun-Chul ; Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 130~134
This study was performed to determine the aquatic toxicity of 3 chemicals(butachlor, trichlorfon, and BPMC) to 3 teat organisms (fish, crustacean, and algae) which represent each trophic level in freshwater ecosystem, and to compare the sensitivity of these organisms to 3 chemicals with short-term test. Scenedesmus subspicatus, unicellular algae, was the most sensitive species of 3 organisms to butachlor and the ratio between least and most sensitive organisms was 5.7. Moina rectirostris, freshwater invertebrate, was also more sensitive organism than S. subspicatus and Oryzias latipes to trichlorfon and BPMC, and their ratios were 260,000 and 5,090. As a result, remarkable differences were observed in the sensitivities among the test organisms with different chemical structure and mode of action of the chemicals. Therefore, it is recommended that a set of tests on different species, including the representative species of fish, invertebrate, and algae, should be required in short-term aquatic toxicity test for chemicals introduced into the Korean environment.
Study on the development and application of slow releasing fertilizer using Korean natural clay minerals II. Synthesis and application of K-bentonite
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Choy, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 135~140
K-bentonite was made by ion exchange reaction in
ion saturated aqueous solution. K-bentonite had a slow releasing effect in different soils such as sand, sandy loam and clayey loam, but the effect was the best in sand. The growth of radish and lettuce was better in the plot fertilized with K-bentonite than with KCl in sand culture in field condition. There was no effects on the growth of radish grown in pot in glass house. Vitamin C, nitrate content, thiocyanate ion content and dry weight of radish were not affected by K-bentonite and KCl in both pot and field culture. The commercial production of K-bentonite was discussed.
Effect of Blue Color-deficient Sunlight on the Productivity and Cold Tolerance of Crop Plants
Jung, Jin ; Kim, Jong-Bum ; Min, Bong-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 141~148
The blue-light effect on the grown as well as on the physiological activity of some major horticultural plants in Korea has been investigated. The light quality used for the work was obtained from sunlight filtered by an orangecolored polyethylene film which removed about 70% of visible light in the spectral region of
. The film was developed in this laboratory especially for the work and named BCR film meaning blue color-removing film. The light environment in the plastic house which was built with BCR film provided plants with the blue color-deficient sunlight. Thus, the photobiological effect of blue light could be examined conversely by comparing with the effect of white sunlight in a conventional plastic house built with colorless polyethylene film. In a sense of applicability to horticulture, two remarkable effects of the blue color-deficient sunlight on plant physiology were observed: First, it enhanced to a great extent the growth activity of plants-pepper, cucumber, zucchini, tomato, and leaf lettuce at the vegetative stage as well as at the reproductive stage, as demonstrated by their yield which were in average
increased compared with the control (under white sunlight). Second, it improved significantly the cold tolerance of plants, as exhibited with their resistance to chilling during treatment in a cold chamber maintained at a temperature which caused chilling injury to the plants of control. The visualized effects were reflected on the physiological activity of cells on organelle level. Chloroplast isolated from the plant leaves grown under BCR film showed considerably stronger photosynthetic activity, as judged by the increased electron transport rate of illuminated chloroplast, than that from leaves grown under white PE film. Mitochondria from leaves grown under BCR film maintained normal respiration activity until temperature decreased to a few degree(
) lower than the temperature which caused respiratory inhibition to mitochondria obtained from leaves of the control.
Effect of Blue Color-deficient Sunlight on the Productivity and Cold Tolerance of Crop Plants II. On the unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipid
Jung, Jin ; Kim, Chang-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 5, issue 2, 1986, Pages 149~155
The fatty acid compositions of phospholipids extracted from leaves and leaf mitochondria, which were sampled from several horicultural plants grown under blue color-deficient sunlight (BCDS), were determined and compared with those from plants grown under natural white colored sunlight(WCS). It was found that the mitochondria isolated from plants grown under BCDS contained phospholipid whose degree of unsaturation in unit of number of double bonds per lipid molecule was remarkably higher than that from plants grown under WCS, the relative increment being
. This was significantly larger than the relative increment,
for total phospholipid extracted from whole leaves grown under BCDS campared to WCS. This observation demonstrated that the blue light effect of sunlight on the chemical property of cellular membranes, as long as it was concerned with fatty acid composition, arose mainly at the mitochondrial membrane. Also observing that the degree of unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipid was much lower than that of total phospholipid, it was interpreted that this was the consequence of rather active oxidative destruction of lipid-fatty acid components occuring in mitochondrial membrane by the reactive oxygen species, especially superoxide(
), which was known to be produced in mitochondrial inner membrane through the side reactions of the respiratory electron transport chain and also probably through the photosensitized reaction involving oxygen induced by blue colored light. Thus, it may be tentatively concluded that the extent of photosensitization in mitochondrial membrane could be considerably reduced under BCDS resulting in lowering of the
level in the respirating organelle The possible involvement of photodynamic action in membrane oxidation was also indicated by the fact that the typical fat-soluble antioxidant,
, was found to be contained on a higher level in leaves under BCDS than those under WCS.