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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Dec 1987
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jun 1987
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Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Rice Plant lll. Effect of Water Management on As Uptake and the Growth of Rice Plant at As Added Soil
Lee, Min-Hyo ; Lim, Soo-Kill-H ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 1~6
A pot experiment was conducted to find out the effect of water management on the growth and uptake of arsenic and inorganic nutrients of rice plant at As added soil. The arsenic were added to soil at the levels of As 0, 10, 50, 100 and 150 ppm, respectively. Water management was done with two ways: intermittent irrigation from ten days after transplanting, and continuous submersion until harvest. Higher soil As levels increased As content in plant but reduced growth rate. Aresenic content in plant was considerably reduced with intermittent irrigation compared to continuous submersion. Rice growth showed also same trend. With increasing As levels in soil, N content in plant was increased but P, K, Ca, Mg,
, Fe and Mn content in plant were tend to be decreased. These inorganic nutrients in plant were also much absorbed in continuous submersion compared to intermittent irrigation. Soil pH was slightly increased with increasing As levels in soil while soil Eh has no relationship with soil As levels. On the other hand, soil pH was higher in the treatment of continuous submersion than that of intermittent irrigation but soil Eh showed reverse trend. With increasing As levels in soil, water soluble-As and Ca-As fractions in soil tend to be increased with continuous submersion, but these fractions has no tendency with intermittant irrigation.
Fate of 14C - Carobofuran in Rice Plant and Paddy Soil
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Lee, Kyung-Hwi ; Park, Chang-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 7~16
A study was undertaken to investigate the absorption, translocation and metabolism of carbofuran in rice paddies. Ring-3-
applied onto the paddy soil surface was rapidly absorbed and translocated into rice plants. Within 2 days after treatment, it was observed that carbofuran reached shoot tips and accumulated. More than 15% of total radioactivity was recovered in rice plant from 3 to 20 days after treatment. In organic soluble fraction of rice plant extract, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was the major metabolite recording 43% and 4% of total organic soluble radioactivity in shoot and root at 20 days respectively. 3-Ketocarbofuran and phenolic metabolites including carbofuran phenol, 3-hydroxycarbofuran phenol and 3-ketocarbofuran phenol were also detected in the organic soluble fractions. Some glycosidic conjugates of carbofuran metabolites were found in water soluble fraction of rice plant extract and 3-hydroxycarbofuran was the most abundant aglycone. Radioactivity in paddy soil was rapidly decreased until 3 days after treatment and then maintained almost constant level. A significant portion (42∼56 %) of the total radioactivity remained in soil as nonextractable residue from 5 to 20 days after treatment. The nonextractable radioactivity was mainly located in soil organic matter distributing in humin, fulvic acid and humic acid fractions with the decreasing order. Evolution of
from ring cleavage of
was negligible recording only 1.8% of total radioactivity during 20 days after treatment.
Formation of Bentazon Residues in a German and Korean Agricultural Soil
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Fuhr, F. ; Mittelstaedt, W. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 17~24
(3-isopropyl-2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazin-4-one-2, 2-dioxide) incubated aerobically in a German and a Korean soil at application rates of 5.51 and 25.05mg/Kg was mineralized to
at average rates of 0.6% and 0. 2%/week, respectively, in both soils, in the absence of plants. Distilled water was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of Bentazontreated soils. Extraction results disclosed that higher percentages of nonextractable residues were formed in the lower concentration of 5.51mg/Kg than in the higher concentration of 25.05mg/Kg, relative to the initial concentrations.
Studies on the Effects of Several Amendments on the Uptake of Cd, Cu and Zn by Rice Plant
Kim, Bok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 25~30
This study was conducted to find out the effect of several improvers such as triple super phosphate, slaked lime, wollastonite and gypsum for reducing Cd content in brown rice. Several improvers were applied to two different types of soils which are contaminated with copper-zinc mine wasted and sludge.(Soil I contained Cd : 7.88, Cu : 57.9, Zn : 175.0 ppm, Soil II contained Cd : 3.95, Cu : 30.2, Zn :124.0 ppm) In general, effects of improvers on reducing content of Cd, Cu and Zn in brown rice were greater in soil I than soil II. In soil I, the Cd content of brown rice was reduced to 0.4ppm below by application of triple superphosphate, fused phosphate, slaked lime and gypsum, 98, 225, 190 and 276Kg/10a, respectively. Triple superphosphate was more effective than fused phosphate in reducing uptake of Cd, Cu and Zn by applying them as an equal amount of phosphorous, also to equal alkalinity, slaked lime had the highest effect. Negatively linear effect was found between soil pH and Cd and Zn content in brown rice. As to above results, it was no doubt that triple superphosphate, fused phosphate and slaked lime would be applied to reduced heavy metals in brown rice. The slaked lime, triple super phosphate and fused phosphate were available to reduce uptake of Cd, Cu and Zn by rice plant grown in the soil contaminated with mine waste and sludge.
Absorption , Translocation and Residue of Carbofuran in Miniature Paddy Agrosystem
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Park, Hyung-Man ; Park, Young-Sun ; Park, Chang-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 31~37
A study has been conducted to investigate the behavior of carbofuran in a miniature paddy agrosystem simulated for paddy field. Carbofuran applied onto the paddy water was rapidly absorbed and translocated into rice plants. Carbofuran concentration in rice plant reached its maximum level between 1 to 3 days after treatment and gradually decreased thereafter. Half life of carbofuran concentration in paddy water was 4 days in both application rates of 0.12 and 0.24Kg a.i./10a. Carbofuran residue in paddy soil was gradually dissipated with the half life of 8 and 12 days in 0.12 and 0.24㎏ a.i./l0a respectively. Range of carbofuran residue in brown rice and rice straw harvested from the paddy agrosystem was 0.01∼0.02 ppm and 0.37∼0.57 ppm irrespective of the two application rates respectively.
Studies on the Effects of Ozone Gas in Paddy Rice;4. Effects of Ozone Gas on Rice Growth at Different Nutrition Levels
Kim, Bok-Young ; Lee, Suk-Hee ; Kim, Maun-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 38~43
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ozone gas on paddy rice at the different nutrition levels. Jinjubyeo variety of rice plant was exposed to 0.3 ppm ozone gas for 3 hours. It was cultivated at three different application levels, optimum, -50%, and +50% of optimum of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively. After ozone gas fumigation, percentage of damaged leaf, malondialdehyde contents, activity of peroxidase, and nutrient contents of rice plant were observed. The results obtained are as follows. 1) Percentage of damaged leaf was increased at the both additional 50% application of nitrogen and 50% reduction of potassium. 2) Malondialdehyde contents of leaves were increased with the ozone gas exposure. 3) Percentage of damaged leaf was increased at the lower level of
ratio in leaves. 4) Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in rice leaves were decreased with the ozone gas exposure. 5) The peroxidase bands on gel in electrophoresis were changed by the ozone gas exposure.
Studies on the Selectivity of Herbicide Alachlor;I. Phytotoxicity and Glutathione Conjugation
Park, Chang-Kyu ; Hwang, Eul-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 44~49
Present work has been initiated to see if inherent biochemical difference among plants is, in any way, related to the observed selectivity characteristics of preemergence herbicide, alachlor. Application of aqueous solution of alachlor onto three intact plants, soybean, chinese cabbage and barnyard grass resulted in phytotoxicity responses in the testt plants in varying degree. Examination of glutathione (and homoglutathione) contents of the test plants indicated that the phytotoxicity is inversely proportional to the peptide contents of the test plants. It was also noted that four to five water soluble metabolites are readily formed in intact seedling treated with labelled alachlor and glutathionealachlor and homoglutathionealachlor conjugates were tentatatively identified as major metabolites. It is concluded that conjugation reaction involving glutathiones and xenobiotic alachlor, a typical phase II reaction, acts as detoxification reaction in the three test plants and this would, in turn, contribute to observed selectivity of alachlor.
Changes in Susceptibility of Killifish (Oryzias latipes) to Three Pesticides with Growth
Shin, Chun-Chul ; Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Young-Bae ; Kim, Young-Hwa ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 50~60
Sensitivity, expressed in the
determined with continuous flow system, was compared for eight developmental stages of Oryzias latipes with butachlor, diazinon and fenitrothion. Significance of the laboratory determined
in real field situation was evaluated for butachlor using outdoor model agrosystem. In the laboratory tests, the most sensitive stage was post-larva stage IV(7 days after hatching) with
of 0.14, 1.4, and 1.6ppm for butachlor, diazinon and fenitrothion, respectively, whereas the least sensitive stage was early embryo stage(1 day after fertilization), and then the susceptibility was somewhat stable after 21days after hatching. In the model agrosystem test, the highest concentration of 0.53ppm of butachlor in water was obtained at the 2nd day after application. The stages IV and VIII showed mortality of over 50% at 96 hours after application. It is concluded that the conventional use of butachlor in the field would cause significant adverse effect on O. latipes. It is suggested that sensitivity test at the early life stages with fish is an important part of the ecotoxicological assessment of chemicals.
Investigation of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables
Rhu, H.I. ; Suh, Y.S. ; Kim, I.K. ; Kim, H.Y. ; Jun, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 61~66
1. In the vegetable crops, only MEP and Malathion showed a litte higher positive rate than other pesticides in general. On the other hand, parathion and captan were not detectable at all. 2. In the fruits, pesticides, MEP, PAP and Parathion had a little high positive rate, and Diazinon, and captan were not detectable at all. 3. However, the detected values of the pesticides in the vegetables and fruits were far below from korean tolerances and internationally recommended limits and tolerances, showing only
of Korean tolerance in vegetables and fruits, respectively.
Study on the Growth and the Yield of Ecotype of Garlics in Main Producing Districts in Korea
Ra, Woo-Hyun ; Park, Kuen-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 1, 1987, Pages 67~75
The major objectives of this study were to find out the growth and yield of two ecotypes of Korean garlic in main garlic producing districts in Korea. The data were collected by the field survey which had been conducted at 270 township in 58 major garlic production countries throughout the country on 10th, 20th, and 30th day of every month from 1982 to 1984. The results of this study were as follow: 1) Sowing period of garlic of southern and northern ecotype were around September 20 and October 20, respectively. 2) Average number of plants per
of the southern and northern ecotype were 123 and 100, respectively. 3) Leaf emergence time of southern ecotype was before the beginning of winter (November) and that of northern ecotype was from early February till April. 4) Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the plant heights measured on November 30 for southern ecotype and on June 30 for northern ecotype most adequately predicted the yield of garlic. The relationship between yield and plant height were as follows: Southern ecotype; Y=571.56+5.34X Northern ecotype; Y=251.81+5.45X where Y is yield expressed in Kg/l0a and X is height in cm at the respective date. 5) The number of leaves increased until harvest in both ecotypes. At harvest, the number of leaves in southern and northern ecotype were 10 and 8, respectively. Number of leaves counted on January 20 for southern ecotype and on June 20 for northern ecotype correlated best with the yield of the ecotypes. 6) The highest senescent portion of southern ecotype and northern ecotype were seen on January 30 and May 30, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the senescent portion of southern ecotype counted on January 30 and that of northern ecotype on June 20 mostly affected the yield. 7) Average yield of southern and northern ecotype at the main garlic producing districts were 771 and 652Kg/10a, respectively.