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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Dec 1987
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jun 1987
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Degradation of Diazinon and Dursban in Submerged Soil
Choi, Jong-Woo ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 1~11
The degradation of two chemicals seem to be clearly affected by soil microbial activity in submerged soil
. The Active ingredient of Diazinon disappeared about 5 times faster than that of Dursban. By Applying 300% higher concentrations of both chemicals. under the above soil conditions, however, degradation was retarded by about one day. Some of the metabolites of Diazinon were as follows: 0.0-diethyl phosphorothioate and sulfotep as hydrolytic products, and diazoxon, 0.0-diethyl-0-[2-(1-hydroxy-1, 1-dimethyl)-6-methyl]-pyrimidinyl phosphorothioate and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-pyrimidine-4-one as degradation products of monooxygenase. But 0. 0-diethyl phosphorothioate was the only methabolite of Dursban.
Residue Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides on Paddy Field Soils in the Chungnam Area
Choi, Jong-Woo ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ; Lee, Jung-Kil ; Noh, Kil-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 12~21
Residues of some organo-chlorine pesticides on 108 solis collected from 5 sites of Chungnam avea during March 20-April 6, 1986 were investigated. 12 different kinds of Chemical components were detected showing the highest detection frequency with P.P'-DDE(67.6%) and the lowest with Heptachlor(1.8%). 4 different chemicals,
, P.P'-DDD and P.P'-DDD and P.P'-DDE showed their average contents in the soils of 0.001 ppm and 0.005ppm for
, respectively. On the other hand,
, P.P'-DDT. O.P'-DDT and P.P'-DDD showed 0.002ppm for their average contents of residues, respectively.
Bioavailability of Bentazon Residues in a German and Korean Agricultural Soil
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Fuhr, F. ; Mittelstaedt, W. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 22~30
Maize plants, grown on a German soil and a Korean soil which had treated with benzene-ring-labelled
(5.02mg/kg) immediately before planting (T-0), took up
of the radioactivity present during a 21 day growing period. Plants grown on the same soils
which had been treated with Bentazon and pre-incubeted for 105days absorbed
(T-1) of the radioactivity. Plants grown in soils
treated with Bentazon which had been incubated for 105 days and then exhaustively extracted with distilled water and/or 0.01 M
to produce non-extractable residues (T-2) took up
of the radioactivity. The distribution of the absorbed radioactivity ranged from 2.7 to 9.7% in shoots and from 90.3 to 97.3% in roots. Extraction of maize roots revealed that
of the radioactivity was bound in T-0 and
was bound in T-1, This suggests hat polar metabolites and parent Bentazon might be present as conjugates.
Studies on the Desorption of
from Paddy Soil
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Lee, Young-Il ; Cheong, Kyu-Hoi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 31~38
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of paddy soil on the adsorption and desorption of
from absorbed soils. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Most of the adsorbed
was exchangeable and water soluble.
extracted by ammonium acetate was very high compared to the water soluble fractions, and the ammount decreased with the increase of calcium application, but increased proportionally with the increase of
treatment. 2. The distribution of
in paddy soil depend on the soil type. Average-distribution rates of water soluble, exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions of
in the soils were 28.6%, 59.3% and 12.1% respectively. 3. The non-exchangeable from of
was high in the soils of high illite and low vermiculite content. 4. The desorption of
from adsorbed soils decreased with the increase of pH and ex-cations of the soils, but increased with the amount of organic matter and clay content in the soil.
Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristic of Rice Plant;IV. Effect of As content in water on transpiration, stomatal resistance, temperature and humidity in the leaves of rice plant
Lee, Min-Hyo ; Lim, Soo-Kil-H ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 39~45
A water culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of As content in a culture solution on the water status and growth of rice plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L. Line. Iri 316) seeds were germinated in bentonite and cultivated there for 30 days. Rice seedlings were transplanted into 3.5l pots containing the culture solution on May 1, 1985 and allowed to grow without As treatment for one month. Afterwards, they were grown in a culture solution maintaining the final concentration of As, 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15mg/1 renewing in the solution dissolved sodium arsenate at intervals of 3 to 7 days. Plants were cultivated in the green house during the growing period and harvested 60 days after As treatment. The results obtained were as follows: Transpiration of rice plants was decreased with the increase of the As level in the culture solution. Stomatal diffusive resistance and leaf temperature increased with increase of As levels though the humidity and the air flow rate in leaf decreased. Air flow rate, transpiration and stomatal diffusive resistance showed a highly significant correlation with As contents in shoots and roots of rice plants: Espally The air flow rate and transpiration revealed a significantly higher correlation with As contents in the root than that in the shoot, but diffusive resistance showed adverse tendency. High levels of As in the culture solution depressed plant height, no. of tillers, leaf width and dry weight of plant remarkably. Typical symptoms of As toxicity were root discoloration, and necrosis of leaf tips and margins, and leaf rolling during the sunny daytime were also another symptoms.
Utilization of Zeolite in Waste Water Treatment.
Lee, Jeon-Sig ; Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 46~52
This study of adsorption and column percolation was conducted to examine the utilization of natural zeolite for the removal of heavy metals from waste water to compare with that of absorption activated carbon. The adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite was conformed to the Freundlich isotherm (1/n values:
, K values:
) and natural zeolite was turned out to be an effective adsorbent of heavy metals. At the same particle size and percolation velocity, zeolite adsorbed a greater amount of heavy metals was adsorbed on natural zeolite than activated carbon. The smaller the particle size, the more heavy metals that were adsorbed. It was postulated that the most effective size as an adsorbent of heavy metals from waste water ranged from 0.5 to 2.0mm. The slower the percolation velocity that of the heavy metal solution in column, the more heavy metals were adsorbed. Natural zeolite in a single solution adsorbed more heavy metals than that in mixed solution, and the order of the adsorption amount on natural zeolite was Cu>Zn>Cd.
Influence of Sulfur and Fluorine Compounds on the Growth and Yield of Rice Plants;I. Growth Retardation and Yield Reduction under Various Stressed Conditions in the Field
Park, Wan-Cheol ; Shin, Eung-Bai ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 53~65
The study was performed to investigate the effect of gaseous emissions of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride on the growth of rice plants under stressed field conditions consisting of 88 industrial plants operating with 285 smoke stacks emitting pollutants. As for the relationship between yields and yield components it is believed that the panicles per hill is the single most important component affecting the rate of yield of the rice plant. Based on the standard partial regression coefficient analysis, panicles per hill has the largest contribution to yield and the average contribution of 54%. Other components such as spikelets per panicle, percent fertility and 1000 grain weight are also contributing factors to yield, although far less so. Fluorine content in the leaf appear to have more negative effect on panicles per hill, percent fertility and subsequent overall yield than does sulfur content in the leaf. It is constantly observed and interesting to note that fluorine and sulfur content in the leaf appears to have no effect on spikelets per panicle and 1000 grain weight. Reduction in yield seems to be affected mainly by panicles per hill which are, in turn, affected more by fluorine content in the leaf as demonstrated by the standard partial coefficient analysis. Regarding the prediction sum of the square of the regression equation, the lowest value was found when nine variables were used for the analysis. The variables taken into consideration were the monthly sulfur and fluorine content in the leaf as well as the monthly percent of leaf damage during the months of June, July and August. A significant correlation is found between the actual and predicted yields by the regression equations selected as a result of a prediction sum of the square analysis.
Sensitivity of the three freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, Oryzias latipes (wildtype indigenous to Korea), and Oryzias latipes (Japanese killifish) to 30 pesticide formulations
Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Shin, Chun-Chul ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 66~72
Sensitivity of the three freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, Oryzias latipes (wildtype indigenous to Korea), and O. latipes (Japanese killifish) to 30 pesticide formulations were studied in terms of 48 hr
determined with the static method. The correlation between C. carpio and O. latipes (Japanese killifish) was higher than that between C. carpio and O. latipes with correlation coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80, respectively. The sensitivity of O. latipes and O. latipes (Japanese killifish) to pesticides showed very high correlation with a coefficient of 0.93. Therefore, it is suggested that the acute toxicity data concerning O. latipes (Japanese killifish) could represent those C. carpio or O. latipes which are indigenous species in Korea. Also, it is found that the present protocol for the toxicity test with carp in Korea has difficulties in maintaining the proper concentration of dissolved oxygen in the test chamber because of the abrupt decrease of dissolved oxygen to 2mg/l, which is not acceptable according to general guidelines of foreign countries.
The Effect of
on the Degradation of Chlorophyll in Green perilla (Perilla frutescens Suwon No. 8)
Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Lim, Soo-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 73~76
The effects of light, active oxygen, inorganic
concentration on the degradation of photosynthetic pigments in Green perilla (Perilla frutescens Suwon No. 8) fumigated by
were investigated inside a phytotron. The results were as follows: 1. With the increase of the
dosage, visible injury and the degradation of chlorophyll increased. 2. The degradation of chlorophyll b was less than that of chlorophyll a and the carotinoid was more easily degratated than chlorophyll b. 3. The degradation of chlorophyll by
fumigation was induced directly by
, itself. 4. Light is necessary to the degradation of chlorophyll.
made in the photolysis process of the water molecule were the major components in the degradation of chlorophyll.
Effect of Phorate, an Organophosphorus Insecticide on the Activity of Acetylcholinesterase
Jung-Ho, Kim ; Hong, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 77~83
Present study was carried out to elucidate the effect of phorate (0,0-dietyl S-ethylthiomethyl phosphorodithioate), an organophosphorus insecticide on the acetylcholinesterase(AChE) and cholinesterase(ChE) activity in the chicken brain and plasma. The inhibitory effect of phorate and its metabolites on AChE and ChE activity was also increased in the order of phorate (p=S,S)
. Acute oral
of phorate was 1.02mg/kg. After oral administration of phorate, the activity of plasma ChE was inhibited more rapidly then that of brain AChE, whereas recovery of plasma ChE activity was more rapid than that of brain AChE activity.
Water Solubilities and Vapor Pressures of Chlorothalonil and Command
Kim, Kyun ; Kim, Yong-Bae ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 84~93
The water solubilities and vapor pressures of chlorothalonil and Command were measured following the guidelines of the U.S. EPA and OECD. Water solubility of the two compounds is consistent with respective values in the literature. However, the vapor pressures of Chlorothalonil and Command were 5,000 times
and 100 times
lower than the literature values, respectively. Courteous use of the vapor pressure values in the handbooks is suggested. With this study, experimental difficulties involved were recognized. Based on the low vapor pressure of Command, the cause of the accidental bleach of non-target plants in the United States might not be attributed to the volatilization of Command, but to the drift during the application of the herbicide. These approaches will be utilized to predict the environmental fate of new chemicals under development, to screen the potential environmental pollutants among chemicals already in use, and to assess measures to minimize the hazards.
Blue Light Photosensitization in Mitochondrial Membrane of Plant Cells
Kim, Kyung-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Pyung ; Jung, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 6, issue 2, 1987, Pages 94~100
Plant mitochondria, irradiated with blue-colored
under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, were assayed as to the electron transfer activity of respiratory enzyme system, and compared with those irradiated with orange-colored light(white sunlight minus blue-colored light). The respiratory activity of mitochondria was most seriousely inhibited by illumination with blue-colored light under aerobic condition. Deaeration of mitochondrial suspension resulted in substantial decrease of the photoinhibition by blue-colored light. Meanwhile, orange-colored light demonstrated much less effectiveness-almost ineffectiveness-in causing the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration system. The results of enzymatic assay revealed a strong possibility that FMN in NDH and heme group at least in cytochrome c oxidase, but not FAD in SDH, are the photodynamic sensitizers in mitochondrial inner membrane. Also worthwhile to note is the significant difference from the others of SDH in its photoinhibitory response to the light quality of visible light; that the inhibition of SDH by irradiation was not affected by atmospheric condition and that orange-colored light gave rise to considerable extents of inhibition to the enzyme. This observation was tentatively interpreted in terms of photosensitized reaction not involving molecular oxygen possibly catalyzed by Fe-S centers in the enzyme. The superoxide production and the membrane peroxidation of mitochondria under various treatments also indicated that there was blue-light photodynamic reaction in mitochondria involving active oxygens.