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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 1988
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jun 1988
Selecting the target year
Effects of Paper Sludge Application on the Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil and Growth of Paddy Rice;V. Effects of Paper Sludge Application on the Seasonal Variations of Higher Fatty Acids in Paddy Soil
Heo, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ; Ha, Ho-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 87~91
To investigate the effects of paper sludge on the seasonal variations of higher fatty acids in paddy soil, paper sludge was applied to pots at the rate of either 300, 600, 900 or 1,200kg/10a. Fractions of the higher fatty acids in the soil were analyzed. 1. Twenty-one kinds of higher fatty acids in the soil were detected. Among them, lauric, myristic, myristoric, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids were identified. The fatty acid content in the soil of acids, linolonic, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid increased in ascending order. 2. The total content of higher fatty acids in the soil was increased as the application of paper sludge increased. The formation of the acids was at its highest point at the effective tillering stage. After WARDS the contents of the acids decreased as time elapsed. A positive correlation was observed between the total contents of both higher and volatile lower fatty acids in the soil.
Studies on the Uptake of
with the Growth of Rice Plant
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Lee, Young-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 92~95
A Pot experiment was conducted to study the uptake of
by rice plants in five different types of paddy soils and its distribution in these plants as a function of the age of the rice. The uptake of
by rice plants increased with the growth of the aboveground mass of the plants from the planting period, but
content per unit of dry matter decreased as the organic mass of the plants increased during the vegetative growing period, except for the time of ripening. The content of Ca and
in rice plants was higher in the stem and leaves than in grain parts in general. However, Ca content was decreased in the stem and increased in the grain part with the growth of the rice plant ; but
content was increased in the leaves and decreased in the stem and grain parts.
Effects of Ionic strength and Anion species on Heavy Metal Adsorption by Zeolite
Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Park, Byoung-Yoon ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 96~101
It is important to assess the effects of ionic strength and type of anions when studying the adsorption of heavy metals on zeolite because the background salt may complex with heavy metals and compete for adsorption sites. This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of ionic strength and anion species(
) on heavy metal adsorption. Heavy metal adsorption by zeolite from solutions in the range of 10 to 50ppm was studied in the presence of NaCl,
, with different concentrations. The ionic strength ranged from 0.01 to 1.00. Adsorption of heavy metal cations could be described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. Increasing the ionic strength of equilibrium solutions, the amounts of heavy metal adsorbed on the zeolite surfaces decreased in all three of the anion systems. This fact could be attributed to the competition of background salt cation and the decrease in initial activity of heavy metal cations. In the presence of Cl anion, less adsorption resulted than in the presence of
anions of the same ionic strength, indicating the presence of uncharged and negatively charged complexes of heavy metal with Cl ligands.
A Study of Water Quality of Lake Daeho
Shim, Jae-Hwan ; Park, Geun-Jo ; Kim, Weoun-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 102~110
This study was designed to find out whether the water quality of Lake Daeho would be suitable for Sgricultural purposes during 1984-1988 perird. Thr results were as follows ; 1. There was an apparent seasonal temperature fluctuation
above the entrance of the culvert at the depth of 14m, but the temperature below remained constant at
. 2. The yearly water qualities observed at the deepest site by the seadike were 7.4-7.5 pH, 16,800-1,472
EC, 9.2-10.8ppm DO, 1.3-2.5ppm DOD, 2.4-5.3ppm COD, 0.22-2.29ppm T-N, 0.01-0.10ppm T-P. 3. The average values of water qualities at the epilimnion in 1988 were 7.6 pH, 1,745umhos/cm EC, 10.8ppm DO, 1.8ppm DOD, 2.4ppm COD, 0.52ppm T-N, 0.05ppm T-P. 4. The salinity of the epilimnion at a 6m depth was 29,000ppm before the final closure of the seadike. It was 11,000 ppm in March 1984, 4,300ppm in March 1985, 2,000ppm in March 1986 and 1987, and 900ppm in March 1988. The salinity of the whole water column decreased from 29.000ppm to 1,200 ppm in March 1988. The average salinity above and below the culvert in 1987 was about 1,300ppm, and 30,000ppm respectively reaching that of seawater. 5. The highest salinity was observed at the epilimnion by the seadike, showing about 5,835ppm in 1984. 6. The seasonal salinity fluctuation was 2,000ppm in May, 800ppm in October, and 485ppm in September 1987. 7. The halocline was observed at the depth of 14m where the entrance of the culvert was located. Therefore, the epilimnion water is suitable for agricultural purposes, and the intake of water from Lake Sapkyo seems to be unnecessary.
Studies on the Nutrient removal potential of selected aquatic plants in the pig waste water.
Kim, Bok-Young ; Kim, Kyu-Sik ; Park, Young-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 111~116
The aquatic plants were cultivated in pots containing pig waste water, adjusted to three levels of
concentration 50, 100 and 200ppm. The aquatic plants were Eichhornia crassipes solms-laub, Monochoria korsakowii Regel et maack, Zizania caduciflora, Typha orientalis, Acorus asiaticus, Cyperus exaltaus, Colocasia antiquorum var. Yield, content and amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorped by plants, and growth status were investigated. The results obtained are as follows. 1. The content and removal amount of nitrogen and phosphrus by plants were the highest in Eichhornia crassipes solms-laub. 2. Yield of dry matter in plants in 100ppm
was in the order of Eichhornia crassipes solms-laub>Zizania caduciflora>Typha orientalis>Monochoria korsakowii Regel et maack>Acorus asiaticus. 3. The removal amount of nitrogen by plants in the 100ppm
was in the order of Eichhornia crassipes solms-laub>Zizania caduciflora>Monochoria korsakowii Regel et maack>Typha orientalis>Acorus asiaticus>Colocasia antiquorum var>Cyperus exaltatus. Removal amount of phosphorus was in the order of Eichhornia cras sipes solms-laub>Monochoria korsakowii Regel et maack>Zizania caducilora>Typha orientalis>Acorus asiaticus> Cyperus exaltatus>Colocasia antiquorum var. 4. Concentration causing growth damage was 200ppm of
in Eichhornia crassipes solms-laub, Zizania caduciflora and Typha orientalis and 100ppm in Monochoria korsakowii Regel et maack and Acorus asiaticus. 5. Nitrogen content was the highest in leaf and phosphorus content was the highest in float of the water hyacinth. 6. The number of panicles of the water hyacinth increased by 752 pieces and dry matters were about 5,000kg/l0a during one year.
Selective Toxicity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Diazinon and Carbofuran to Killifish(Oryzias latipes) and Loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)
Kim, Young-Bae ; Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 117~123
This study was initiated to understand the mechanism of selective toxicity of diazinon and carbofuran to killifish and loach. Conventional LC50 was calculated from fish test. IC50 with acetylcholinesterase activity was estimated using whole body and wet brain homogenate of the two fish species. Acetylcholinesterase activity of killifish was approximately twice as high as that of loach. The selective toxicity of diazinon to killifish and loach was partly (14 : 4) explained by the IC50 of diazoxon, a toxic metabolite of diazinon. IC50 of carbofuran also partly (14 : 3.4) contributed to the selectivity. These result suggested that the enzymatic method might be utilized as a screening tool for the chemicals affecting fish species of environmental concern with certain limitations which should be overcome in future studies.
The changes of acute toxicity of pesticides depending on the exposure time to killifish, Oryzias latipes.
Shin, Chun-Chul ; Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 124~129
Prolonged aquatic toxicity tests (7-days) of six pesticides to the freshwater fish Oryzias latipes were performed to confirm the adequacy of the exposure times, 48-hr or 96-hr, which has been required by the protocols for the aquatic acute toxicity test. The toxicity curves were plotted for each chemical, and the significance of the difference between lethal threshold concentrations and 48-hr or 96-hr LC50's was analysed statistically. The lethal threshold concentrations of butachlor, fenobucarb, and chlorothalonil were clearly defined on the 5th day, 2nd day, and 2nd day at 0.53mg/1, 10.3mg/l, and 0.085mg/1, respectively. But the toxicity curves of alachlor, diazinon, and iprobenfos continued with no threshold for 7 days. Four out of six test pesticides failed to show the threshold concentration during the 96-hr exposure time. Therefore, the results of the acute toxicity test using 48-hr or 96-hr exposure time would not describe the ideal toxicity of pesticides. It is recommended that the prolonged exposure should be continued long enough to define the threshold adequately.
Influence of Sulfur and Fluorine Compounds on the Growth and Yield of Rice Plants;II. Growth and Yield Profiles with a Isolated Windbreak Under Stressed Conditions in Fields
Park, Wan-Cheol ; Shin, Eung-Bai ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 130~135
The study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of windbreaks to reduce the effect of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride on the growth of rice plants. It was observed that various pollution indicators such as the ambient concentrations of sulfur oxide and fluoride, sulfur and fluorine contents found in leaves appear to be significantly reduced within 3 meters behind the break. In that region yield components seemed normal. It is, however, observed that the pollutional indicators appear to increase gradually back to the same level as they were on the upwind side of the break. As for the relationships between pollution indicators and yields and also yield components it was believed that pollutants found in leaves might serve as the most important indicators of pollutional damage to rice plant Cultivation in fields. There was high correlation between ambient concentrations and yield, and also yield components. More significantly, a better correlation seemed to exist between sulfur and fluorine contents observed in leaves and yield ; And between those contents and yield components.
Changes of Chemical Compounds in Compost of Municipal Refuse;1. Changes of Carbon Compounds
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 136~145
To investigate the seasonal changes of various organic and inorganic compounds in compost, carbon compounds in compost were analyzed at various composting periods. Contents of organic matter, cellulose, total carbon, organic carbon and biodegradable carbon in compost were decreased with the progress of composting. In contrast, contents of lignin and nonbiodegradable carbon were increased a little with the progress of composting, but effective contents of lignin were decreased with the lapse of composting time, while effective contents of nonbiodegradable carbon were not changed. Total carbon contents in organic matter in compost were decreased within 9 weeks after composting, and then increased thereafter. Difference between average values of total and biodegradable carbon contents was 6.2%. Actual decay rates of all the carbon compounds were higher than decay rates of the compounds at all the experimental periods. Both of actual decay rate and decay rate of all the carbon compounds were increased rapidly within 2 weeks after composting, and thereafter the rates were increased slightly with the lapse of composting time. Especially the decay rates of cellulose were increased from 9 to 21 weeks after composting. Actual degradation capacity showed the same tendency to degradation capacity of all the carbon compounds in compost. Decay rate and degradation capacity of lignin in compost had minus values, while actual decay rate and actual degradation capacity had plus values. Highly positive correlations were observed among organic matter, cellulose, total carbon and biodegradable carbon one another. Nonbiodegradable carbon showed highly negative correlation with organic matter, cellulose, total carbon, organic carbon and biodegradable carbon, respectively. The same tendencies were observed between lignin and organic matter, cellulose, total carbon, organic carbon and biodegradable carbon. Highly positive correlation was observed between lignin and nonbiodegradable carbon in compost.
Changes of Chemical Compounds off the Compost of Municipal Refuse;2. Changes in Nitrogen Compounds
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 146~152
In order to examine the seasonal variation of organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds, nitrogen compounds in compost were determined at various composting periods. Total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and biodegradable nitrogen contents in compost were almost not changed, while nonbiodegradable nitrogen contents were increased a little with the lapse of composting time. But effective contents of total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and biodegradable nitrogen were decreased with the progress of composting, while effective contents of nonbiodegradable nitrogen were not changed during composting. Ammonium nitrogen contents in compost were highest at the start of composting, and then the contents were decreased with the lapse of composting time. But after turning the contents were increased again, and thereafter the contents were decreased with the progress of composting. Nitrate contents showed a tendency adverse to ammonium nitrogen contents. Organic nitrogens in organic matter in compost were increased slowly within 9 weeks after composting, and thereafter the contents were increased rapidly to 21 weeks after composting. Total nitrogen contents determined by
Method were higher than those determined by Kjeldahl Method. Total nitrogen contents determined by Kjeldahl Method were 6% higher than biodegradable nitrogen contents determined by
Method. Loss of nitrogen in compost was highest at early periods of composting and its losses determined by Kjeldahl Method and
Method in 30 weeks after composting were 50% and 48% of total nitrogen, respectively. Highly positive correlations were observed among total nitrogen determined by Kjeldahl Method, biodegradable nitrogen determined by Kjeldahl Method, total nitrogen determined by
Method and biodegradable nitrogen determined by
Method one another.
Water pollution in Relation to Agriculture
Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 7, issue 2, 1988, Pages 153~169