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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Dec 1989
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jun 1989
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Studies on the Correlation between Heavy Metal Contents of Apple Orchard Lands and its'Leaves
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Kwon, Oh-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 1~6
This study was performed to reveal the heavy metal contents in apple leaves, and to estimate the correlation between contents of heavy metals of orchard lands and those of apple leaves. For this experiment, the apple leaves were collected from 58 apple orchards in Korea. The results were as follows ; 1. The average heavy metal contents in apple leaves were 26.44(6,23-182,85) ppm in Cu, 0.34 (0.07-0,61) ppm in Cd and 9.47 (0.00-225.50) ppm in Pb. 2. On the simple correlation coefficients between contents of heavy metals of orchard lands and those of apple leaves, all three copper cadmium and lead were positive but cadmium was insignificanfly, correlated. There was no difference among varieties (Ralls, Jonathan, etc) in these results. 3. The 0.1N HCl extraetion proved, was more suitable than the
extraction for describing the relation-Ship between heavy metal contents of apple leaves and those of orchard lands.
Studies on the Application of Steam Distillation for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Soil, Water and Crops
Ryang, Hwan-Seung ; Moon, Young-Hee ; Jang, Ik-Sun ; Choi, Youn-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 7~16
Application of steam distillation on the analysis of pesticide residue in soil, water and crops was studied using the nitrogen distillation apparatus. Most pesticides which were extracted by organic solvents could be analyzed by the steam distillation method. For instance, distillations of PCNB,
, IBP, diazinon, fenthion, fenitrothion, alachlor, butachlor, pretilachlor, metolachlor, pendimethalin, benthiocarb and molinate were possible, but not simazine, atrazine and nitrofen. The optimum volume of distillate for a sufficient extraction of pesticide varied according to kind of pesticide. In general, the volume needed was little for carbamate, but much more for organochlorine. When the definite amount of distillate was obtained and then the condenser was washed by acetone, the optimum volume of distillate was less. Using the steam distillation method, the amount of organic solvent needed for one extraction of pesticide from soil, water and vegetable was less than the conventional solvent extraction method, and the analytical procedure became simpler. The process of concentration and clean up was mostly unnecessary, although a ghost peak was apparent in the gas chromatogram according to the kind of materials distilled.
Fates of Cyfluthrin and Trichlorfon in Water and Their Impacts on Aquatic Organisms Following Aerial Application Over the Forest
Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Roh, Jung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 17~29
This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior in the water and the impact on aquatic organisms following aerial application of two insecticides in the forest, cyfluthrin and trichlorfon, to control the alder leaf beetle. As active ingredients, 25g of cyfluthrin and 536g of trichlorfon per ha were diluted seperately into 30L of tap water, and applied with a helicopter to the study areas. A model stream study was also conducted in a stream located adjacent to the study area in order to confirm the impact of insecticides on aquatic invertebrates. Cyfluthrin residues in water were
(1st. application) and
(2nd application) immediately after spraying. and decreased, to a non-detectable level after one day, while trichlorfon residue increased to
one day after spraying and fluctuated for 22th day depending on precipitation after spraying. Cyfluthrin application rapidly increased the number of some drifting aquatic invertebrates during 24-hour period immediately after spraying, but had no effects on the other aquatic organisms such as fish and zooplankton. The largest increase in the number of drifting organisms following application of cyfluthrin was shown by Ephemeroptera, and followed by Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera. However, trichlorfon little affected the number of drifting aquatic invertebrates and zooplankton population.
Estimation of Water Temperature by Heat Balance Method in Paddy Field.
Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Yun, Seong-Ho ; Im, Jung-Nam ; Takami, Shinich ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 30~36
To determine irrigated water temperature under the rice plant canopy, micrometeorological elements air temperature, relative humidity, water temperature, solar radiation, and the rice leaf area index the rice plant canopywere measured. Water temperature under the canopy was also estimated from these data. The results are as follows ; 1. Maximum and minimum temperatures of water in the paddy field were higher about
than those of air temperature. 2. Mean water temperature under the canopy became lower than mean air temperature when the leaf area indices were greater than 4, because of decreased light penetration rates 3. Penetration amounts of net radiation under the canopy can be estimated by an exponential equation 4. Estimated water temperatures under the canopy by a combination method model was adaptable in Suweon, a plain area, but its accuracy was lower in Jinbu, an alpine area.
Water Quality Prediction Model in a Lake by Finite Element Method;Application to Sapkyo Lake
Ryu, Byong-Ro ; Ahn, Sang-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 37~46
A 2-dimensional pollutant transport phenomenon in shallow reservoirs was analyzed by using a finite element method. The Galerkin's weighted residual method, based on linear interpolation, was used and a triangle was adopted as an element. The two dimensional Stock's equation and the advection-diffusion equation integrated over depth were used as governing equations. Also the Newton-Raphson method was introduced to solve the non-linear terms of the equation. The results calculated by the model are in good agreement with the analytical solution for a simplified channel where a known solution is avaiable. An actual application of the model is attempted for Sapkyo Lake with a consideration of the influx of the Sapkyo Chun, the Muhan Chun and kogkyo Chun. Further refined research is needed to evaluate the water quality in the other reservoirs.
A Study on the Enzyme Activities of a Honeybee(Apis cerana F.) Associated with the Degradation of Some Insecticides.
Suh, Yong-Tack ; Shim, Jae-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 47~54
This study was conducted to investigate insecticide toxicities to a honeybee, Apis cerana F. being raised in Korea and its detoxifying enzyme activities. In order to determine the appropriate usage of insecticides, median effective dose and detoxifying enzyme activities to seven insecticides were observed. Various detoxifying enzymes, including microsomal oxidases, glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and DDT-dehydrochlorinase were assayed in the midguts of adult worker bees as the enzyme source. Of the insecticides used,
value in DDT treatment was the highest as 19ppm, and that in EPN treatment was the lowest as 0.75ppm. Sublethal exposures of honeybees to various insecticides had some effects on microsomal enzyme activities. Aldrin epoxidase activity was inhibited by malathion and demeton S-methyl treatment. N-demethylase activity was induced by carbaryl treatment. Of the glutathione S-transferases, aryltransferase(DCNB conjugation) activity was significantly induced by diazinon, and moderately induced by malathion. Of the esterases,
esterase activity was moderately inhibited by malathion and permethrin. Carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity were not affected by the sublethal exposure of honeybee to the insecticides. Sublethal exposure of honeybee to the insecticides had no effect on DDT- dehydrochlorinase activity, except carbaryl, malathion and demeton S-methyl were inhibited.
Changes of Chemical Compounds in Compost of Municipal Refuse;3. Changes of C/N Ratios in Compost
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 55~59
To determine the accurate C/N ratio of compost, biodegradable carbon and nitrogen in compost must be analyzed. In biodegradable nitrogen analyzed by Kjeldahl Method, nitrate and nitrite which are available for microbes can not be detected at all. By means of
Method, nitrate and nitrite can be detected. Therefore, various nitrogens in compost were analyzed by Kjeldahl and
Method to investigate the seasonal changes of various C/N ratios of compost. C/N ratios in compost analyzed by Kjeldahl and
Method were decreased rapidly within 2 weeks after composting, then were not changed to 6 weeks, and thereafter were decreased slowly with the lapse of composting time. C/N ratios analyzed by Kjeldahl Method were higher than those analyzed by
Method. C/N ratios of total carbon/total nitrogen analyzed by Kjeldahl Method were higher(5 as C/N ratio or 36%) than those of biodegradable carbon/biodegradable nitrogen analyzed by
Method. Highly positive correlations were observed among C/N ratios of total carbon/total nitrogen analyzed by Kjeldahl Method total carbon/total nitrogen analyzed by
Method and biodegradable carbon/biodegradable nitrogen analyzed by
Method one another.
The Agrochemical Business Prospects in Japan
Kuyama, Hiroshi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 8, issue 1, 1989, Pages 60~86