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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 1990
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 1990
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Effects of Soil Environmental Conditions on the Decomposition Rate of Insecticide Fenitrothion in Flooded Soils
Moon, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 1~8
The effects of soil environmental conditions on the degradation rates of fenitrothion(O-O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate) in soils under flooded conditions were examined in the laboratory. Fenitrothion was degraded rapidly and the half life period was within 4 days. Furthermore the degradation was mere rapid under flooded conditions than under upland conditions. The decomposition rate was varied with soils and soil temperatures. Fenitrothion degraded more slowly at 30ppm than at l0ppm. Repeated applications of fenitrothion in soils accelerated the degradation rates. The degradation remarkably increased with amendment of rice straw. However, degradation rates ,were virtually unaffected by the addition of the mixed-fertilizer, the fungicide IBP and the herbicide butachlor. The population of fenitrothion-degrading microbes, which were counted by MPN method, always corresponded with the degradation rates in the soils.
Dissipation of Fenitrothion, IBP, and Butachlor in Flooded Soil Under Outdoor Conditions
Moon, Young-Hee ; Ryang, Hwan-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 9~13
The dissipation of insecticide fenitrothion(O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), fungicide IBP(S-benzyl O, O-diisopropyl phosphorothioate), and herbicide butachlor(N-butozymethyl-2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide) in flooded soil planted with rice plants was investigated in outdoor pot conditions. The half lives of IBP, butachlor and fenitrothion in the flooding water treated with IBP at 98g, butachlor at 352.8g, and fenitrothion at 100g ai/10a, were 3.6, 1.7 and within 1 day, respectively. The concentration of fenitrothion at 5 days after application was found to be less than 0.0lppm. In the case of IBP and butachlor after 20 days, the concentration was 0.025 and 0.004ppm, respectively. The concentration of fenitrothion, IBP, butachlor in a soil depth of 0-3cm was 0.07, 1.45 and 3.37ppm on the 3rd day after application, and below 0.05, 0.18, 0.39ppm after 7 days, respectively. However, 27 days after application concentration of IBP and butachlor at 0-5cm soil depth resulted in 0.04 and 0.05ppm, respectively. The disappearance of pesticides was remarkably rapid, compared to those in the some soil under the laboratory conditions. Differences in the concentration of IBP in different soil profiles were few, but amounts of butachlor were remarkably higher at 0-2cm soil depth than below 2cm soil depth.
Residue Determination of Chlorothalonil in Sesame and Soil
Lee, Kang-Bong ; Cho, Ill-Kyu ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 15~22
The efects of application time on the persistence of chlorothalonil in sesame plants and its persistence in soil were studied in the field. A procedure was used which permited the analysis of residues of Chlorothalonil (DACONIL 2787) in sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)and soil. The procedure was based on the multiresidue analytical method using an polarized acetonitrile solution or acidified acetone as the extracting solvent. The DACONIL 2787 is separated from the fat in the extracts by using an activated alumina and Florisil chromatogaphic column. Residues of DACONIL 2787 were determined by subjecting the alternate eluate from the Florisil column to gas chromatographic analysis(ECD). Residue of chlorothalonil in sesame are proved to 0.06 ppm for six sprays, 3rd day before harvest The half-life of chlorothalonil in soil proved to be 8.9 days and residues of chlorothalonil was only 0.03 ppm 100 days after application of 15 ppm.
Contamination of the Mushim-Cheon and its Countermeasures;I. Analysis of the Water Samples in Summer
Lee, Jea-Koo ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Kim, Hak-Nam ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 23~37
In order to disclose the contamination of the Mushim-Cheon by pollutants in August and September of 1989 and to establish countermeasures, the collected water samples were analyzed to obtain the following results : 1. The water temperature of the period ranged from 25.8 to
acceptable for the growth of microorganisms and algae to allow the self-purification of the stream. 2. The pHs at the sites during the same period ranged from 6.5 to 8.5 which fall within the allowed values for the first grade water supplies except for site 14. 3. At site 18 which is the confluence of the sewer of the excretion disposal facilities and the main stream, the DO was observed to fall down to 0.7 ppm in September. 4. The BOD value reached a maximum of 62.1 ppm at site 18, which far exceeded the limit of 40 ppm, the allowed value for the discharges from the disposal facilities. In addition, the SS values were 200 and 520 ppm in August and September, respectively, which were three to seven times as high as the allowed limit of 70 ppm. 5. The high
value of 46.2 ppm at site 18 in September suggested that the water was heavily contaminated with excretions. 6. The BOD load of the sewage from site 12, the Sajik-Dong Sewer, in September was estimated to be about 0.306 ton/day. 7. The contamination of the influents, the family wastewater, and the discharges from the disposal facilities was greater than that of the main stream. 8. In the samples collected from site 12, the Sajik-Dong sewer at an interval of every two hours, a close correlation was observed between the pollutant load and the life cycle of the nearby inhabitants. 9. Compared with the results obtained from the water samples in 1979, it was observed that the water was heavily contaminated at site 12 (the Sajik-Dong Sewer, under the Chung Ju Great Bridge) and site 15 (Under the 2nd Uncheon Bridge) over the last 10 years, with little difference at site 9(Young Un-Dong water supply source).
Secretion Characteristics of Mugineic Acid and Its Analogous Phytosiderophore from High Heavy Metal-Induced Rice Roots
Lee, Jyung-Jae ; Hidenori, Wada ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 39~45
We established HPLC method for MAs (mugineic acid and its analogous phytosiderophore) determination. It was found that major phytosiderophores existed in high heavy metal-induced rice roots were MA (mugineic acid) and DMA (2'-deoxymugineic acid). The two MAs (MA and DMA) were simultaneously secreted at maximum rate at 12 : 00-14 : 00. On the other hand, the secretion of amino acids gradually decreased from after sunrise (7 : 00) to sunset (21 : 00). Fluctuaton in daily MAs secretion had rhythmic variation which occurred at intervals of about 4 days. The stimulation of MAs secretion from the roots was attributed not only to the light/dark cycle but to the increase in temperature. Temperature variation played a more important role than a photoperiod in MAs secretion from the roots. The initiation time of MAs secretion was positively correlated with rising time in temperature(
) during the dark period.
Evaluation of Metaldehyde Residues on Chinese Cabbage
Lee, Jae-Young ; Kim, Sung-Moon ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 47~52
Metaldehyde Granule (6%) was sprayed 7, 15 and 30 days before harvest at the level of 0.3kg AI/l0a to evaluate metaldehyde residues on the inner and outer part of chinese cabbage. Roots of chinese cabbage were also analyzed. Results were as follows : 1. The amount of free acetaldehyde in chinese cabbage was 0.02-0.18ppm. 2. It was shown that metaldehyde residues in the leaf and root of chinese cabbage increased as the number of treatment increased and treatment period decreased. 3. The metaldehyde residue range in the leaf was in the range of 0.11-1.4ppm 4. The difference of metaldehyde residue on the inner and outer part of chinese cabbage was in the range of 0.01-0.6ppm and the residue on inner parts was slightly higher than outer part. 5. The metaldehyde residue in the root was in the range of 0.04-0.63ppm.
Effects of Hydroponic Systems on Root Environments of Tomato Plant
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Lee, Yong-Beom ; Bae, Gong-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 53~59
Root zone environments in hydroponics are very important factors in crop growth, development and quality. In Korea, improvement of root zone temperature is required because of the continental climate. Therefore, this investigation was carried out to clarify the difference of root zone environments in different hydroponic systems under different climates. Tomato plants were grown in nutrient solutions at Seoul City University and Allen Cooper's. Hydroponic systems in this experiment were aeroponics, nutrient film technique(NFT), rockwool culture, sand culture and smoked rice hull culture(SRH). The decrease in temperature rapidly occured in sand culture while slowly in rockwool culture in low air temperature periods. The internal temperature of substrates of hydroponic bed were slightly changed in rockwool culture under high air temperature periods, while the duration of high temperature was longest in NFT. Electrical conductivity and pH of nutrient solution showed great changes in rockwool and aeroponics. Along the bed, the content of dissolved oxygen in nutrient solution had a tendency to decrease in NFT and DFT(Deep flow technique), while didn`t a change with aeroponics. Root activity measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was highest with aeroponics, followed by rockwool culture and NFT.
The Nature of Agricultural Environment and its Maintenance
Hyun, Jai-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 1, 1990, Pages 61~68
The pressure to develop new agricultural technologies will be roughly proportional to the rate of depletion of natural resources employed in agriculture. Of these resources, land, water and gentic resources are critical. The development of agriculture is associated with a scientific and technological establishment, of remarkable capability ; responding rapidly to many problems encountered by the agricultural production. These advantages are also coupled with constraints. Agricultural systems are concerned with the efficient conversion of resources into products that are wanted by the producer or someone else who is prepared to pay for them. They are based on biological processes, but they are operated by the people for a multiplicity of purposes. Study of agricultural systems is aimed at helping in the operation of systems, their repair or their improvement. The future concerns of agriculture will center on (1) increasing and safeguarding the supplies of productive inputs to agriculture, (2) improving the efficiency with which these inputs are used in food production, (3) developing new sources of basic food materials, and (4) coping with the external costs that tend to appear in intensive, mechanized agriculture.