Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 1990
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 1990
Selecting the target year
Effect of Pesticides on Change of Soil Microflora in Flooded Paddy Soil
Han, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Choi, Hyo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 83~95
This study was conducted to estimate influences of pesticides such as carbofuran[2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methyl carbamate] as an insecticide, and pyrazolate [4-(2,4-dichlorobenzolyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-pyrazolyl-1,3-dimethyl-5-pyrazolyl-p-toluensulfonate], pyrazolate+pretilachlor [2-chlor-2,6-diethyl-N-(n-propoxyethyl) acetanilied] as herbicides on change in numbers of soil microorganisms and pH in planted and unplanted flooded rice paddy soils. The results of weekly investigated change of pH and populations of total bacteria, gram negative bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and fungi after treatments of pesticides were as follows : The change of pH in rice-planted soil gradually decreased in a matter of weeks after treatment with pesticide and the pH increased again from the sixth week, but no change of pH could be observed in nonplanted soil. The total numer of bacteria in the treated plots were slightly less than in the control plot, and the numbers decreased with increasing application rates of pesticides. But the microbial population increased in a matter of days after treatment with pesticide. Number of the gram negative bacteria until the sixth week after treatment of pesticide were fewer than control. The number in the carbofuran-treated plot decreased after a weeks after treatment, but numbers in plots treated with pyrazolate and pyrazolate+pretilachlor increased. The number of anaerobic bacteria in the treated plots were few by comparison with the untreated control, but the number increased after a weeks after treatment with pesticides. The populations of fungi in the carbofuran-treated plot were similar by comparison with the untreated control. The populations in the plots treated with pyrazolate and pyrazolate+pretilachlor decreased in 4 to 5 weeks with increase of application rate, but afterwards increased.
Effect of activities of monooxygenase,
on the degradation of diazinon and dursban in submerged soil
Choi, Jong-Woo ; Rhee, Young-Ha ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 97~103
In order to determine the major biochemical degradation factors of the two organophosphorus insecticides, diazinon and dursban, the activities of monooxygenase(m. o.) and
were studied in submerged soil under laboratory conditions at
The degradation rate of diazinon by microorganism showed 1.5 times higher than dursban. The m. o. activity increased from 12hrs and 3days after application of diazinon and dursban, respectively. But the
activity showed maximum at one day after application of dursban and
days after diazinon application. Also, the
activity was about 10 times higher than
. Hence, it was concluded that the biological degradation of diazinon was mainly attributed to m. o. activity and the degradation of dursban to
Adsorption of Butachlor on Soils
Kim, Kyun ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 105~111
The soil adsorption coefficient of butachlor was measured mainly following the guidelines of U. S. EPA and OECD. The soil adsorption coefficient, Koc, of butachlor agreed well with the values in the literature. It was observed that soil adsorption differed about 5% with an increase or decrease by
, implying that temperature does affect soil adsorption. The estimated value of the soil adsorption coefficient using water solubility and molecular structure deviated by factors of 2 and 20, respectively. The soil adsorption coefficient, Koc, of butachlor was 543 so this value means that butachlor is tightly bound to organic matter in soil and is considered immobile. A novel trial estimating the soil adsorption coefficient by molecular structure might be utilized to design efficient and/or non-polluting agrochemicals by organic chemists.
Effects of Heavy Metals Cr, Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn on Growth of Radish and Chinese Cabbage in Soils
Moon, Young-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Hwi ; Ryang, Hwan-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 113~119
The germination and growth of radish and chiness cabbage in soils treated with Cr, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn at 20, 50, 100 and 200 ppm were determined. The germination of radish and chiness cabbage in soils was greatly affected by addition of Ni and Cr at 200 ppm, but almost not at all by treatment with Cd, Cu, and Zn even 200 ppm. The injury to the growth of crops was generally the highest with Cr, followed by Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn, and more with chiness cabbage with radish. Serious crop injury appeared at 20 ppm of Cr, 50 ppm of Ni, Cd and Cu, and 200 ppm of Zn on radish, and at 20 ppm of Cr, Ni, Cd and Cu, and 200ppm of Zn of chiness cabbage. However, crop inhibition decreased greatly with addition of compost and lime.
Effect ofMunicipal Sludge on contents of Cadmium and Zinc in Crop Plants
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Kim, Joo-Young ; Yoo, Han-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 121~131
Four crop plants, such as green onion(Allium ascalonicum L.), radish(Raphanus sativus L.), potato(Solanum tubersum L.) and chinese cabbage(Brassica pekinensis Rupr), were grown in greenhouses to determine the accumulations of Cd and Zn absorbed by the plants grown on soils treated with municipal sewage sludge of different levels of 0, 22.5, 45.0 and 90.0 ton
as soil dry weight. The result was analyzed to be comparable to the heavy metal content in the plant tissues among the crop species and the statistical characteristics were investigated to determin a possible relationship between causes of increased contents of Cd and Zn in plants and in soils. The results were as follows : 1. The Cd and Zn content in experimental crop plants increased with increase in quantity of treatment sludge. 2. The Cd and Zn content in roots of all experimental plants increased with sludge treatment amount in soil, in the following order : green onion>potato>chinese cabbage>radish. 3. The Cd content in leaves of crop plants were high in this order : green onion>radish>potato>chinese cabbage, and the Zn content in leaves of crop plants was high in this order. : potato>radish>chinese cabbage>green onion. 4. Concentrations of Cd in potato tubers, radish roots and chinese cabbage leaves ranged from 0.03 to 0.12 ppm. 5. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in plant tissues grown in sludge treated soil of 90.0 ton
were 1.2 to 10 times and 0.4 to 2.3 times higher as compared with those absorbed from sludge-free soil, respectively. 6. The accumulation rates of Cd and Zn in sludge-treated plant tissue were almost constant except for green onion roots.
The Concentration and Input/Output of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Paddy Fields
Shin, Dong-Seok ; Kwun, Soon-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 133~141
For the purpose of evaluating nutrient loadings into rivers and lakes from agricultural land, especially from paddy fields and also nutrient degradation in drainage channels, the Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen(TKN) and the Total Phosphorus(TP) were investigated in 29.5 ha. paddy fields in Hwa-Sung, Kyong-Ki, Korea, during the period from May 8, 1989 to Sep. 27, 1989. The results of the study can be su㎜arized as follows : 1. Annual inputs into paddy fields were 180 N-kg/ha 46 P-kg/ha. by fertilization, and 15.0 TKN-kg/ha. 10.0 TP-kg/ha. by irrigation, 8.0 TKN-kg/ha. 0.34 TP-kg/ha. by rainfall respectively. The amount of nutrient involved in surface runoff from paddies was 39.0 TKN-kg/ha. 9.2 TP-kg/ha. and in seepage 7.5 TKN-kg/ha. 2.1 TP-kg/ha. respectively 2. In WS1 stream(reach length equals 950m), nutrients decreased 0.31 TKN-mg/L/km, 0.01 TP-mg/L/km and in WS2 stream (reach length equals 750m) which are more meandering and undulating than WS1, the nutrients decreased 0.84 TKN-mg/L/km, 0.11 TP-mg/L/km. From these results, it was concluded that low stream velocity due to meandering and undulation promotes more degradation of nutrient concentrations. 3. For the purpose of decreasing nutrient loads from paddy fields, the amount of fertilizer used needs to be controlled, irrigation weirs need to be constructed in the drainage channels to delay the transportation of nutrients by decelerating the stream velocity and plants such as plantain-lily need to be cultivated in the channel to consume nutrients and therefore enlarge chances of self-purification.
Effects of Culture Media and Nutrient Solutions on the Yield and Quality of Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) and Tomato (Lyocpersicon esculentum MILL.)
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Lee, Yong-Beom ; Choi, Nam-Hoon ; Jeong, Jin-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 143~151
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of different types of nutrient solutions and culture media on the growth and quality of cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The results are summarized as follows : 1. The growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were best in rockwool culture with Cooper solution. 2. In sand-sack culture, growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were higher with compound fertillzer solution. 3. Growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were more effective in rockwool culture than in soil culture in early growth stages, and vice versa in later growth stages. 4. Vitamin C contents of cucumber and tomato showed no differences between soil cultures and hydroponics, except rockwool culture with compound fertilizer solution. 5. The dry weight, total-N, and mineral content of cucumber and tomato showed no differences among all types of hydroponics.
The degradation o Diazinon by hepatic monooxygenase of Pig
Ryoo, Jong-Gook ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 9, issue 2, 1990, Pages 153~159
Two fractions(microsomal and soluble) were prepared by ultracentrifugation(105,000G for 1hr at
) from pig liver in order to find the major factor in Diazinon degradation. The two enzyme activities showed the same value, but Diazinon was degraded three times in microsomal fraction more than in soluble fraction. And with addition of EPN, Beam and PBO, degradation of diazinon was inhibited(29, 30 and 60%) as well as Monooxygenase activity (14, 15 and 35%) in microsomal fraction, respectively.