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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
Petrological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Dec 2001
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Aug 2001
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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The Study of Age Determination Using Stepwise Dissolution Technique
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 133~147
Recently developing method of age determination using stepwise dissolution technique to expand the applicability of absolute age determination significantly is evaluated whether it is applicable to the Korean samples. The materials selected for the study are uranium-bearing black slates from Changni Formation of Ogcheon metamorphic belt, tourmaline separated from Naedeongni granite of Yeongnam massif, garnet and ilmenite separated from ilmenite-bearing anorthositic rock of Yeongnam massif, scheelites from Ogbang mine, and magnetite separated from Gyemyeongsan Formation of Ogcheon metamorphic belt. For the stepwise dissolution, various acid steps with different normalities and different durations were applied to leach the samples. The leachate from each step was analyzed to determine the Pb isotopic composition and concentrations of Pb and U using thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The black slates from the Changni Formation and the tourmaline from the Naedeongni granite reveal significant variation of Pb isotopic composition, which reveals the potential of such stepwise dissolution technique as a dating method. The behaviors of uranium and lead during the each stage of step leaching are different, which seem to reflect the differences in positions within the crystal lattices depending upon mineral species.
U disequilibrium dating of fracture-filling carbonate veins from the Ipsil and Janghangri fault zones, Gyeongju, Korea by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 148~156
disequilibrium ages of fracture-filling carbonate veins from the Ipsil and Janghangri fault zones, Gyeongju, Korea by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The U and Th fraction was extracted from totally dissolved samples by rapid and convenient coprecipitation and ion exchange chemistry. The recovery was around 80% for Th and 70% for U. The
ratios were analysed for this preconcentrated fraction and the U/Th ratio was directly analysed for untreated sample solution. The
system is in secular equilibrium for the Ipsil carbonate samples, supporting previously reported ESR ages. The detrital-corrected
age of the Janghangri carbonate samples is
41 ka, which constrains the minimum age of the fracture zone.
Rapid and Precise Determination of Pb Isotope Ratios Using Mu1ti-Collector ICP/MS
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 157~171
This study investigated the effects of Pb/Tl ratio, Pb concentration and concomitant matrix elements on the measurement of Pb isotope ratios using multi-collector ICP/MS (AXIOM MC model). Accuracy and reproducibility of Pb isotope ratios in NBS 981 solution were estimated for 42 data measured from March to August 2001. Pb isotopes measured in rocks, bronzes and sediments were compared to data measured by TIMS. Reproducibilities for
ratio were about 500 ppm (2sd) and for
were 100~200 ppm for 200 ng of Pb in NBS 981 solution. The optimum conditions for the analysis of Pb isotope ratios with AXIOM MC for best accuracy and reproducibility were defined as follows; 1) Pb/Tl ratio is about 10 2) Pb concentration is about 100 ng/ml 3) correction for mass discrimination is performed by exponential law using 2.3887 of
and Pb mass fractionation factor empirically obtained from
relationship. The sample data measured with MC/ICP/MS for acid-digested and chemically separated rock samples, and acid-digested bronze samples and sediment samples coincide with those of TIMS within analytical errors. Therefore, MC/ICP/MS is a rapid analytical technique for Pb isotope ratios with the similar precision compared with TIMS.
New K-Ar dating system in Korea Basic Science Institute: Summary and Performance
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 172~178
K-Ar dating system of Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) was installed in 1997 and has been used since then. The system consists of high temperature graphite furnace, gas purification system, and mass spectrometer with data acquisition system. K-Ar age is determined by the measurement of the concentrations of Ar and K through isotope dilution method using
as spike and flame spectroscopy, respectively. The accuracy and reliability for the K-Ar age are checked using the several K-Ar standard materials. Although the exact age determination for young samples of less than 1 Ma is hampered by small fluctuations of sensitivity and mass discrimination, the present system yields the reliable K-Ar age compared to the standard materials of Tertiary and Mesozoic age. The measurements for the SORI93 biotite with the recommended K-Ar age of
0.6 Ma and Bern4M muscovite of
0.6 Ma yield the reliable age of
1.1 Ma and
0.2 Ma, respectively.
Chemical Age Dating of Zircon and Monazite by E1ectron Microprobe
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 179~189
The determination of trace concentration of U, Th and Pb was carried out for chemical dating of zircon and monazite by electron microprobe. Detection limit and error range should be considered to measure characteristic X-rays of M-line from those minerals, which are low in the ionization of atom and low peak intensity in the spectrum. The element of U, Th and Pb were simultaneously measured with 3 spectrometers equipped with PET crystal to reduce a total counting time and error due to drift of instrumental operating condition. Detection limit could be improved from increase of the peak/background ratio through adjusting pulse height analyzer about 1000 mv baseline. Under permissible maximum analytical conditions, theoretical detection limit of U, Th and Pb is down to 30 ppm (99% confidence level). The analytical result was maintained at a relative error
) in 800 ppm Pb,
) in 2330 ppm U and
) in dating from a single measurement of zircon at 15 keV and 100 nA. However, for the precise dating of zircon and monazite, if it is considered a 3
spatial resolution, <100 ppm (
) detection limit and <
) relative error, optimum analytical conditions are given as 15~20 keV accelerating voltage, 100~200 nA beam current and 300~1200 sec total counting time. To reduce material damage by high current, there is need to be up to 3~5
of electron beam diameter, or to use arithmetic average of multiple measuring at a shorter counting time. A younger or relatively low concentration rocks can be dated chemically by lower detection limit and improved precision resulted from increase of current and measuring time.
Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometry with Isotope Dilution Method: An application to Rare Earth Element Geochemistry
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 190~201
Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry(IDMS) is one of the analytical method which uses enriched isotope spikes and analyzes the abundance of element by comparison of the spectrum between spiked mass and non-spike mass. Especially, the Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometry with isotope dilution technique (in general ID-TIMS) is the most accurate method of the chemical analysis, which enables us to obtain the data better than 1% in accuracy and precision. In IDMS, enriched isotope spike is one of the most important factor in order to obtain the best data. For rare earth elements, in general, a mixture of /sup 138/La, /sup 142/Ce, /sup 145/Nd, /sup 149/Sm, /sup 151/Sm, /sup 151/Eu, /sup 157/Gd, /sup 163/Dy, /sup 167/Er, /sup 171/Yb, and /sup 176/Lu is used as composite spike. IDMS is very useful in geochronology and REE geochemistry. Especially, it is very effective in studying the “tetrad effect” of rare earth elements in natural samples.
Optical dating of Quaternary sediment
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 202~211
Luminescence is a physical phenomenon exhibited by many non-conducting, crystalline materials, such as quartz and feldspar. Within the crystals, energy absorbed from ionising radiation frees electrons to move through the crystal lattice and some are trapped at defects in the lattice. Observable luminescence is produced by electrons, released from traps by stimulation by absorption of light, which recombine with lattice defects which act as luminescence centers - optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In a similar way to thermoluminescence(TL) dating, controlled measurement of the OSL signal can provide a means of determining the time since the last exposure of a layer of sediment to sunlight, the age of the sediment. However, whereas in the thermoluminescence dating of sediment only part of the latent thermoluminescence signal is bleached by sunlight as the sediment is deposited and allowance must be made during the laboratory measurements for the light insensitive component, optically induced luminescence dating has the advantage of working only with light sensitive traps in the crystal. Determination of the time since deposition of Quaternary sediment samples from the OSL of quartz grains using blue light was performed. A series of experiments and recent developments relating OSL dating are described, beginning by identifying the features which make OSL signals suitable for the development of dating method. Additionally, there are suggestions as to future research for obtaining reliable ages and a comment on current best practice on procedures, with the dating results of Quaternary sediment.
Earth and Environmental Sciences with Synchrotron Radiation
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 212~221
This paper introduces the characteristics and generation of the synchrotron radiation (SR). SR has the very high spectral brilliance, broad spectral range, X-ray wavelength tunability, high degree of polarization and collimation, and pulsed time structure. Also describes the technologies to apply in the fields of geology and environmental sciences. These include X-ray tomography, XRF, EXAFS, XANES, DAC, IVP experiments. Further, nuclear power generation and nuclear waste disposal methods are mentioned relating to energy. Using these, analyses of the chemistry, crystal structure and chemical combining states of minerals and rocks can be carried out. Applications in the fields of the economic geology, paleontology and environmental sciences are open too. Informations of the Earth interior materials' behavior under high pressure-temperature can be acquired.
Secondary Ion Man Spectrometry: Theory rind Applications in Geosciences
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 222~232
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) uses focused high-speed primary ions to produce secondary ions from sample surface that are analyzed through a mass filter. SIMS is often called as ion microprobe, since it offers a micrometer-scale spatial resolution. Although the precision and accuracy of SIMS are not as good as many conventional mass spectrometers, it has several advantages such as small sample-size requirement, high spatial resolution and capability of in-situ analysis. In the field of geochemistry/cosmochemistry, SIMS is widely used for (1) stable isotope geochemistry of H, C, O, S, etc., (2) geochronology of U/Th-bearing minerals, (3) lateral distribution of trace elements in a mineral, and (4) discovery of presolar grains and investigation of their isotopic compositions.
Theory of NMR Spectoscopy and Its Application in Geoenvironmental Sciences
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2001, Pages 233~245
With the advent of super-conducting magnet, NMR spectroscopy becomes a very important tool in geology as well as in chemistry.
which are the main components of minerals and contain structural informations, are useful major targets for the NMR study in geology, but some other elements including alkali cations such as
are also one of them. NMR can be applied to many different fields. For example, it can be applied to study smaller range of structure (in molecular level) than XRD and TEM. NMR provides us with structural informations such as order-disorder in Al and Si distribution, oxygen coordination number, and distribution of other cations. Another important information that we can obtain from NMR is not only the static structural informations, but also the molecular dynamics. This dynamic informations of molecules also enable us to figure out the frequency of molecular motion and activation energy. Structure of amorphous minerals and chemistry and structure of natural organic materials are also studied by NMR.