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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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Petrological Society of Korea
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Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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The tectonic evolution of South Korea and Northeast Asia from Paleoproterozoic to Triassic
Oh, Chang-Whan ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 59~87
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.059
Recent studies reveal that eclogite formed in the Hongseong area and post collision igneous rocks occurred throughout the Gyeonggi Massif during the Triassic Songrim Orogeny. These new findings derive the tectonic model in which the Triassic Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks extends into the Hongseong-Yangpyeong-Odesan collision belt in Korea. The belt may be further extended into the late Paleozoic subduction complex in the Yanji belt in North Korea through the Paleozoic subduction complex in the inner part of SW Japan. The collision belt divides the Gyeonggi Massif into two parts; the northern and southern parts can be correlated to the North and South China blocks, respectively. The collision had started from Korea at ca. 250 Ma and propagated to China. The collision completed during late Triassic. The metamorphic conditions systematically change along the collision belt:. ultrahigh temperature metamorphism occurred in the Odesan area at 245-230Ma, high-pressure metamorphism in the Hongseong area at 230 Ma and ultra high-pressure metamorphism in the Dabie and Sulu belts. This systematic change may be due to the increase in the depth of slab break-off towards west, which might be related to the increase of the amounts of subducted ocecnic slab towards west. The wide distribution of Permo-Triassic arc-related granitoids in the Yeongnam Massif and in the southern part of the South China block indicate the Permo-Triassic subduction along the southern boundary of the South China block which may be caused by the Permo-Triassic collision between the North and South China blocks. These studies suggest that the Songrim orogeny constructed the Korean Peninsula by continent collision and caused the subduction along the southern margin of the Yeongnam Massif. Both the northern and southern Gyeonggi Massifs had undergone 1870-1840 Ma igneous and metamorphic activities due to continent collision and subduction related to the amalgamation of Colombia Supercontinent. The Okcheon metamorphic belt can be correlated to the Nanhua rift formed at 760 Ma within the South China blocks. In that case, the southern Gyeonggi Massif and Yeongnam Massif can be correlated to the Yangtz and Cathaysia blocks in the South China block, respectively. Recently possible Devonian or late Paleozoic sediments are recognized within the Gyeonggi Massif by finding of Silurian and Devonian detrital zircons. Together with the Devonian metamorphism in the Hongseong and Kwangcheon areas, the possible middle Paleozoic sediments indicate an active tectonic activity within the Gyeonggi Massif during middle Paleozoic before the Permo-Triassic collision.
Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Korean Peninsula
Lee, Seung-Ryeol ; Cho, Kyung-O ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 89~112
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.089
The Korean Peninsula consists of three Precambrian blocks: Nangrim, Gyeonggi and Yeongnam massifs. Here we revisited previous stratigraphic relationships, largely based on new geochronologic data, and investigated the crustal evolution history of the Precambrian massifs. The Precambrian strata have been usually divided into lower crystalline basements and upper supracrustal rocks. The former has been considered as Archean or Paleoproterozoic in age, whereas the latter as Paleoproterozoic or later. However, both are revealed as the Paleoproterozoic (2.3-1.8 Ga) strata as a whole, and Archean strata are very limited in the Korean Peninsula. These make the previous stratigraphic system wrong and require reconsideration. The oldest age of the basement rocks can be dated as old as Paleoarchean, suggested by the occurrence of ~3.6 Ga inherited zircon. However, most of crust-forming materials were extracted from mantle around ~2.7 Ga, and produced major portions of crust materials at ~2.5 Ga, which make each massif a discrete continental mass. After that, all the massifs belonged to continental margin orogen during the Paleoproterozoic time, and experienced repeated intracrustal differentiation. After the final cratonization occurring at ~1.9-1.8 Ga, they were stabilized as continental platforms. The Nangrim and Gyeonggi massif included local sedimentary deposition as well as igneous activity during Meso-to Neoproterozoic, but the Yeongnam massif remained stable before the development of Paleozoic basin.
Geochemical Composition of the Continental Crust in Korean Peninsula
Lee, Seung-Gu ; Kim, Dong-Yeon ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 113~128
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.113
The chemical composition of the continental crust play an important role in understanding of crustal formation and evolution and quantifying other processes taking place within continental crust. We summarized geochemical data reported in the previous literature for the crustal rocks in the Korean Peninsula and divided their chemical composition into geologic time scale. In the variation diagram normalized by average composition of the upper crustal rocks, the geochemical characteristics of the upper crust during Triassic period is different from those of the upper crustal rocks after Jurassic period or before Precambrian. However, the geochemical characteristics of the Jurassic and Precambrian period are similar each other. Our summarized data indicate that the source material of Triassic upper crust may be different from that of Jurassic or Precambrian upper crust.
Tectonic evolution of the Central Ogcheon Belt, Korea
Kang, Ji-Hoon ; Hayasaka, Yasutaka ; Ryoo, Chung-Ryul ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 129~150
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.129
The tectonic evolution of the Central Ogcheon Belt has been newly analyzed in this paper from the detailed geological maps by lithofacies classification, the development processes of geological structures, microstructures, and the time-relationship between deformation and metamorphism in the Ogcheon, Cheongsan, Mungyeong Buunnyeong, Busan areas, Korea and the fossil and radiometric age data of the Ogcheon Supergroup(OSG). The 1st tectonic phase(
) is marked by the rifting of the original Gyeonggi Massif into North Gyeonggi Massif(present Gyeonggi Massif) and South Gyeonggi Massif (Bakdallyeong and Busan gneiss complexes). The Joseon Supergroup(JSG) and the lower unit(quartzose psammitic, pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks) of OSG were deposited in the Ogcheon rift basin during Early Paleozoic time, and the Pyeongan Supergroup(PSG) and its upper unit(conglomerate and pelitic rocks and acidic rocks) appeared in Late Paleozoic time. The 2nd tectonic phase(Ogcheon-Cheongsan phase/Songnim orogeny: D1), which occurred during Late Permian-Middle Triassic age, is characterized by the closing of Ogcheon rift basin(= the coupling of the North and South Gyeonggi Massifs) in the earlier phase(Ogcheon subphase: D1a), and by the coupling of South China block(Gyeonggi Massif and Ogcheon Zone) and North China block(Yeongnam Massif and Taebaksan Zone) in the later phase(Cheongsan subphase: D1b). At the earlier stage of D1a occurred the M1 medium-pressure type metamorphism of OSG related to the growth of coarse biotites, garnets, staurolites. At its later stage, the medium-pressure type metamorphic rocks were exhumed as some nappes with SE-vergence, and the giant-scale sheath fold, regional foliation, stretching lineation were formed in the OSG. At the D1b subphase which occurs under (N)NE-(S)SW compression, the thrusts with NNE- or/and SSW-vergence were formed in the front and rear parts of couple, and the NNE-trending Cheongsan shear zone of dextral strike-slip and the NNE-trending upright folds of the JSG and PSG were also formed in its flank part, and Daedong basin was built in Korean Peninsula. After that, Daedong Group(DG) of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic was deposited. The 3rd tectonic phase(Honam phase/Daebo orogeny: D2) occurred by the transpression tectonics of NNE-trending Honam dextral strike-slip shearing in Early~Late Jurassic time, and formed the asymmetric crenulated fold in the OSG and the NNE-trending recumbent folds in the JSG and PSG and the thrust faults with ESE-vergence in which pre-Late Triassic Supergroups override DG. The M2 contact metamorphism of andalusite-sillimanite type by the intrusion of Daebo granitoids occurred at the D2 intertectonic phase of Middle Jurassic age. The 4th tectonic phase(Cheongmari phase: D3) occurred under the N-S compression at Early Cretaceous time, and formed the pull-apart Cretaceous sedimentary basins accompanying the NNE-trending sinistral strike-slip shearing. The M3 retrograde metamorphism of OSG associated with the crystallization of chlorite porphyroblasts mainly occurred after the D2. After the D3, the sinistral displacement(Geumgang phase: D4) occurred along the Geumgang fault accompanied with the giant-scale Geumgang drag fold with its parasitic kink folds in the Ogcheon area. These folds are intruded by acidic dykes of Late Cretaceous age.
Metamorphism and Deformation of the Late Paleozoic Pyeongan Supergroup in the Taebaeksan Basin: Reviews on the Permo-Triassic Songrim Orogeny
Kim, Hyeong-Soo ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 151~171
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.151
The Permo-Triassic Songrim orogeny in the Korean peninsula was a major tectonic event involving complicated continental collisions at the eastern margin of Eurasia. Based on the previous studies on the metamorphic and deformations features of the Songrim orogeny, this paper presents metamorphic and structural characteristics and timing of the Songrim orogeny in the Taebaeksan basin, and discuss about correlation of the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Taebaeksan basin with the Okcheon basin and the Imjingang belt with a combined analysis of bulk crustal shortening direction, metamorphic P-T and T-t (time) paths. The metapelites in the Pyeongan Supergroup in the northeastern margin of the Taebaeksan basin have experienced lower-temperature/medium-pressure (LT/MP) regional metamorphism followed by high-temperature contact metamorphism due to the Jurassic granite intrusion. The earlier LT/MP regional metamorphism produced two loops of clockwise P-T-d (deformation) paths combined with four deformation events (
). The first loop concomitant with
, 1.5-3.0 kbar, and related with growth of syn-
chloritoid and andalusite, post-
margarite, Ca-rich syn-
plagioclase. The second loop accompanying
, 2.0-6.0 kbar, and associated with the growth of syn-
garnet and staurolite, and syn-
andalusite porphyroblasts. Furthermore the syn-
chloritoid and andalusite porphyroblasts grew during E-W bulk crustal shortening, whereas the syn-
garnet and staurolite, and the syn-
andalusite porphyroblasts have grown under N-S bulk crustal shortening. The similarity in the characteristics and timing of the metamorphism and bulk crustal shortening directions between the Okcheon and Imjingang belts suggest that the peak metamorphic conditions tend to increase toward the western part (Imjingang belt and southwestern part of the Gyeonggi Massif) from the eastern part (Taebaeksan basin). The E-W bulk crustal shortening influenced the eastern part of the Okcheon belt, whereas the N-S bulk crustal shortening resulted in strong deformation in the Imjingang and Okcheon belts. Consequently, the Permo-Triassic Songrim orogeny in the Korean peninsula is probably not only related to collision of the North and South China blocks, but also to the amalgamation of terrane fragments at the eastern Eurasia margin (e.g., collision of the Sino-Korean continent and the Hida-Oki terrane).
Review of Radiometric Ages for Phanerozoic Granitoids in Southern Korean Peninsula
Cheong, Chang-Sik ; Kim, Nam-Hoon ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 173~192
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.173
Previous age data were reviewed for 98 sites of Phanerozoic granitoids in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Subduction-related granitic magmatism has occurred in southeastern Korea since Early Permian. In the middle part of the Yeongnam massif, arc-related tonalites, trondhjemites, granodiorites, and monzonites were emplaced during Early Triassic. After Middle Triassic continental collision in central Korean Peninsula, post-collisional shoshonitic and high-K series and A-type granitoids were emplaced in the southwestern Gyeonggi massif and central Okcheon belt during Late Triassic. Early Jurassic calc-alkaline granitoids are mostly distributed in the middle part of the Yeongnam massif and Mt. Seorak area, northeastern Gyeonggi massif. On the other hand, Middle Jurassic calc-alkaline granitoids pervasively occur in the Okcheon belt and central Gyeonggi massif. This selective distribution could be attributed to the change in the position of trench, subduction angle, or the direction of subduction. Most Cretaceous and Paleogene granitoids are distributed in the Gyeongsang basin, with the latter emplaced exclusively along the eastern coastline. Outside the Gyeongsang basin, Cretaceous granitoids emplaced in relatively shallow depth occur in the Gyeonggi massif and central Okcheon belt.
Cyclic Igneous Activities During the Late Paleozoic to Early Cenozoic Period Over the Korean Peninsula
Park, Kye-Hun ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 193~202
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.193
There were three cycles of igneous activities from the late Paleozoic to early Cenozoic; Permian to Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous to Paleogene. After the beginning of each igneous activity cycle, igneous activity became more frequent until its climax. It is noteworthy that A-type magmatisms are reported from near the ends of the all three igneous activity cycles. In addition, adakitic magmatisms occurred at the beginning of both the Permian-Triassic and the Cretaceous-Paleogene cycles. Most of the igneous activities during the late Paleozoic to early Cenozoic period were subduction-related. Therefore, transitions among beginning, proceeding, and closing of the igneous activity cycles would be intimately related with changes in directions of plate movements. In this context, I suggest following hypotheses. The closing of the Permian-Triassic igneous cycle was possibly a consequence of radical adjustment of plate motion occurred due to continental collision between north and south China blocks. Considering that no appreciable tectonic activities were recognized from the east Asian continent at the closing of the Jurassic igneous cycle, it seems that one of the strong events related with Gondwanaland-breakup and subsequent birth of the new oceans, which might cause sudden adjustments of plate motions. The closing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene igneous cycle seems to be caused as a consequence of the collision between India and Asia continents. Meanwhile, adakitic igneous bodies emplaced at the beginnings of the Permian-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene cycles could be products of slab-melting during the early stages of the subduction.
Cretaceous to Early Tertiary Granites and Magma Mixing in South Korea : Their Spatio-temporal Variations and Tectonic Implications (Multiple Slab Window Model)
Kim, Jong-Sun ; Kim, Kun-Ki ; Jwa, Yong-Joo ; Son, Moon ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 203~216
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.203
Based on the petrologic and age data of the Cretaceous to early Tertiary granites in south Korea, we propose a new tectonic model reflecting their temporal and spatial variations. A number of petrographic and geochemical studies on the granites suggest that they originated from the magma formed by subduction of oceanic crust in continental margin and were emplaced in epizone. The MMEs with various shapes and sizes, which were produced due to the magma mixing caused by the injection of mafic magma from mantle during the crystallization of the granitic magma, are observed in the granites. The distributions of the MMEs and ages of the granites show a distinctive spatio-temporal distribution pattern. The distribution pattern can be explained by a multiple slab window model related to the ridge subduction of Izanagi-Pacific plates during the Late Cretaceous.
Petrochemical Characteristics and Review on Petrogenesis on Cretaceous to Tertiary Volcanic Rocks in the Kyongsang Basin
Sung, Jong-Gyu ; Kim, Jin-Seop ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 217~233
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.217
Major elements abundances of Cretaceous to Tertiary volcanic rocks in Kyongsang basin are similar with Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) in Andes. Sr, K, Rb,
abundances, which have low ionic charge, are selectively fertile, on the other hand Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf, Sm, Ti, Y, Yb, Sc, Cr abundances are low. K, Sr, Th show characteristic spikes and Nb show remarkable trough on trace elements spider diagram. Trace elements abundances are higher than that of Andes which is supposed to mantle sources of Kyongsang basin volcanic rocks are produced lower degree of partial melting than SVZ in Andes.
Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Korean Peninsula: Implications from Peridotite Xenoliths in Alkali Basalts
Choi, Sung-Hi ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 235~247
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.235
Peridotite xenoliths hosted by alkali basalts from South Korea occur in Baengnyeong Island, Jeju Island, Boeun, Asan, Pyeongtaek and Ganseong areas. K-Ar whole-rock ages of the basaltic rocks range from 0.1 to 18.9 Ma. The peridotites are dominantly lherzolites and magnesian harzburgites, and the constituent minerals are Fo-rich olivine (
), En-rich orthopyroxene, Di-rich clinopyroxene, and Cr-rich spinel (Cr# = 7.8-53.6). Hydrous minerals, such as pargasite and phlogopite, or garnet have not been reported yet. The Korean peridotites are residues after variable degree of partial melting (up to 26%) and melt extraction from fertile MORB mantle. However, some samples (usually refractory harzburgites) exhibit metasomatic enrichment of the highly incompatible elements, such as LREE. Equilibration temperatures estimated using two-pyroxene geothermometry range from ca. 850 to
. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in clinopyroxene separates from the Korean peridotites show trends between depleted MORB-like mantle (DMM) and bulk silicate earth (BSE), which can be explained by secondary metasomatic overprinting of a precursor time-integrated depleted mantle. The Korean peridotite clinopyroxenes define mixing trends between DMM and EM2 end members on Sr-Pb and Nd-Pb isotopic correlation diagrams, without any corresponding changes in the basement. This is contrary to what we observe in late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia which shows two distinct mantle sources such as a DMM-EM1 array for NE China including Baengnyeong Island and a DMM-EM2 array for Southeast Asia including Jeju Island. This observation suggests the existence of large-scale two distinct mantle domains in the shallow asthenosphere beneath East Asia. The Re-Os model ages on Korean peridotites indicate that they have been isolated from convecting mantle between ca. 1.8 and 1.9 Ga.
Rock Deformation and Formation of LPO of Minerals in the Upper Mantle: Implications for Seismic Anisotropy
Jung, Hae-Meong ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 249~261
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.249
Olivine is a dominant mineral in the upper mantle and is elastically very anisotropic. When olivine is deformed under stress at high pressure and high temperature, lattice preferred orientation (LPO) is formed. It is known that the LPO of olivine is affected by water, stress, and pressure. In this paper, I reviewed the papers dealing with the effects of water, stress, and pressure on the LPO of olivine, summarized the papers on the LPOs of olivine in natural mantle rocks, and discussed its implications for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. In addition, I also described four types of LPOs of orthopyroxene recently found in natural spinel lherzolite.
Applied Petrologic Study of the Daebo Biotite Granites in the mid Gyeonggi Massif
Yun, Hyun-Soo ; Hong, Sei-Sun ; Park, Deok-Won ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2012, Pages 263~275
DOI : 10.7854/JPSK.2012.21.2.263
Jurassic Daebo biotite granites, known as one of the main stone resources in the country, are widely and away distributed in the Pocheon and Yangju areas of the mid Gyeonggi massif. The objects of the study are mainly to reveal the unique characteristics of grain size, rock color, mineral composition, physical property and fracture system from the above biotite granites. Biotite granites from the Pocheon area (PG) and Yangju area (YG) are represented by coarse-grained and light gray, and medium to coarse-grained and grayish to light gray, respectively. In modes, main minerals of Qz+Af+Pl (quartz+alkali feldspar+plagioclase) are more increased in the PG, and accessories of biotite are more increased in the YG, which differences can cause the PG more bright light gray than the YG. Specific gravity (SG) shows somewhat more increasing in the YG than the PG. These differences can be caused by more increasing in biotite contents of higher specific gravity compared to the major minerals in the former than the latter. Absorption ratio (AR) and porosity (PR) of the PG and YG show the same values of 0.33 % and 0.86 %, respectively. In the correlations, PR vs SG and AR vs PR show gradually negative and distinctly positive trends, respectively. Compressive strength (CS) and tensile strength (TS) show increasing in the PG (CS: 1,775
, TS: 87
) than the YG (CS: 1,647
, TS: 79
). These strength characteristics could be attributed to the inherent rock textures of them. Abrasive hardness (AH) also shows a little increasing in PG, which can be caused by increase in quartz contents having higher hardness than the other major minerals. Orientations of fracture sets from the PG and YG were compared with those of vertical rift and grain planes in Mesozoic granites of the country. From the overlapped diagram, the distribution pattern between fracture sets and above vertical planes suggests that microcrack systems developed in Mesozoic granites in Korea occur also in the Daebo biotite granite bodies of the mid Gyeonggi massif. From the relation diagram showing the characteristics of fracture patterns for the above two area, PG and YG may have more potentiality for dimension and non-dimension stone resources, respectively.