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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Effect of Rosemary Leaf on Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 283~288
The quality and sensory characteristics of kimchi added various levels of rosemary leaf during fermentation at 15
were evaluated. Rosemary leaf amounts were added 0.5g(R0.5%), 1g(R1%), 1.5g(R1.5%) per brined chinese cabbage 100g. The pHs and reducing sugar contents of all experimental groups decreased with increasing the fermentation time, whereas levels of titratible acidity increased. The pHs and reducing sugar contents of experimental groups added rosemary leaf showed higher than control, but titratible acidity of these groups showed lower. Also, the period reached the maximum levels of the log number of lactic acid bacteria counts(cfu/ml) and total viable bacteria counts(cfu/ml) of experimental groups added rosemary leaf were more delayed than control. These results showed that the fermentation of experimental groups added various levels of rosemary leaf were slower than that of control. On the 5th day of fermentation which had most delicious kimchi flavor, the sensory evaluation analyzed by ANOVA followed Duncan's multiple range test showed that sour smell of experimental groups added rosemary leaf was significantly lower, but green flavor and green smell of these groups were significantly higher than control(p<0.05). The most preference among experimental groups was R0.5% and next was control, R1.5%, R1%.
Studies on the Hydrolysis of Seaweed using Microorganisms and Its Application III. Isolation of Seaweed Hydrolytic Strain from Microfloras in Decayed Pine Tree
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 289~295
This is a part of study on the hydrolysis of seaweed using microorganisms. A microflora sample obtained from a decayed pine tree was purified by pure culture of 4 times. As the result, 16 isolated strains were obtained from the microflora sample and then each strain was incubated in a liquid medium with sea tangle powder for 3 weeks. Ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar of 08A211, 08C221 and 08B121 strains were highest. Accordingly, these three strains were incubated in 3 different liquid media of sodium alginate, sea tangle powder, and sea mustard powder for 3 or 4 weeks. The ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar and cell growth were measured once a week. Cell growth and ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar was highest for 08B121 in all the liquid media.
Isolation of Alliin in Garlic and Its Quantitative Determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Studies on the Antimicrobial Efforts of Alliin and Ethanol Extracts from Korean Garlic(Alliium sativum L.)
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 296~302
First. the purification and analysis of alliin in garlic from different origins by alliin-HPLC determination method were studied. Allinase in garlic was inactivated by heating in boiling water followed by extraction of alliin in garlic with 80% methanol. To remove free amino acids and alliin homologs in garlic, garlic extract was separated by cation exchange column which was packed with amberlite CG-120 resin using 40L d-water as eluent. Alliin in garlic extract was crystallized in a mixture of acetone (50
O：acetic acid=70:29:1 and then recrystallized in a mixture of acetone (50
O：acetic acid=75:24:1. Obtained alliin was identified by melting point. TLC, microscope observation and mass spectrometry. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following pre-column derivatization of cystein derivatives with o-phthaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol has succeessfully been applied to the analysis of various garlics. Each alliic of standard solution and garlic extract was derivatized to isoindole derivative by o-phthaldialdehyde /2-mercaptoethanol and then analyzed by HPLC. Six point calibration was done by using alliin peak area. Lineality was observed at 0 ∼ 1.0mg/ml of alliin concentration. Weighted regression line function was Y=6254X - 256077. By this function, alliin contents in various garlics were 0.34 ∼ 0.73% fresh weight. Second study was designed to evaluate the effects of garlic extracts of various concentrations on the growth of various pathogenes (Eubacterium limonsum, Bacteroides fragilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Kiebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pserdomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli). For antimicrobial effects against microorganism, totally minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) of alliin were from 5,000 to 20,000ppm. MIC of ethanol extract were 1,250 to 10,000ppm.
Antimutagenic and Antioxidative Effects of Methanol Extract of Pine Pollen
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 303~309
This study was performed to investigate the antimutagenic and antioxidative activities of pine pollen with respect to the microbial mutation induced by various mutagens such as 1-NP, daunomycin, 2-NF, MNNG, NaN
, 4NQO, 4-NOPD, AFB
, Trp-P-1, 2-AF and oxidative mutagens such as t-BOOH, H
. Pine pollen, originally extracted with hexane, was reextracted with 70% methanol. The results obtained using the methanol extract, in terms of the antimutagenicity observed in relation to ten kinds of mutagens, showed that it exhibited 17.8, 82.2 and 80.9% inhibitory effects against daunomycin, AFB
, and Trp-P-1, respectively, in Salmonella. typhimurium TA98 and a 72.3% inhibitory effect against AFB
in S. tyPhimurium TA100. In terms of the antimutagenicity exhibited in relation to t-BOOH, a 72.3% inhibitory effect was observed, but no antimutagenicity was observed in relation to the other mutagens and strains. The methanol extract was further fractionated by chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. In S. typhimurium TA98, the chloroform(150
/plate) fraction showed strong antimutagenic effects of 55.6%, 93.7% and 93.5%, while the ethyl acetate(100
/plate) fraction showed 11.4%, 74.3% and 85.2% in relation to the mutagenicity induced by daunomycin, AFB
and Trp-P-1, respectively. In S. typhimurium TA100, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed antimutagenic effects of 95.1% and 62.5%, respectively, on the mutagenicity induced by AFB
. In S. typhimurium TA102, the chloroform fraction showed an antimutagenic effect of 93.6% on the mutagenicity induced by t-BOOH.
Nutritional and Health Status of the Elderly Living in Songnam - I. Anthropometric Measurements and Biochemical Nutritional Status -
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 310~320
To study the nutritional and health status of the elderly in Songnam, the anthropometic measurments, fat composition of body(FAT), blood pressure(BP) and blood test for analyzing biochemical indies of the elderly in seongnam were carried out in 338 free-living elderly (161 men, 177 women) aged from 58 to 92. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were assessed, and body fat was analyzed by BI(Bioelectrical Impedence) method. Biochemical measurements including blood glucose(BG), GPT, serum total cholesterol(TC) and albumin(AL) were analyzed. Average heights of the subjects were lower than the standards established in the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances, and average weights were similar to the standards. FAT were significantly higher in women(36.4%) than men(27.7%), and both groups showed higher values than the reference. Mean systolic BP levels of men and women were 153.3mmHg and 153.7mmHg, and diastolic BP levels were 87.5mmHg and 86.0mmHg, respectively, and there were no significant differences between the sex. Mean BG levels of men and women were 115.9mg/㎗ and 123.7mg/㎗, respectively, and there were no significant differences between the sex and among the age groups. Mean GPT levels of men and women were 19.4unit and 18.1unit, respectively, and women older than 75 years showed significanly low levels of GPT compared to other women's age groups. Mean TC levels of men and women were 186.0mg/㎗ and 206.6mg/㎗, respectively, and significantly higher TC levels were shown in women than men. Mean AL levels of men and women were 4.8g/㎗ and 4.8g/㎗, respectively, and men aged 50 ∼ 64 years showed significant high AL levels compared to other age groups of men. It was suggested that nutrition education program was a good way to improve health status of the elderly.
Kinetic Study for the Reaction of Pyridine under High Pressure
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 321~327
The reaction rates of 4-ethyl pyridine with p-methyl benzylbromide have been measured by conductometry in acetonitrile, and the rate constants of these reactions are determined in accordance with various temperatures (20, 25, 30
) and pressures (1, 200, 500, 1000 bar). The rate constants increased with the higher pressure and temperature. The activation energies and activation parameter values of these reactions are calculated by determination of the rate constants the same. The activation volume, activation compressibility coefficient and the activation entropy are all negative. The result of kinetic studies for the pressure show that this reaction proceeds in typical bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.
Effects of Medicinal Plants Extract on Naengmyeon Broth
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 328~333
When the extract of the medicinal plants, Kaempferia galanga L., Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Foeniculum vulgare, was added to Naengmyeon broth with the concentration of 0.1% and 0.3% each, its effect during the preservation time of broth was investigated. pH of the extract-added broth was lower than control at the initial, but higher after 72 hours of preservation, which showed that when it added 0.1% and 0.3% of extract to the broth, pH of Kaempferia galanga L. was 4.92 and 5.08 respectively, whereas control was 4.60. Titratable acidity was lowered after 48 hours and also Kaempferia galanga L. showed the lowest acidity with 0.66 for adding 0.1% of its extract and 0.55 for 0.3% of adding, but control was 0.89 at the time of 90 hours of preservation, and then it showed to be lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vuigare. Turbidity of each broth added the extracts of four of the medicinal plants was 7.5∼7.9 and 7.9∼8.2, respectively for 0.1% and 0.3% of concentration at the initial, but it began to lower and 90 hours later it was 8.8∼9.5 and 8.7∼9.0 respectively, whereas control was 10.8. Total viable cells(TVC) and coliform bacteria(CB) were increased with great at the 72 hours of preservation time, and Kaempferia galanga L. was the most effective, which when control was 4.8
10 CFU/ml at 72 hours, TVC was 1.7
10 CFU/ml for the addition of 0.1% of extract and 0.9
10 CFU/ml for 0.3%. CB was 3.2
10 CFU/ml for 0.1% and 1.7
10 CFU/ml for 0.3% respectively and 6.0
10 CFU/ml for control at the time of 72 hours, and it was lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vulgare. Volatile basic nitrogen content detected that control was 2.67mg% at first, and then increased to 3.96mg% at 90 hours of preservation, but the broth added with the extract of Kaempferia galanga L. was 2.58mg% for 0.1% and 2.47mg% for 0.3% at the initial, and at 90 hours it was 3.64mg% and 3.33mg% respectively. The results of adding the extracts of four medicinal plants for the improvement of the preservation time of Naengmyeon broth, were that the most effective medicinal plant was Kaempferia galanga L. and the antimicrobial activity of the medicinal plant extracts for Naengmyeon broth was highly effective after 3 days of preservation time.
Drying of Citron Juice from By-product of Citron Tea Manufacturing
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 334~339
To increase the utilization of citron, citron juice that is by-product of citron tea was spray dried and freeze dried. Cyclodextrin(CD) was used as wall material to stabilize during drying. The physiochemical properties of citron juice were as follows: water content of 82.3%, pH of 2.45, and there were little different in two kinds of drying or CD added in different ratio. Citric acid, malic acid, succinic acid and lactic acid were detected in all of the samples. Spray and freeze-drying increased markedly yellowness compared to that of citron juice. Heat stability was reduced by both of two kinds of drying, and CD 15% was more decreased than CD 10%. Water uptake by freeze-drying was somewhat higher than that of spray-drying. When sensory properties of original citron juice was compared with those of spray and freeze dried, freeze drying with 10% of cyclodextrin was evaluated as superior to citron juice or other drying conditions.
Effects of Dietary Food on Body Weight, Plasma Lipids and Glucose in Rats
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 340~346
The diet food used in this test was composed of the total 16 kinds, such as refined water, herb extract, pomegranate extract, polydextrose and isomalto-oligosaccharide etc. Edible fiber as a major component in dietary food was contained to 2.60%(w/w) level. But the calorie was 104.57kca1/100g, contrast of control domestic saengshick product was 368.06kca1. As a result, calorie of dietary food sample was very low level. Vitamin and mineral as a minor component were determined 5, 6 kinds, respectively. On the other hand, dietary effect of body weight loss was determined about 14%(w/w) at animal test result used for rats during 4 weeks. The reason of dietary effect could confirmed from change of plasma neutral lipids, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentration. Increasing ratio of these in the general diet and dietary diet feeding groups during 4 weeks were 10.55, 6.90, 9.82% and 6.11, 3.85, 6.11%, respectively. from these results, decrease reason of body weight could confirmed the relative relationship with plasma lipids and cholesterol concentration. But plasma plasma glucose and insulin concentration have not positive relativity.
Physiological Functionality of Various Extracts from Danmemil and Legumes
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 347~352
Physiological functionalities of various extracts from Danmemil and legumes were determined and its optimal extraction conditions were also investigated. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Danmemil were higher in water extracts (53%, 58%) than those of ethanol extracts. However, its electron-donating ability was the highest in ethanol extracts (72%). ACE inhibitory activity and electron-donating ability of Black bean No. 1 and Taekwangkong(one of bean) were higher in water extracts than those of ethanol extracts, whereas SOD-like activity was the highest in ethanol extracts. ACE inhibitor and tyrosinase inhibitor of Danmemil were maximally extracted when it were treated with 20 times of distilled water at 35
for 24 h and 36 h, respectively. Its electron donating compound was maximally extracted by treatment of 50
for 18 h. ACE inhibitor of Black bean No. 1 was extracted maximally when it was treated with distilled water (1 :20) at 20
for 24 h, whereas the other functional compounds were maximally extracted at 20
for 18 h.
Changes in Physicochemical Quality during the Seasoned and Fermented Alaska Pollack Roe with Vacuum Fermentation
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 353~358
Low salt-fermented product of alaska pollack roe were prepared tentatively and also discussed the retarding effect of fermentation period by vacuum. The results were as follows. The moisture content, pH and salinity decreased slightly, but the contents of VBN and total amino acids increased gradually during fermentation regardless of ripening types. pH and salinity showed little difference with ripening types, but moisture content was a little lower and the contents of VBN was some higher in non vacuum than those in vacuum, whereas total amino acid contents were greater in vacuum. In addition, total viable cell count were similar to trend of gentle decrement after increment to some degree but were higher in non vacuum than those in vacuum. Judging from the results of physicochemical analysis, it was showed that fermentation delayed in vacuum therefore it was considered that vacuum fermentation can be effective on shelf-life extension of jeot-gal.
Effect of Thawing Temperature on the Properties of the Danish Pastry Made from Frozen Dough
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 359~364
Frozen doughs for danish pastries were made by straight dough method to study the effect of thawing temperature on the quality of pastries. Danish pastry doughs were immediately frozen at -40
quickly after make-up and stored for 6 weeks at -20
and baked after thawing and fermentation a week. Thawing temperature and fermentation time were controled to 3 hr at 5
, 2 hr at 10
, and 1.5 hr at 20
, respectively. The number of survival yeast cells in dough and the volume, the moisture content, the texture of danish pastries were investigated. Survival yeast cells showed the highest number at thawing temperature of 5
. The volume of danish pastries decreased significantly according to the increase of frozen storage time and danish pastries thawed at 5
revealed the largest volume. In moisture contents of danish pastry, there was no significantly difference without regard to the thawing temperature but showed the highest moisture content at thawing temperature of 20
. Danish pastries thawed at 5
accomplished the best texture in the resulting pastry.
Changes on the Characteristics of Lindera obtusiloba BL. Leaf Teas by Manufacturing Process
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 365~371
This study was analyzed to the characteristics of the Lindera obtusiloba eaf teas by various manufacture methods. Moisture content was the highest in the tea processed by air dry method, and the lowest in the tea roasted after steaming. The contents of soluble solid was higher in the fermented tea than in the others, and the lowest in the roasted tea. The content of tannin was the higher in the roasted after steaming tea than in the others, and the lowest in the fermented tea. The content of vitamin C was the higher in the roasted tea than in the others, and the lower in the steamed tea. The mineral contents of leaf teas was orderly K, Na, Mn, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Zn. The roasted after steaming tea was estimated to the most excellent in the sensory evaluation of leaf teas.
Analysis of Aroma Compounds of Cinnamon by Solid Phase Microextraction
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 372~378
The volatile components of cinnamon bark were extracted by using different isolation methods, simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Then the volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography(GC) and mass selective detector(MSD). 30 compounds were identified in cinnamon bark. In SPME technique, several factors influencing the equilibrium of the aroma compounds between sample and SPME fiber was taken into account, including the kind of SPME fiber, extraction temperature and extraction time. Four different SPME fibers were tested, namely polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly acrylate(PA), divinyl- benzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) and carbowax/divinylbenzene(CW/DVB). Among these SPME fiber, PDMS coating fiber showed the best results. The profile of volatile compounds of cinnamon bark at different extraction temperature and extraction time were investigated by 100
Extraction of Freeze Dried Young Antler by Water and Protease
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 379~387
The freeze dried young antler was extracted by water and proteases. In case of water extraction, the extraction rate was highest when it was reacted in 5% of concentration for 6 hours at 50
. The result of HPLC analysis of extract shows that high molecular peak in water extract was transformed into low molecular polk by proteases. The rate of low molecular peak was highest when bacteria protease was used, and its second highest rate was pepsin, but the effect of papain on it was low, The extraction rate of young antler reacted for 5 hours was 33.4%(absorbance 13.25 at 280nm) of bacteria protease, 22.4%(absorbance 10.06) of papain, and 30.2% (absorbance 11.34) of pepsin. The young antler was boiled for 30min and it was reacted by proteases for 5 hours at 50
. The extraction rate of it was 47,6%(absorbance 12,54) of bacteria protease, and 26,4%(absorbance 7,48) of papain, and 45.6%(absorbance 7.23) of pepsin, In protein content, water extract was 52,1%, bacteria protease extract was 37.8%, and in amino acid content, water extract was 16.3%, bacteria protease extract was 31.96%, in ash content, water extract was 8.8%, bacteria protease extract was 5.6% by dry base. In mineral content, water extract contains 3.6% of Ca, 8.6% of P, 0.01% of Mg, 1.4 % of Na, 0.02 % of F, and bacteria protease extract contains 2.5% of Ca, 11.8% of P, 0.046 % of Mg, 2.1 % of Na, 0.018 % of F by dry base.
Extraction of Freeze Dried Young Antler Residue by Proteases and HCl
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 388~396
The freeze dried young antler residue was extracted by proteases and hydrochloric acid(HCl). The young antler was extracted by water at 50
and the residue was reacted by proteases for 5 hours at 50
. The extraction rate of its residue was 32.8%(absorbance 3.61 at 280nm) of bacteria protease, 23.8%(absorbance 0.69) of papain, and 31.2% (absorbance 2.96) of pepsin. The young antler was extracted by boiling water and the residue was reacted by proteases for 5 hours at 50
. The extraction rate of its residue was 45.0%(absorbance 3.61) of bacteria protease, 30.4%(absorbance 0.33) of papain, and 51.2% (absorbance 2.77) of pepsin. The result of HPLC analysis reveals that in 50
water extract and boiling water extract, all high molecular peak was reduced under MW 1,000 by proteases. The result from the extract of young antler residue reacted by HCl for 5 hours at 50
shows that its extraction rate was 45% (absorbance 0.78) in concentration of 0.1N HCl, 61% (absorbance 1.82) in 0.2N, 81% (absorbance 2.29) in 0.4N, and 82.0% (absorbance 3.28) in 2.0N. The result of HPLC analysis also reveals that in the extract by 0.8N HCl, the peak of about MW 70,000 accounted for 78% in total. Protein content of the extract by 0.8N HCl was 8.2%, and content of amino acid was 81.6%, ash was 1.3%, and mineral contents were 0.1 % of Ca, 2.3% of P, 0.8 % of Mg, 3.4% of Na, 0.002% of F by dry base.
Evaluation for Cleanness of Kitchen and Hall of Restaurants in Seoul
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 397~405
The cleanness of Korean(n=292), Chinese(n=46), Japanese(n=114) and Western(n=74) styles restaurants in 25 districts in Seoul was evaluated in terms of kitchen area(6 criteria), handling of raw materials(3 criteria), hygiene practice for cook(1 criteria), treatment of wastes(2 criteria) and hall(2 criteria). The western-style restaurants were scored the highest points in all criteria. The other three restaurants were poorly evaluated compared with western-style ones in kitchen area, including cleanness of inside of the kitchen, hygiene practice, ventilation and working environment, drainage, and storage of utensils. The most critical criterion which represents the overall evaluation was the ventilation and working environment of the kitchen for Chinese, Japanese and Western-style restaurants, and was the cleanness of inside the kitchen for Korean-style restaurants.
Variation of Instrumental Characteristics during Storage of Pine Pollen Dasik
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 406~409
This study was carried out to investigate the variation of instrumental charaters during strorage of pine pollen Dasik stored at room temperature. Cohesiveess, chewness, gumness, adhesiveness and hardness were varied significantly while springness was not influenced by storage periods. Cohesiveness after 45 days storage was significantly different from before storage, however, was not different from that of 30 days stored. Chewness of 30 days stored Dasik was significantly different from that of 15 days stored but was not different from that of 45 days stored. Gumness in the Dasik stored for 30 days was significantly different from that of 15 days stored but was not different from that of 45 days stored Dasik. Adhesiveness was decreased with storage periods. Adhesiveness of the Dasik stored for 30 days long was significantly different from that of 15 days stored but was not different from that of 45 days stored one. Hardness was increased with storage periods. Each of the hardness in the Dasik stored for 0, 15, 30 and 45 days were significantly different from each other.
Effects of Acidification on Physical and Organoleptic Properties of Soybeans
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 410~416
Three varieties of soybean were acidified by soaking in two kinds of vinegar which were persimmon vinegar and brewed vinegar. Chemical properties of soaking solution and physical and organoleptic properties of soybean during soaking at room temperature for 8 days were studied. The soybeans were acidified in vinegar solution at room temperature for 8 days. The results showed that soybean weight was rapidly increased until first two days and then gradually increased thereafter. Increase in total acidity and sugar concentration and decrease in pH of vinegar solution were also measured during initial soaking stage. The changes in pH and acidity were more significant in brewed vinegar than those in persimmon vinegar, The L values of persimmon vinegar solution after soaking the soybean were relatively lower than that of brewed vinegar. The a values of the vinegar solution used for black beans were increased while that of the vinegar solution used for white beans were decreased, The flavor and texture of acidified bean in persimmon vinegar were more soft and less benny than those acidified in vinegar. However sourness of the acidified beans in persimmon vinegar was much softer higher to those values of brewed vinegar.
Effect of Whole Soy Flour on the Properties of Wet Noodle
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 417~422
Addition of whole soy flour(WSF) to wheat flour(WF) was studies for its effects on dough and noodle characteristics. The WF used was medium grade of strength and WSF was a fine flour of 350 mesh. The addition ratio of WSF to. n was up to 20%. The dough properties and textural properties of wet and cooked noodles were measured with using Farinograph, Amylograph and Rheometer. Farinogram data showed the minimum dough development time and stability at 6% addition of WSF. Amylograph data of initial pasting temperature and time were increased while the maximum and final viscosity and setback were decreased as the WSF added more to W The initial pasting temperature of 2.0∼6.0% WSF added flour were comparable to 100% WF eventhough viscosity was almost half of WF. The water absorption capacity was increased from 81.6% to 92.3% at 6.0% WSF and then decreased as the addition ratio of WSF increased. The extensibility of dough showed a maximal value at 8.0% WSF addition. Strengthness and hardness of wet and cooked noodle were increased to the heighest measurement as the WSF added up to 6.0% followed by a steady decrease thereafter. It was also found that WSF addition resulted an increase in adhesiveness of wet noodle and decrease in hardness and strengthness of cooked noodle.
Standardization of Preparation of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi I. Effects of Dry Salting of Method Salt Content on the Texture of Kimchi
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 423~429
Kimchi has been worldwide recognized as a traditional Korean fermented food, In the Chinese cabbage's pickling, salt content of evenly penetrate into the tissue affects on the texture of matured kimchi, But the previous method which usually using brine salting has a disadvantage of uneven penetration of salt into the leaves and stems. The purpose of the study is to develope the method which produce superior kimchi by evenly penetrate the salt into the tissue rapidly, The dry salting method is directly spread the salt on the surface of chinese cabbage as percentage in weight with 10, 12, 14, 16%(s) and pickled in this state for 5 hours. Brine salting method is soaking chinese cabbage in the 16% salt solution(16%B) for 20 hours. Sensory evaluation, contents of salt, properties of mechanical hardness and micro structure were studied among fresh cabbage, 16%B and 10, 12, 14, 16%(s) cabbage, The result of salt contents in all groups of pickled chinese cabbage were significantly increased compared with fresh cabbage. The compressive force of cabbage's steams by mechanical measurement was significantly decreased but cutting force was increased. In pickled cabbage, the cutting force was the highest correlated with salt content, In the sensory evaluation, the salty taste of leaves and chewy degree were significantly increased, but the hardness and crips of the stems were significantly decreased by increasing salt contents. Therefore the dry salting is the most excellent pickling method in small amount of kimchi production by saving salt amount and time, furthermore due to even penetration of salt into leaves and stems.
Effects on Preservation and Quality of Bread with Coating High Molecular Weight Chitosan
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 430~436
Coating treatment with 120 kDa of chitosan on bread was decreased growth rate of bacteria and not detected growth of any fungi during storage period. Bread with coating by 1% and 2% of 120 kDa chitosan have had the high antioxidant. Change in the water content was lawered as the higher concentration of chitosan coating on bread. water activity has a low variance untill 2% of chitosan concentration and so there result are expected on inhibition effect of retrogradation in bread during storage period. The change of pH was not detected in bread. And the color of bread have not effected on treatment with below 2% of chitosan but had a little effect by 2% of chitosan coating.
Acute Oral Toxicity of Chitooligosaccharides in Mice
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 437~443
Chitooligosaccharides were prepared by enzymatic hydrolyzing of crab shell chitosan. Low molecular weight chitooligosaccharides(LMW-chitooligosaccharides), 64.3% of which was composed of trimer, tetramer, and pentamer, was obtained by hydrolyzing chitosan with the chitosanase originated Bacillus pumilus BN-262. High molecular weight chitooligosaccharides(HMW-chitooligosaccharides), 49.3% of which was composed of chitooligosaccharides over heptamer, was obtained by hydrolyzing chitosan with the cellulase originated Trichoderma viride. Acute oral toxicity of chitooligosaccharides were tested in mice. Chitooligosaccharides did not have any toxic effect in mice and oral LD
50/ value of chitooligosaccharides was over 5.0g/kg in mice.