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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Baking Characteristics of Taurine Supplemented Bread and Cookies and Its Effect on Blood Alcohol Concentrations
Lee, Jeong-Sill ; Kim, Young-Su ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 479~484
This study investigated the characteristics of baking bread and cookies supplemented with taurine and the effect of taurine addition on BAC(blood alcohol concentrations) and UAC(urine alcohol concentrations). Healthy male college students were divided into two groups, the control and the taurine group. Bread was baked with the addition of 0, 2, 4 and 6% taurine and baked with the addition 0, 3 and 6% taurine. The bread containing 2% taurine showed the fastest fermentation among the 4 groups. Fermentation and oven-spring of breads baked with a taurine concentration greater than 4% of taurine disturbed. In some areas of the sensory test, the taurine supplemented bread had higher scores than the control bread. We served 6 g of taurine supplemented cookies with 1,000
of beer to 8 students in the taurine group. After 2 hours of drinking beer, the BAC and UAC of the taurine group were found to be lower than the control group. But no difference was found in the alcohol excretion of their urine. From this study we concluded that the taurine has an effect on the detoxication of alcohol, which reduces the BAC.
Nutrients Contents in Different Parts of Pickly Pear(Opuntia humifusa) and Possible Anti-Breast Cancer Effect
Yoon, Jin-A ; Hahm, Sahng-Wook ; Son, Yong-Suk ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 485~491
In order to examine the nutritional value of prickly pear(Opuntia humifusa), contents of ash, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins were determined on freeze-dried stem, fruit, seed and root from plants harvested in autumn. The average moisture contents for stem, fruit, seed and root were 67~87%. Crude ash content determined on dry weight basis was 2~3%. Crude protein existed mostly in seed(2.95%) and root(2.37%). Crude fat was detected mainly in seed(4.49%). Contents of major minerals(mg/100 mg dry weight) was generally higher in stem. Ca in stem(4,142.30) and fruit(2,790.86) were much higher than in seed(43.37). P in stem, seed and fruit were 448.19, 263.20 and 161.59, respectively. Stem also displayed more abundant Mg(1,110.86), Zn(35.62) and Mn(37.07). However, fruit contained higher amounts of Fe(13.38) and Se(0.15). Vitamin A was negligible in all plant parts. Vitamin E contents in fruit and stem were 1.78 mg and 1.22 mg/mg dry weight, respectively. Vitamin C was detected mostly in fruit(445.40) and stem(260.94). Use of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based microtiter assay of cell viability demonstrated an anti-proliferative effect of O. humifusa extract on the MCF-7 estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line.
Analysis of the Bacterial Community during the Storage of Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) Sap
Oh, Jung-Hwan ; Seo, Sang-Tae ; Oh, Hye-Young ; Hong, Jin-Sung ; Kang, Ha-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 492~496
The composition of the bacterial populations in Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) sap was characterized during storage with different heat treatments(
for 30 min and
for 15 sec). The saps were aseptically collected at 0, 15 and 30 days of storage and analyzed by dilution plating and 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis. There were significant differences in the total number of colony forming units(CFUs) of bacteria between heated and nonheated saps. Bacteria of nonheated sap were present at a level of
, whereas living bacteria were not detected in the heated sap. According to the 16S rDNA sequence and DGGE analysis, Pseudomonas sp. was the most abundant bacterial strain in the samlpes, and the bacterial community structures become more simplified with time and were composed of the Chryseobacterium sp. with time. These results allowed us to characterize the dominant bacteria involved in Gorosoe sap and to better understand their dynamics throughout storage.
A Study on Foodservice Facilities, Utilities, and Physical Environment in the Chonbuk Area of Korea
Kook, Sook-Ja ; Choi, Byung-Sook ; Rho, Jeong-Ok ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 497~507
The principal objective of this study was to assess the situation of foodservice facilities, utilities, and physical environment in the Chonbuk area. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 252 nutrition teachers and school dietitians. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS v. 11.5 program. The results were summarized as follows: Approximately 99.2% of the subjects were women 76.6% were married, over 87% were between the ages of 30 and 40(p<0.01) and 56.8% had more than 11 years of experience(p<0.001). Among the 252 school foodservice systems evaluated, 51.6% of the schools were located in urban areas and 48.0% were in rural areas(p<0.01). Approximately 68.0% of the schools prepared meals in the conventional way, and 32.3% prepared them in the commissary way(p<0.001). The number of employees at each institution was separated into the following categories: 1 to 3(37.7%), 4 to 6(27.8%), and 7 to 9(25.4%, p<0.01). Approximately 54.0% of schools had been running a school meal service for longer than 11 years(p<0.001). However, 67.5% of those facilities had not been remodeled since the initial implementation of foodservices. Approximately 94.0% of the school foodservice facilities were located on the first floor. 72.2% among them were constructed of reinforced concrete and 16.7% were prefabricated(p<0.001). As the result of our evaluation of related physical evidence and the atmosphere of the space, the average importance grade was
, and the average performance grade was
. Most nutrition teachers and school dietitians in elementary, middle, & high schools responded that the related physical evidence and the atmosphere of the space in school foodservice facilities were important, but the satisfaction level among the nutrition teachers and school dietitians was quite low. Therefore, it's important and necessary to analyze the opinions of the stakeholders in the foodservice industry prior to the remodeling of school foodservice facilities and utilities.
Physical and Sensory Properties of Chiffon Cake Prepared with Mulberry Powder
Lee, Young-Ju ; Sim, Chang-Hwan ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 508~516
Chiffon cakes with 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% of mulberry powder were made. Specific gravity and batter stability of chiffon cake batter were measured. And moisture content, color, height, weight, texture of chiffon cakes were measured. Consumers also evaluated the chiffon cakes for their liking. Specific gravity of control batter was 0.5 and there were no significant differences between control and chiffon cakes with 2, 4, 6, and 8% of the mulberry powder. The sample with 10% mulberry powder had specific gravity of 0.64 and it was significantly higher compared to the control. Stability of the batters were measured using Turbiscan and the control was the least stable whereas the batter with 2% mulberry powder was the most stable. The moisture content and weight of the cake did not differ between the control chiffon cake and cakes with mulberry powder. The height of the cake was the highest for the control cake at 7.56cm, but the differences between control, and samples with 2, 4, 6, and 8% mulberry powder were not significant. The sample with 10% mulberry powder had lower height of 6.55cm. 'L', 'a', and 'b' values of crust decreased significantly with increased content of mulberry powder. Crumb color('L' and 'b' values) decreased as mulberry powder content increased, while the 'a' value increased. Hardness significantly decreased as mulberry content increased. However, fracturability and springiness did not differ between control and sample cakes. Resilience of the control and sample cakes prepared with 2% mulberry powder were lowest, and resilience increased significantly as the amount of mulberry powder increased beyond 4%. Control cake was preferred overall by consumers, while the color, softness, and flavor of mulberry powder prepared cakes(particularly 2% powder) were specifically preferred. Mulberry flavor and astringency increased as the amount of mulberry powder increased, while sweetness did not change. The intensity of the egg flavor significantly decreased as the amount of mulberry powder increased. Intensity ratings of off-flavor did not differ among control and sample cakes. We recommend the addition of 2~6% mulberry powder to the recipe for chiffon cake.
The Effects of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi and Turmeric Extract Supplementation on the Blood Lipids, and Antioxidant and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Adults in Korea
Yun, Sun-Ju ; Yeon, Jee-Young ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ; Kim, Tae-Hyun ; Son, Yeon-Kyung ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 517~525
This study investigated the effects of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi and turmeric extract supplementation(ATE) on blood lipids, antioxidant and inflammatory markers in 35 hypercholesterolemic Korean adults with high blood cholesterol levels (serum total cholesterol
). They received ATE(n=21, 14 females and 7 males) or placebo(control group, n=14, 11 females and 3 males) for 4 weeks. There was no significant change in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels after ATE supplementation in the both groups. However, the LDLcholesterol: HDL-cholesterol ratio(LPH) was significantly decreased and both serum prostagrandin E2(PGE2) levels were significantly decreased in those receiving ATE. No significant changes were evident in interleukin(IL)-
, IL-6, IL-8, 8-isoprostane, malondialehyde, total antioxidant capacity and oxidized-LDL. These results suggest that complex extract of Angelica keiske and turmeric has the potential to decrease cardiovascular risk by reducing LPH and inflammatory mediator
in hypercholesterolemic adults.
A Survey of the Chinese's Preference for Kimchi to Expand Chinese Market in Shandong Province
Zhang, Xiang-Mei ; Park, Shin-In ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 526~541
This study surveyed the Korean Kimchi preference for Chinese, potential Kimchi improvement for Chinese market adaptation and Kimchi application for Chinese cuisine, with the aim of spreading the recognition of Kimchi throughout the world, especially in China, by giving information and developing local types which could be expected to be suitable for utilization of Chinese food life. The subjects were consisted of 298 Chinese(male 108, female 190) residing in Weihai, Yantai and Qingdao, in Shandong province. The questionnaire form was developed and used for self administered evaluation. The collected data were analyzed by SAS package. Baechu Kimchi was found to be the most well-known Kimchi for Chinese, and Kkakdugi, Oi Kimchi, Yoelmu Kimchi and Nabak Kimchi were followed in order. Baechu Kimchi(75.9%) was found to be the most favorite Kimchi for Chinese, and Oi Kimchi(59.3%), Kkakdugi(52.8%), Nabak Kimchi(39.3%) and Yoelmu Kimchi(37.7%) were followed in order. The subjects knew about the Korean foods made with Kimchi, such as Kimchi kimbap(74.8%), Kimchi bibimbap(71.5%), Kimchi bokkeumbap(61.7%), Kimchi guk(58.1%) in order. But the experience of consumption for Korean foods made with Kimchi was low compared to the knowledge of the Korean foods made with Kimchi. Chinese's most favorite foods made with Kimchi were Kimchi bossam, Kimchi bibimbap, Kimchi bokkeumbap and Kimchi kimbap, Kimchi bokkeum, Kimchi tteoksanjeok and Kimchi jeon in order. Among the 9 kinds of new Chinese foods made with Kimchi, Kimchi chao zhurou(fried pork with Kimchi), Kimchi chao mian(fried noodle with Kimchi), Kimchi chao youcai xiaren(fried rape and prawn with Kimchi), Kimchi zhuroushuijiao(dumpling with pork and Kimchi), Kimchi gedatang(wheat flakes soup with Kimchi) and Kimchi hundun(dumpling with Kimchi), and Kimchi youbing(panfried flour with Kimchi), Kimchi lamian(handmade knife-cut noodle with Kimchi) and Kimchi tangyuan(tangyuan with Kimchi) were preferred foods by the subjects in order.
Inhibitory Activity of Brine Mineral Water on Cancer Cell Growth, Metastasis and Angiogenesis
Kim, Wan-Jae ; Li, Hua ; Yoon, Taek-Joon ; Sim, Jae-Man ; Choi, Seon-Kang ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 542~547
Brine mineral water(BMW) has recently gained attention as a new water resource due to its biological activities. In this study, BMW from the Geumjin area(Gangneung-city, Korea) was evaluated for its growth inhibition, anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis activity against cancer cells. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by CCK assay, and the anti-metastasis activity was estimated by lung metastasis in vivo. The in vitro incubation of mouse splenic cells with BMW that had been diluted more than 4-fold showed no effect on the cell growth when compared to a control group. Additionally, BMW inhibited the growth of the EL-4, L5178Y-R and colon26-M3.1 cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo evaluation of the anti-metastasis activity of BMW in BALB/c mice inoculated with the colon26-M3.1 cell line revealed dose-dependent inhibition in response to treatment with samples that were diluted by up to 9 times. Finally, treatment with BMW effectively suppressed the growth of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) added human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Overall, these results suggest that BMW has anti-cancer activity.
Qualitative Properties of Wild Grape Wine having Different Aging Periods
Kang, Byung-Tae ; Yoon, Ok-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Woo ; Kim, Soon-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 548~553
Qualitative properties- polyphenol compounds(total phenolics, anthocyanin, flavonoids, tannins), color parameters and antioxidant activities- of wild grape wine having different aging periods were studied. The contents of total phenolics and anthocyanin decreased significantly in accordance with aging terms(p<0.05). The total phenolics and anthocyanin of the oldest wine(WG3) represented only 43% and 45% of it's related compound in the wine aged for one year(WG1), respectively. The contents and the degree of polymerization of tannins, including condensed tannins, also decreased but not showed statistically significant. However, The contents of flavonoids of the 2 year old wine(WG2) decreased significantly related to that of WG1, remaining, then, almost constant at that levels during aging. The L* values, b(yellow) values and the hue (hab) values were increased in long aged wines(WG2, WG3), while the intensity of color(CI) and, the a(red) parameter value decreased. The antiradical activity of wild grape wines was shown to be high(87 EDA%) in WG1. The corresponding coefficient of tannin concentrations with antiradical activity(
=0.9189) suggests that the tannin content may be strongly related to the antioxidant properties of wild grape wines.
The Effect of Danhak Exercise on Obesity and Blood Lipoprotein Profiles in Older Women
Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Ha, Aew-Ha ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 554~559
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in body composition and blood lipids and to analyze the effects of Danhak exercise for 3 months in older women. For this study, 35 female subjects 60 to 70 years of age were recruited and administered 90 min of Danhak exercise, five times per week for three months by a professional coach. The results of this study were as follows: At baseline, the mean BMI(body mass index) and body fat(%) were 23.9 kg/
4.9(%), respectively. The mean WHR(waist-hip ratio) was 0.91
0.04 and all subjects were determined to be abdominally obese. A significantly lower body fat was observed after 3 months of Danhak exercise(p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in BMI, WHR or body weight before and after exercise. Danhak exercise also resulted in a decrease in total cholesterol and an increase in HDL(high density lipoprotein, and these differences were significant. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the effects of Danhak exercise were similar to those of aerobic exercise with respect to improve body fat(%) and blood lipid profiles, which suggests that Danhak is a profitable exercise for individuals aged 60 and over.
Annual Differences in Food Habits and Dietary Attitudes of New College Female Students in the Department of Food and Nutrition for 6 Years(2003~2008)
Byun, Ki-Won ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 560~569
This study was conducted to investigate the annual differences in food habits and dietary attitudes of new female college students enrolled in the department of food and nutrition for 6 years by questionnaire. The results were as follows: age, height, weight and body mass index(BMI) were no significant annual differences over study period. The average ratios of underweight, normal weight and above overweight groups classified by the BMI standard were 19.4%, 64.4% and 16.2%, respectively. There were no significant annual differences in the scores of food habits and dietary attitudes. The intake of milk showed the lowest scores among all the food habit items and the same annual tendencies for 6 years. Among food groups items, the mean intake scores of milk(p<0.01), fats and oils(p<0.001) and vegetables(p<0.05) differed significantly by year. Specifically, the intake scores of milk and vegetables decreased gradually throughout the study period and were significantly lower in 2008 than in 2003. Among dietary habits, the mean intake scores of sweets were significantly lower in 2003 and 2007 than in other years(p<0.001), and the mean intake scores of instant frozen foods were significantly higher in 2006 than during other years(p<0.05). The sum of health related items in 2007 was significantly lower than those during other years, and this was likely due to the lowest scores both of eating-out and alcohol intake in 2007 than in other years. Among dietary attitudes, the mean score of item 'Price of food is more important than nutrition.' was significantly lower in 2005(p<0.05). Food habit scores showed significantly positive correlation with dietary habits(r=0.733, p<0.01), food groups related habits(r=0.720, p<0.01), lifestyle related disease related habits(r=0.518, p<0.01), health related habits(r=0.422, p<0.01). Food habits and dietary attitudes showed highly significantly positive linear correlations each other(r=0.426, p<0.01). Dietary habits and food groups related habits showed highly significantly positive linear correlations(r=0.366, p<0.01). These results showed the same annual tendency with respect to food habit and dietary attitudes in newly enrolled college female students for 6 years. It is expected that food habit and dietary attitudes will be improved if systemic and proficient nutrition education is provided during their college period.
Physicochemical Properties of Sugar-snap Cookies Prepared with Chrysanthemum indicum Linne Powder
Bae, Hyun-Joo ; Lee, Hye-Yeon ; Paik, Jae-Eun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 570~576
This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of sugar-snap cookies made with various levels(0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6% w/w) of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne powder. Dough pieces were baked for 11 min at
in an electrically heated rotary oven. All items were measured after cooling for 1 hour at room temperature. The results were as follows. Dough pH was significantly decreased in the 3%, 4.5% and 6% samples in contrast to the control sample(p<0.001). Furthermore, lightness (L*-value) and spread factor decreased significantly according to increasing Chrysanthemum indicum Linne powder concentration(p<0.001). However, dough density was significantly increased in the 3%, 4.5%, and 6% samples in contrast to the control sample(p<0.001). Likewise, the hardness and redness(a*-value) of the cookies increased significantly with increasing Chrysanthemum indicum Linne powder concentration(p<0.001). However, the moisture content of the dough was not significantly affected by the Chrysanthemum indicum Linne powder concentration. Finally, the powder concentration had positive correlations with dough density(p<0.01) and hardness(p<0.01). However, it had negative correlations with dough pH(p<0.01), lightness(L*-value)(p<0.05), and spread factor(p<0.01). Overall, the results showed that there were significant correlations between Chrysanthemum indicum Linne powder concentration and the physicochemical characteristics of the cookies.
Comparison of Self-living Ability, Obesity Indices and Nutrient Intake according to Physical Fitness among the Elderly in Rural Areas
Suh, Hee-Jae ; Kim, Bok-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 577~586
Aging is associated with decreased energy expenditure, thermogenesis and energy requirements. Maintenance of physical fitness of the elderly has been reported to reduce the rate at which the basal metabolic rate, muscle strength, skeletal muscle mass and bone density deteriorate. Skeletal muscle disease is known to increase the risk of physical disability and psychological problems. This study was conducted to investigate changes in disability, emotional problems, body compositions, obesity indices and nutrient intake levels according to physical fitness with the elderly in rural areas. According to the results, physical fitness was negatively related with Activities of Daily Living(ADL, p<0.05), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living(IADL, p<0.001), Body Mass Index(BMI, p<0.001) and abdominal obesity(p<0.05), while it showed a positive correlation with the General Self Efficacy Scale(GSES)(p<0.001) and nutrient intake(p<0.05). When changes in these factors were compared according to the range of quartile of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale(FAB Scale), GSES(Q1=35.3, Q2=43.5, Q3=53.2, Q4=51.9, p<0.001), BMI(Q1=36.1%, Q2=34.7%, Q3=33.2%, Q4=28.6%, p<0.01), abdominal obesity(Q1=1.02, Q2=0.99, Q3=0.97, Q4=0.94, p<0.001) and nutrient intake(Q1=71.1%, Q2=75.4%, Q3=80.6%, Q4=80.2%, p<0.05) differed significantly. Taken together, these results suggested that better physical fitness would lead to a reduction in negative factors including physical disability and obesity indices, but to an increase in positive factors such as GSES and nutrient intake. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic data for the development of programs to promote the health of the elderly in a local society.
Quality Characteristics of Peeled-Chestnuts Based on the Degree of Gelatinization during Storage
Hwang, Ja-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 587~597
Peeled chestnuts were stored at different temperatures(
) and after blanching at
for different lengths of time(0, 10, and 20 min) for 6 months. After the storage period, the texture, color, DSC and sensory characteristics were analyzed. Hardness, fracturability and chewiness increased with storage time, whereas springiness and cohesiveness decreased. Additionally, the L* decreased and a* and b* increased with storage time. Analysis of the DSC revealed that the peak of the retro gradation was approximately
and enthalpy for the peak increased with storage time. Additionally, the increment of enthalpy for samples stored at
and blanched was lower than that of samples stored at
and non-blanched samples. The sensory evaluation scores were also higher for samples stored at
and blanched samples than for those stored at
and non-blanched samples.
The Study of Dietary Habits and Satisfaction with School Lunch Program for High School Boys and Girls in Chungnam Province
Kim, Myung-Hee ; Bae, Yun-Jung ; Kim, You-Hee ; Choi, Mi-Kyeong ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 598~605
This study was investigated to examine the dietary habits and satisfaction with a school lunch program for high school boys and girls. The survey was conducted on 416 students(208 boys and 208 girls) using questionnaire. Overall, 40.1% of the respondents reported that they skip breakfast, and more girls skipped breakfast than boys(p<0.05). The major reason for skipping meal was 'no enough time'(48.3%) and duration of meal appeared the highest ratio in '10~15 minutes'(51.7%) and boys having meal with 10 minutes were significantly higher than girls(p<0.001). When asked if they have an unbalanced diet, 58.8% responded "little bit do it but it depends on food". Vegetables were the foods most absent from an unbalanced diet. Additionally, 90% of all respondents takes a snack a day, and 21.5% of the respondents reported that snacks were the most preferable meals. In terms of a satisfaction with school meals, 70.6% of the respondents reported that they were "unsatisfied". Additionally, 43.5% of the students reported that they did not finish their soup. Moreover, 57.5% of the students reported that they were dissatisfied because that food was "not tasty". Based on the results of this study, the meal habits of the students were determined by various factors including gender. To ensure that boys and girls receive the proper nutrition, development of proper eating habits through school meals, nutrition education and a guidance during meal service should be achieved.
Effect of Pears on the Quality and Physiological Functionality of Makgeoly
Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 606~611
This study was conducted to develop a high value pear Makgeoly that possessed the physiological functionality of pears and rice. To accomplish this, the effects of the addition of pears on the alcohol fermentation of Korean traditional rice wine, Makgeoly were investigated. The total acidity contents were unchanged for 9 days of fermentation after the addition of pear to the mash, however, it decreased by approximately 0.13% after 9 days. Additionally, the ethanol contents increased to 16.0% after 5 days of fermentation, after which they did not change significantly. The residual reducing sugar and free sugar content were decreased after 7 days and 5 days of fermentation, respectively. The total acceptability was the best in the Makgeoly that contained grated pear after 10 days of fermentation. Additionally, antihypertensive angiotensin Iconverting enzyme inhibitory activity was found to be greater than 80% in all pear Makgeoly, but the fibrinolytic activity, SOD-like activity and antioxidant activity were weakened. Based on these results, Makgeoly that was brewed by the addition of 20% grated pear into the fermented broth from fermentation at
for 10 days has the potential to become a new functional Korean traditional Makgeoly with high acceptability and antihypertensive properties.
Studies on the Food Safety-Related Informations of College Students
Choi, Byung-Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 612~617
This study was conducted to assess the information of food safety by college students according to mass-media reports. To accomplish this, a survey was conducted to investigate the preference and reliability, of primary mass-media sources of BSE information, and BSE-related knowledge of college students. The most common sources of media by male and female students were terrestrial television(60%), the internet(21%) and newspapers(11%) and terrestrial television(60%), newspapers (18%) and the internet(17%), respectively. The reliability of media of male students were terrestrial television(53%) and the internet(40%), while for female students these values were terrestrial television(55%) and internet(37%), respectively. In the case of male students, the primary sources of information regarding BSE were terrestrial television(54%) and the internet(38%), but for female students the primary sources were terrestrial television(57%) and the internet(37%). Both male and female students were found to have less knowledge regarding prions, SRM, and MM type genes associated with BSE when compared to the other factors associated with this disease. In addition, the important determining factors for the food purchase of male and female students both were the orders of taste, hygiene, price. The preferences for meats and the beef-alternative meats of male and female students were the orders of pork, chicken. Based on these results, greater efforts should be made to provide meaningful information regarding the safe production and distribution of meats.
Anti-Inflammatory Action of the Fractions of Platycodi radix
Kim, Sung-Yeun ; Lee, Eun-Bang ; Jeong, Eun-Ja ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 618~624
The extract of Platycodi radix has long been used as an anti-inflammatory traditional medicine in Korea for the treatment of bronchitis, asthma and acute respiratory disease. In this study, the anti-inflammatory actions of the methanol extract of Platycodi radix administered via oral administration were evaluated. The results revealed that the extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory action. Of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions, the butanol fraction had the most potent anti-inflammatory action. Additioinally the sapogenin obtained through acid hydrolysis of the butanol fraction did not show anti-inflammatory action. These findings confirm the value of Platycodi radix as a traditional Korean medicine.
Effects of Added Buckwheat(Fagopyrum esculentum) Extract on Starch Hydrolysis In Vitro and Glucose Responses in Healthy Subjects
Lee, Myung-Heon ; Lee, Jung-Sun ; Lee, Tae-Hun ; Koo, Jae-Geun ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Jeong, Seung-Weon ; ; Yang, Hee-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 625~632
This study determined the effects of added buckwheat extract on the rate of corn starch hydrolysis in vitro as well as blood glucose responses through its supplementation in healthy subjects. The rate of corn starch hydrolysis in the presence or absence of various buckwheat extracts was determined in an in vitro enzyme/dialysis system for 2 hr. The buckwheat was extracted by water, ethanol(40%, 70%, 100%) and methanol(40%, 70%, 100%), respectively. Twenty percent(w/w) additions of the ethanol, methanol and water buckwheat extract to corn starch solution significantly reduced the starch hydrolysis at every minute for 2 hr(p<0.05). The calculated hydrolysis indices of the buckwheat extracts were in the order of 100% ethanol extract(50), 100% methanol(54), 40% ethanol(58), 40% methanol(62), 70% methanol(64), 70% ethanol(68), water (82). For the blood glucose response study, groups of 12 volunteers were given 50 g of boiled rice with or without buckwheat extract(10% and 20% of starch weight) using the 100%, 70%, and 40% ethanol extracts, respectively. The addition of each buckwheat ethanol extract significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations at three or more points during 2 hr and also reduced the mean peak rise and area under the blood glucose curve(p<0.05). The calculated glycemic index(GI) values for all ethanol buckwheat extract groups were significantly decreased compared to the control(rice). At the concentrations of 20%, the buckwheat 100% ethanol extracts lowered the GI by 68%. The 100% ethanol extract was more effective than the 70% and 40% extracts for reducing GI. Therefore, the 100% ethanol buckwheat extract would be the most therapeutically useful in modifying postprandial hyperglycemia.
Manufacturing Suitability and Quality Characteristics of Porridge Containing Added Oligopeptides from Pork Meat and Isolated Soybean Protein
Kim, Jong-Hee ; Hong, Soon-Kwang ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 633~638
In this study, pork meat oligopeptides and ISP oligopeptides were prepared from purified meat protein and, isolated soybean protein, respectively. These oligopeptides were added to porridge. Then their manufacturing suitability and quality characteristics were evaluated. The porridge which included meat oligopeptides and ISP oligopeptides satisfied the 20% RI (recommended intake) of protein and 40% RI of EAA for man between the ages of 20 to 29. According to measurements of the physicochemical characteristics of porridge, the degree of viscosity, spreadability, pH, and lightness L value, were acceptable for consumption. In addition, the oligopeptide powders had good solubility. and were easy to add when cooking. The above results indicate that pork meat oligopeptides and ISP oligopeptides are excellent dietary nitrogen sources for a variety of applications.
In Vitro Antineoplastic Effects of Chitosan Hydrolysates on Various Tumor Cell Lines
Park, Heon-Kuk ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 639~643
In this study, the antineoplastic effects of chitosan hydrolysates were assessed. The chitosan hydrolysates showed no cytotoxicity in in vitro trials using the normal cell line, Vero E6(Africa green monkey kidney cells). The
value of the chitosan hydrolysates on Vero E6 was 1,107.95
. The hydrolysates exhibited in vitro antineoplastic activity in five human tumor (lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, colon carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, breast carcinoma) cell lines. The
values of the hydrolysates on A549, J82, SNU-C4, SNU-1, and ZR75-1 cells were 421.06, 417.99, 445.54, 380.65 and 460.49
Effects of Culture Conditions of Rhizopus sp. ZB9 on the Production of Saccharifying Amylase during the Preparation of Rice Koji
So, Myung-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 644~649
This study was conducted to determine the influence of cultural conditions such as temperature, time, water content, koji-thickness and agitation on the production of saccharifying amylase by Rhizopus sp. ZB9 isolated from Korean Nuruk during the preparation of rice koji, which is used in brewing Korean rice wines, Takju and Yakju. Rice kojies were made under different cultural conditions, and the saccharifying activities of each koji were tested. The temperature range suitable for the production of saccharifying amylase was
. Based on the saccharifying activity and color, 60 hours of cultivation at
was believed to produce the optimum results. The water contents of steamed rice suitable for the production of saccharifying amylase were 35~40%. An increase in koji-thickness induced no adverse effects on the production of saccharifying amylase, but agitation-work during cultivation had a harmful effect.
The Patterns of Purchasing Diet/Low-Calorie Food and Obesity Related Eating Behavior in Normal and Obese Female College Students in Seoul Area
Ha, Aew-Ha ; Yi, Seung-Hoon ; Kang, Nam-E ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 650~661
In this study, 230 female college students in Seoul area were surveyed to evaluate their eating habits and behavior, physical activities, and patterns of purchasing diet/low-calorie food. Their body composition was also determined using bioelectrical impedance(Inbody 520). The subjects were divided into two groups according to their BMI index with a mean BMI of 20.2
1.5(normal) weight and 25.0
1.7(obesity). Overall, 85.7% of the subjects reported that the food they purchase depends more on their preferences than the nutritional value of the food. When the two groups were compared there was no significant difference in the frequency or experience of purchasing diet-foods. Indeed, 69.3% of all female college students had purchased diet foods, and most consumed these foods 2~3 times a week. Obese group preferred a savory taste, while normal group preferred a sweet taste. The majority of the subjects(80.8%) answered that they "read nutritional labels carefully upon purchasing diet food", and that they examined calories(61.8%) and total fat(48.5%) most carefully. Of the types of low-calorie/diet foods purchased, beverages were the most commonly obtained; followed by noodles, diet-bars, and snacks. The most commonly purchased low calorie snacks were "potato-type C(hot-flavor)" and "potato-type A(salty-flavor)", while the most commonly purchased diet-bars were "low calorie-type A"(55.3%) and "high protein-bar"(32.3%). The most commonly purchased noodles were "thick noodle type"(65.1%), while the most commonly purchased drinks were "cereal tea"(65.1%) and "mixed herb tea"(66.0%). Overall, factors such as self-esteem or the degree of body satisfaction, rather than obesity(BMI index) itself, were significantly correlated with the frequency of purchasing diet-foods.
Antioxidative Activity of Brazilin on Potato Chips
Choi, Ung ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 662~668
Brazilin was added to frying oil used in the production of potato chips and their antioxidative effects against Caesalpinia sappan L. were evaluated. Additionally, the antioxidative activity was tested under the same conditions that commercial antioxidants are evaluated. The peroxide value of the oil and fat extracted from the potato chips was 134 meg/kg oil, 84.06 meg/kg oil, 117.10 meg/kg oil and 68.56 meg/kg oil in the control group, BHA(50 ppm)-BHT(50 ppm) group,
-tocopherol (100 ppm) group and brazilin(100 ppm) group after storage for 30 days. The antioxidative effect of chips subjected to these treatments were 1.6 times, 1.14 times and 1.97 times greater than that of the control. In addition, the peroxide value was lower in the brazilin(100 ppm) group than in the BHA(50 ppm)-BHT(50 ppm) group and this group also had a superior effect at inhibiting the production of peroxide. Furthermore, an experiment conducted at high temperature using the Rancimat resulted in the antioxidant activity of brazilin(100 ppm) and BHA(50 ppm)-BHT(50 ppm) being 1.53 and 1.4 times greater than that of commonly used synthetic antioxidants. Finally, brazilin(100 ppm) effectively decreased the palmitic acid (
) value and increased the conjugated dienoic acid content to a greater degree than commercial antioxidants.
An Investigation of the Nutrient Intakes according to the Alcohol Consumption Level in Male Workers
Choi, Sun-Young ; Kang, Young-Soon ; Kim, Gyeong-Eup ; Park, Mi-Young ; Kim, Sung-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 669~677
The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometry, nutrient intakes, dietary - related behaviors and health - related behaviors of male workers that were divided according to their alcohol consumption. The mean height, weight and BMI of all subjects were 172.0
5.8 cm, 67.8
9.3 kg and 22.9
, respectively. The WHR was higher in the heavy drinking group than in the other groups(p<0.01), while the other anthropometric indices were not significantly different among the three groups. The calorie intake was highest(p<0.001) in the heavy drinking group(3,270.4
686.5 kcal), followed by moderate(2,602.8
415.8 kcal) drinking group and light drinking group(2,341.5
449.4 kcal). As alcohol consumption increased, there was a decrease in the percent of energy derived from carbohydrates and lipids, while there was an increase in the percent of energy derived from proteins and alcohol(p<0.001). The heavy and moderate drinking groups had a highers intake of protein compared to the light drinking group, and the heavy drinking group had a higher intake of lipid compared to the light and moderate drinking groups(p<0.01). The intakes of vitamin
, niacin and phosphorus were lower in the moderate group than the other groups(p<0.01). The average MAR(Mean adequacy ratio) was 1.44
0.35 and the intake of all nutrients, except for folic acid, was much higher than the Korean RI(Recommended intake). The fruit intake frequency and sleeping hours were the lowest in the heavy drinking group(p<0.05) and the subjects preferred the following order of food products when they drink: meat(42.5%), fish & shellfish(30.0%), fruit & vegetable(22.5%) and others(5.0%) as a side dish. The average rates of smoking and exercise for all the subjects were 77.5% and 67.5%, respectively. The results of this study showed that heavy alcohol drinkers were more prone to abdominal obesity and related chronic degenerative diseases, indicating the need for extensive nutritional education for heavy alcohol drinkers.
A Study on Changes in the Cooking Process of Red Beans Used to Prepare Bab in Cooking Books Written during Last 100 Years
Lee, Kyung-Ran ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 678~686
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of red beans used to prepare Bab (cooked rice) in cooking books published from late 19th century to the present. There are 3 different types of Bab that use red beans; Jungdeungbab, Patbab and Patsura, and cooking process vary between different cooking books. For making Jungdeungbab, one method is to cook the red beans in the water first, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red beans, is used to cook rice. The other method is to smash the cooked red beans and collect the water that passes through the smashed red beans to cook the rice. For Patbab, 2 cooking methods were found. One is to cook the whole red beans first and then to add them to the rice for cooking. Another method is to break the red beans into two pieces and mix them with rice and cook them together. Patsura is the red bean used to prepare the Bab offered to Kings during the Chosun dynasty(1392~1910). The cooking process of Patsura is similar to both Jundeungbab and Patbab. In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method of Patsura is similar to that of Patbab; breaking red beans into two pieces and then mixing them with rice and cooking them together. Another method, which is similar to Jungdeungbab, is found in Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957) and Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976). In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method is to cook the red beans first and then squeeze them after putting them into a sack and then using the extract to cook rice. In Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976), the red bean is prepared by first cooking red beans in water, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red bean, is used to cook rice. In further studies, the cooking procedures used in the previous period of the late 19th century should be examined.
Hierarchical Value Map of the Korean Restaurant Experience of Foreigners - An Application of the Laddering Technique -
Yang, Il-Sun ; Cha, Sung-Mi ; Shin, Seo-Young ; Baek, Seung-Hee ; Lee, Hae-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 687~695
The present study attempted to offer more insights into the foreign consumers' consumption decision structure of Korean restaurants located in foreign countries. A survey was designed based on the means-end chain theory, using the laddering interview technique. The qualitative data obtained from 10 Americans, 10 Japanese, and 10 Chinese were content analyzed and resulted in categories such as 'new experience', 'interest in Korea', 'recommendation', 'good food', 'easy to access', 'service', 'dining environment', and 'price' as perceived attributes of choice. The hierarchical value maps linking attributes, psychological consequences, and terminal values were presented. The most frequent consequences were 'experience new culture', 'be exposed to new experience', and 'learn more about Korea' which were related to 'happiness', 'pleasure', 'good relationship', 'desire fulfillment', and 'self-satisfaction' as personal values. Laddering interviews, which required laborious analysis, provided important information on the relationship between perceived attributes and the reasons for choosing Korean restaurants.
Evaluation of Dry Rehydratable Film Method for Detection of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli
Park, Heon-Kuk ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 696~700
The adaptability of dry rehydratable film for the qualitative evaluation of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was tested. In general, culture methods that employ lactose broth or desoxycholate lactose agar are used for qualitative tests of coliform bacteria. Culture using lactose broth showed a high detection yield and low selectivity when compared to the dry rehydratable film. However, culture methods that employ lactose broth required a long time(48 hrs) for qualitative tests of coliform bacteria and complicated procedures were required to prepare the medium. The detection of coliforms using desoxycholate lactose agar had a slightly higher selectivity than the dry rehydratable film method, but this difference was not statistically significant. However, the preparation of the desoxycholate lactose agar was complicated. EC broth for the detection of E. coli showed the highest detection yield and lowest selectivity; however, this method required complicated procedures for preparation of the medium as well. Overall, the dry rehydratable film had a slightly lower detection yield than the other methods. The detection yield of dry rehydratable film method was over 37.1% at a concentration of 1 cfu/
. Additionally, the dry rehydratable film method showed high selectivity and did not require preparation. However, because the selectivity of the dry rehydratable film was high, it took a long time(36 hrs) to detect E. coli. Overall, these findings indicate that dry rehydratable film can be used for qualitative detection of coliforms and E. coli.
Effect of Ge(Germanium) Treatment on Rice Quality
Kim, Duk-Hee ; Kim, Kwang-Ok ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 701~707
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Ge(germanium) treatment on rice quality. Rice samples were divided into the following treatment groups: control(CON: cultivated without Ge), Ge-1(cultivated with 200 kg of rough stone powder containing 1.6 mg/kg germanium per 10 ha), and Ge-2(cultivated with 500 kg of rough stone powder containing 1.6 mg/kg germanium per 10 ha). The mean total Ge level in the Ge-2 sample was 20.47 ppb. The levels of Ca and Na in the Ge-2 rice increased by 65.12 and 110.28%, respectively, when compared to the control, whereas the Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg and K content decreased by 11.44~30.50%. No significant difference in the percentage weight of C and O was observed among samples. The order of the percentage weight of P, S, and Cl was Ge-2>Ge-1>CON. The free amino acids were higher in samples from the Ge-1 and Ge-2 groups than in samples from the control. The GABA(
-aminobutyric acid) amount in the Ge-2 products was significantly high compared to other groups. The micro structure of Ge-2 showed a firmer network than the control and had a macroporous structure. Conversely, the Ge-2 products had higher scores for stickiness, hardness and overall taste when compared to the other groups. These results suggest that rice treated with rough stone powder containing germanium can be used in the production of commercially-desired functional rice.