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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
A Study on Dietary Behaviors, and the Health of Male Adults according to Their Exercising Habits
Chung, Keun-Hee ; Shin, Kyung-Ok ; Choi, Kyung-Soon ; Yoo, Kwang-Wook ; Yoo, Jae-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 329~338
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.329
This study is conducted to compare the problems affecting dietary habits and health status between a long-term exercise group and non-exercise group of males older than 50 years. Most subjects of the two groups consider regular exercise to be the most important factor for maintaining health, and recognize hypertension as the number one concern. The most common nutritional supplement among subjects is multiple vitamins, and sleeping time range from 6~8 hours. Breakfast fasting rate was 15.9% among non-exercise group (NEG), where overeating and eating out rates were higher among exercise group (EG) when comparing to NEG. Fasting rates of breakfast, and consumption rates of milk and dairy products, vegetables such as kimchi, and fruits and fruit juices are higher among the EG. Overeating and eating out rates are lower among NEG, whereas eating rates of proteins like meat, fish, eggs, beans, fried foods, high-fat meats carbonated drinks, ice cream, and salt intakes are higher. Rates of health, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes are higher among EG. Energy intakes among the two groups were below the standard level, Vitamin
intake is low in EG, and folic acid and calcium intakes were higher in NEG. The exercising group care more about health, eating habits and nutrient intakes, and low smoking rates are being observed. Thus, specific dietary improvement programs for adult men, are required, and it is necessary to consider the practice of nutrition education.
Quality Characteristics of Pork Rectum according to Storage Temperature
Oh, Nam-Goong ; Jeong, Jae-Hyun ; Choi, Ung-Kyu ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 339~344
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.339
This study is conducted to investigate the shelf life of pork rectum stored at refrigerated temperatures (1, 5 and
). The pH of the boiled pork rectum (
) was slightly higher than that of the raw pork rectum (
). TBA value of the boiled pork rectum was higher than that of raw pork rectum. The TBA values of the raw and boiled pork rectum stored at
was rapidly increased at 4 days after beginning of preservation. The TBA values of raw and boiled pork rectum stored at
rapidly increased after 8 and 6 days after beginning of preservation, respectively. VBN values of both raw and boiled rectum preserved at
were maintained below 20 mg% for 8 days since the beginning of storage. Furthermore, it is preferred that the pork rectum was boiled for 20 minutes at
to restrain mesophiles, psychrophiles, and coliform bacteria effectively. Thus, the most desirable condition was when the pork rectum was consumed within 6 days and stored at
Study on Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Mixed with Garlic Powder
Lee, Hyun-Joo ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 345~351
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.345
The purpose of this study was to investigate the rheological properties of noodles containing garlic powder, which was added to noodle bases at 1, 3 and 5% concentrations. The physical properties of the noodles with garlic powder were tested by a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), a farinogram, and an alveogram. The initial pasting temperature were increased with the increments in the ratio of garlic powder, whereas peak viscosity, breakdown decreased. The consistency of Farinogram was increased with the increments in the ratio of garlic powder but did not show a significant difference. The mechanical tolerance index value of noodles containing garlic powder were lower than that of the control. The
and L value of the alveogram decreased with garlic powder increments.
A Study on Classification of Fish Oil Types and Its Usage by
C-NMR Spectra and Fatty Acids Analysis
Cho, Eun-Ah ; Lim, Sung-Jun ; Oh, Tae-Heon ; Ahn, Hyun-Joo ; Yuk, Soo-Jin ; Choi, Jin-Uk ; Cha, Yun-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 352~357
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.352
This study estimates the classification criteria which distinguishes the types of omega-3 health functional foods, fish oils and fish oil usages through
-NMR spectra and fatty acids contents analysis. The major fatty acids of omega-3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,
) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA,
) are being analyzed. 10 ethyl ester (EE) forms and 10 triglyceride (TG) forms are the most common types of fish oils for 20 omega-3 products. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis generally shows the matching EPA and DHA contents of the products listed on the notation. But EE form contents of EPA and DHA are higher and are more varied than the TG form. Most of the samples of EPA/DHA ratio show different content ratios of indicated on the products when comparing with standards. The
-NMR analysis of EPA and DHA on sn-1,3 and sn-2 carbonyl peak position with fish oil triglycerides display whether the reconstituted triglycerides (rTG) are being confirmed or not. As a result of the 9 TG form, the 10 TG products showed similar values: EPA sn-1, 3; 13.46~15.66, sn-2; 3.00~4.52, DHA sn-1, 3; 2.43~4.40, sn-2; 3.84~6.36. But one product showed lower contents (EPA: sn-1, 3; 5.88, sn-2; 2.86, DHA sn-1, 3; 2.29, sn-2; 5.95) of EPA, thus it can be considered a different type of oil and only matched six products according to the label. This study is intended to provide basic materials which identify the status for the types and quality of omega-3 fish oil products according to fatty acids profiles and the
-NMR spectrum confirmed the location specificity of EPA and DHA.
Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Fermented Rhodiola sachalinensis and Korean Red Ginseng Mixture by Lactobacillus acidophilus
Sung, Su-Kyung ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Lee, OK-Hwan ; Hong, Hee-Do ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 358~365
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.358
The study was conducted to investigate the condition for mixed fermentation of Rhodilola sachalinensis with red ginseng using Lactobacillus acidophillus 128 and the changes of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities before and after the lactic acid fermentation was examined. In the single fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis extract, the pH and titratable acidity rarely changed, and the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased greatly. On the other hand, in the lactic acid fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract of 50% red ginseng content, the pH decreased, whereas the titratable acidity and the number of lactic acid bacteria increased. The solid content of optimal mixed extract for lactic acid fermentation was 0.5%. Sugar content decreased during fermentation, but total phenolic compounds tended to increase during fermentation. The salidroside and p-tyrosol content of the initial Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract was 419.5 mg% and 60.1 mg%, respectively; after fermentation, the salidroside content after lactic acid fermentation decreased greatly to 81.8 mg%, and the amount of p-tyrosol increased greatly to 324.9 mg%. The DPPH scavenging activity of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed fermentate was 78.1% at 0.1% concentration, showing a tendency to increase as compared to 50.3% of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract before the fermentation (p<0.05); it was a higher antioxidant activity as compared to the single fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis or red ginseng.
Anti-Diabetic Studies of Mass Cultured Mycelia from Ganoderma applanatum in db/db Mice and Human
Kim, Kap-Ho ; Son, Dalhoon ; Lee, Joon-Seok ; Lee, Jeong-Woon ; Kim, Hak-Soo ; Lee, Jae-Hyen ; Lee, Moon-Cheol ; Kim, Namsik ; Song, Si-Whan ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 366~374
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.366
Anti-diabetic activities of cultured mycelia from Ganoderma applanatum are being evaluated in this study. The OGTT and 4-weeks of repeated oral efficacy tests are conducted in mice at the doses of 0 (vehicle treatment), 25, 75 and 225 mg/kg/day, respectively. In human study, the test article was administered orally every day for 8-week at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg, tid and placebo group. The blood glucose levels (BGL) at 0.5 hour after treatment are significant decreased in all treatment groups of OGTT test. In the 4-week test, BGL of 75 and 225 mg/kg/day group is continuously decreased during all treatment periods and the BGL of 25 mg/kg/day group show decreasing trends at the final week, the pancreas weight of all treatment groups are being increased, and the Langerhans-islet numbers were increased at all treatment groups with a dose-response manner. There are no test article-related abnormal signs and the fasted blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPG) and HbA1c are decreased significantly after 8-week treatments. These results that the cultured mycelia from Ganoderma applanatum could decrease BGL by protecting the degeneration of Langerhans islets.
The Enhanced Effect of Oplopanax elatus Nakai on the Immune System and Antitumor Activity
Hur, Jin Woo ; Cho, Eun Hee ; Lee, Bo Kyung ; Lee, Uiyoung ; Yoon, Taek Joon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 375~382
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.375
The present study is designed to explore an anti-tumor activity on crude extracts of Oplopanax elatus. Water extractions of Oplopanax elatus were performed at
(OeE-100). OeE-100 doses up to
had no cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines in vitro. In experimental lung metastasis of colon26-M3.1 carcinoma or B16-BL6 melanoma, the prophylactic intravenous (
) or oral (2 mg/mouse) administration of OeE-100 significantly inhibited tumor metastasis as compared with tumor controls. Peritoneal macrophages stimulated with OeE-100 produced various cytokines such as TNF-
, IL-6 and IL-12. In an analysis of NK-cell activities, i.v. administration of OeE-100 (
) significantly augmented the cytotoxicity to YAC-1 tumor cells. Vaccination of mice with boiling-treated tumor cells (BT-vaccine) in combination with OeE-100 (
) showed higher inhibitions in tumor metastasis when compared with the mice of BT-vaccine treatment. In addition, the splenocytes from OeE-100 admixed BT-vaccine immunized mice secreted a higher concentration of Th1 type cytokine such as IFN-
. These results suggested that the OeE-100 stimulated immune system and was a good candidate adjuvant of anti-tumor immune responses.
Safety Evaluation of Korean Mistletoe Extract
Kim, Inbo ; Jeong, Ju-Seong ; Yoon, Taek Joon ; Kim, Jong Bae ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 383~390
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.383
Mistlero C was shown to be non-genotoxic in a series of genotoxicity tests, including a bacterial reverse mutation test and a combined in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test. In a bacterial reverse mutation assay, no significant increases in the number of revertant colonies, compared to the negative control, was detected in
of Mistlero C. In addition, with Mistlero C, no changes were shown in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) among 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes compared to the negative control. Mistlero C was administered orally in rats to investigate acute toxicity. The
values in rats were above 2,000 mg/kg. In a repeated dose, 13-week, oral toxicity study conducted in rats, no compound-related adverse effects were shown at doses of Mistlero C of up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day. The results of these studies support the safe use of Mistlero C in food for human consumption.
The Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of University Students Regarding Nutritional Labeling
Choi, Jung-Hwa ; Yi, Na-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 391~397
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.391
This study investigated the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 280 University students towards nutrition labels. The purpose of the study was to examine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of university students regarding nutrition labeling, and whether body mass index (BMI) with nutrition labeling was associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Descriptive statistics analyzed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of university students regarding food labeling. The ANOVA and
analysis was evaluated and assessed for its relationship with BMI. Pearson`s correlation coefficient analysis examined relationships between knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. More than 90 percent of answers relating to 11 nutritional knowledge questions were correct. Only 30% of participants answered correctly regarding questions about plan source oil and cholesterol content. Attitudes and behaviors of nutrition labels were significantly higher among participants who were obese (p<0.001). Knowledge score was positively correlated with general label usage behavior (r
Changes of Nutrient Composition and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented Tea during Fermentation
Lee, Kyung-Haeng ; Kim, Yong-Shik ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 398~403
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.398
To manufacture the fermented tea with hygienic quality, green tea was fermented using Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and mineral composition, total amino acid content and antioxidative activity changes were evaluated during the fermentation period. Minerals detected in the fermented tea, the Ca, Fe, Zn, Mg and Mn minerals were detected. Ca and Mg are relatively large compared to other mineral content. Total amino acid content of the control was 3.57%, but total amino acid of fermented teas were higher (3.68~3.85%) during fermentation 20 days. Metal chelating activity of control was 55.11%, Metal chelating activity of the fermented tea using B. subtilis was the highest. In reducing power, O.D. value of the control was 2.27, three kinds of fermented tea were lower than that of control. The fermented teas increased lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to the blank test.
Dietary Habits and Behaviors of College Students in the Northern Gyeonggi-do Region
Choi, Byung Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 404~413
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.404
This study was conducted to assess the dietary habits and behaviors of college students in the Northern Gyeonggi-do Region(Republic of Korea). To accomplish this, a survey was conducted to investigate the preference, intake frequency and menus of breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks by male and female students. Most male and female students had irregular breakfasts with the main reasons for skipping a meal `not enough time` (47.3, 45.5%) and `irritating` (19.0, 21.9%), respectively. The principal breakfast menu for both was `rice and side dishes`. The lunch time for male and female students was regular, and the lunch cost made up most of their spending money. The snack time of male and female students was mostly `between lunch and dinner`. The snack menus of male and female students were `cookies` (25.8, 19.0%), `drinks` (18.0, 14.4%), and `breads` (16.9, 13.2%), respectively. For male students, the reasons of snack intake were `hunger` (46.1%), `boredom` (15.7%), and `habitual` (9.0%). For female students, the reasons were `hunger` (28.2%), `habitual` (22.4%), `boredom` (15.5%). Half of the college students had regular delivery foods for reasons of `hygiene`, `taste`, and `nutrition` in the order and in consideration of being the elderly. The facility foodservice was also used half of the college students for the reasons of being `economic` (30.9, 22.6%), and `liberated from preparing meals` (21.4, 23.8%), respectively. Both male and female students were found to have less knowledge of the facility foodservice in the elderly. Based on these results, greater efforts should be made to provide meaningful information regarding the dietary habits and behaviors of college students, especially, when elderly.
Relationships of Pathogenic Vibrios and Environmental Factors Affecting their Occurrence in the Seawater of Incheon Coastal Area
Go, Yeon-Ja ; Jang, Jae-Seon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 414~420
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.414
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, turbidity and pH on the growth of pathogenic Vibrios. In this study, we was obtained the samples from 2 different sites of the Incheon coastal area between January 2012 and December 2012. The water temperature in August and September was the high. the Incheon port changes the width of a small, wherease in the case of Hanjin harbor of changes of larger width. Salinity and turbidity showed significant differences, whereas temperature and hydrogen ion concentration was not significant. Pathogenic vibrios was determined using the real-time PCR method. Pathogenic vibrios in the Incheon port and Hanjin harbor were detected in 11 samples (91.67%) and 9 samples (75.0%) of Vibrio cholerae, 7 samples (58.3%) and 6 samples (50.0%) of V. vulnificus, 10 samples (83.3%) and 12 samples (100.0%) of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. Pathogenic Vibrio bacteria were the highest at
of seawater in August. Quantitative results were the following: 102
in Vibrio cholerae, 7.876
in V. vulnificus, and 503.4
in V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The enumeration of pathogenic vibrios showed a positive correlation with temperature and pH, but was negatively correlated with salinity and turbidity.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Prepared with Added Freeze Dried-eggplant Powder
Choi, Sang-Ho ; Moon, Sook-Jeong ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Ahn, Jong-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 421~427
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.421
The results of testing general components, physical property and physical function after having made steamed rice cake by adding eggplant, which caters to consumers` tastes are as follows. It showed that when eggplant powder content increased, the moisture content of steamed rice cake with eggplant was decreased. It also showed that the lightness value (L) of steamed rice cake with eggplant powder was the highest as 82.75 in the control group. When eggplant powder content increased, the redness (a) and yellowness (b) were increased. From the results of having measured the antioxidant potential over the steamed rice cake with freezing-drying eggplant powder by DPPH radical elimination, we figured out that it was the lowest as 48.30% in the control group. As more eggplant powder was added, its elimination increased accordingly. As per hardness of steamed rice cake with eggplant, the added group with 7% was revealed as the highest at 0.757. It showed that adhesiveness was the lowest as 30.233 in the control group, and springiness and cohesiveness were on the rise as freezing-drying eggplant powder was increased. Furthermore, softness and chewiness were shown to be high in the added group with eggplant powder of 3, 5%. The evaluation over the overall preference was the highest in 5% added group. Judging from this, adding 3~5% eggplant powder against non-glutinous rice powder is considered an optimal quantity in making steamed rice cake with eggplant.
Quality Properties of Gelling Product prepared from Soybean Curd Residue with Addition of Gums
Lee, Seog-Won ; Han, Sung-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 428~437
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.428
The physical properties of jellified soybean curd residue (Biji) with the addition of various gums were investigated to optimize the direct availability of a by-product of the tofu production process. The lightness (L value) of the jellified Biji prepared with various gums was approximately 77~80, regardless of the concentration of gum used. Especially at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.3%, a pectin showed a significantly higher value compared with other gelling agents (carrageenan and agar). The strength of samples prepared on the basis of carrageenan showed the value of 335~569
according to the addition of locust bean gum and xanthan gum, respectively. On the other hand, the samples made with pectin and agar were 134~272
, respectively. Where locust bean gum was used as a viscous agent, the adhesiveness of sample prepared by adding carrageenan was greater than those made with pectin or agar. The values were -6.0~-11.0 g, -2.7~-10.2 g and -3.7~-7.0 g, respectively. Overall, the strength and adhesiveness of samples according to increase of the added amount of Biji showed constantly increasing trend regardless of the type of gelling agent used. In the sample containing carrageenan this trend was most noticeable.
A Study on Purchase Behavior of Kimchi on Sale - Focusing on Housewives in Jeonbuk Area Who had Purchase Experience -
Kim, Hyun-Duck ; Song, Young-Ai ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 438~446
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.438
This paper investigated the purchase behavior of Kimchi products by surveying housewives in Jeonbuk area who have purchased Kimchi products. The studied consumers purchased Kimchi products for the convenience and time-saving aspects. Factors taken into account when purchasing Kimchi were hygiene, taste and ingredients. The main places of purchase for Kimchi products were large discount markets. The purchase information paths were product displays at stores and recommendations from acquaintances. The most purchased type of Kimchi products was cabbage Kimchi. An one-time purchase amount was 10,000~30,000 won. The most purchased size was to be 500 g~1 kg. Desired improvements for Kimchi products were a display of the ingredients origin, exclusion of monosodium glutamate, freshness, and hygiene. Based on the results, this research aids in analyzing the marketing mix (4P: product, price, place, promotion) of Kimchi products for Kimchi manufacturers.
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Yanggaeng added with Turmeric Powder
Lee, Sun Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 447~452
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.447
This study investigated the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng with different amounts (in ratios of 0, 1, 2, 4% to the total materials) of tumeric powders. The proximate composition and total polyphenol content, antioxidant activities, Hunter`s color values, pH, Brix and sensory properties of tumeric hanging were examined. Results of analysis of the proximate composition analysis showed that ash content was increased significantly by adding turmeric powder and the more content of turmeric powder. The higher content of tumeric powder, the higher total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents. Brix and brightness were lowered and yellowness was increased. The sensory properties were highly rated for the control without turmeric powder in four organoleptic (sensory) properties (taste, texture, odor, acceptance) except color. The group with-1% addition of turmeric powder was highly rated in the second place.
Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Rectum by Addition of Maesil (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.)
Oh, Nam-Goong ; Jeong, Jae-Hyun ; Choi, Ung-Kyu ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 453~458
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.453
This study was conducted to investigate the quality change of pork rectum by addition of maesil. pH of the pork rectum was decreased by the addition of maesil in a dose dependent manner. The changes in the L and a color values of both raw pork rectum and cooked pork rectum by storage were negligable. The b color value of raw pork rectum was certainly increased in the early stage of storage. The b value of cooked pork rectum, which was slightly dropped by addition of maesil, was decreased as storage progressed. In both raw and cooked pork rectum, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner up to 5% addition of maesil. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content in the ground pork rectum was conspicuously decreased by the addition of maesil. Consequently, the storage time of both raw and cooked pork rectum was extended more than 4 days by the 5% addition of maesil.
Sodium Content and Nutrients Supply from Free Lunch Meals Served by Welfare Facilities for the Elderly in Gyeonggi-do
Park, Seoyun ; Ahn, So Hyun ; Kim, Jin Nam ; Kim, Hye-Kyeong ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 459~469
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.459
This study was performed to estimate the salt content and evaluate the nutritional quality of free lunch meals served by welfare facilities for the elderly. We collected food items from 8 welfare facilities in Gyeonggi-do, and calculated the total salt content from the salinity and weight of individual food items. The average salt content from lunch meals was 5.68 g, which was over the recommended daily salt intake by the WHO. The greatest contributor to the salt content among the menu groups was soup and stew (37.5%). Soup, stew, deep-fried foods, and sauces were major sources of salt, while the most salty dishes were sauces, deep-fried food, salt-fermented food, and kimchi. The nutrient content was sufficient, except for calcium in both men and women, which was equal to approximately 1/3 of the dietary recommended intakes (DRIs) for Korean adults of their mean age. In addition, the index of nutritional quality (INQ) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) of most nutrients were satisfactory, except for those of calcium and sodium. The INQs of calcium and sodium were 0.64 and 4.41, respectively, while the mean adequacy ratio of a meal was 0.95. These results suggest that multilateral efforts to lower sodium intake be considered and calcium sources be added, in order to improve the quality of meals served to the elderly at welfare facilities.
A Study of the Perception and Purchase Behavior on Foreign Matters in Food
Yang, Sung-Bum ; Yang, Seung-Ryong ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 470~475
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.470
The objective of this study was to investigate the perceptions and purchase behaviors on foreign matters in food. For that, we conducted a survey of 348 adults living in a metropolitan area. Concern over the presence of foreign matters in food was a lower than that for other harmful factors such as heavy metals, BSE, harmful microbes and so on. 70% of respondents would not take the snack which was detected a rat`s head, including the manufacturer`s product and similar products with it after the foreign matter incident. In contrast, about of 54% respondents were willing to buy canned tuna after the incident. It is necessary to prepare more detail management and policy on foreign matters in food.
Correlation of Anthropometric Data, Nutrient Intakes and Serum Lipids in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
Choi, Yun-Hee ; Song, Tae-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 476~484
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.476
This study was conducted to investigate the anthropometric data, nutrient intakes and serum profiles in premenopausal and postmenopausal women living in Gyeonggi-do Province, Republic of Korea. The subjects were 49 premenopausal women and 63 postmenopausal women who are not taking any hormone or cardiovascular drugs. Anthropometric measurements were taken by a trained practitioner and the data for dietary intakes were obtained by a 24-hour recall method. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for the total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein fractions. The mean age of the premenopausal women was
years and that of the postmenopausal women was 2
years. The height and weight were
kg in premenopausal women and
kg in postmenopausal women, respectively. WHR (waist hip ratio) in postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women (p<0.05). There were no differences between the pre-and postmenopausal women in the intakes of energy, protein, fat, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin
, niacin, vitamin C and vitamin E. However carbohydrate and Na intakes in postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, Ca intake was below and Na intake was extremely high considering KDRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans). Serum triglyceride in postmenopausal women was positively correlated with age, BMI (body mass index) and WHR. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in postmenopausal women showed significantly negative correlations with fiber intake. These results suggest that it is necessary to help postmenopausal women maintain a healthy body weight. Postmenopausal women needs to increase Ca (calcium) intakes and diet quality by decreasing the intakes of Na (sodium). In addition, an adequate intakes of fiber is recommended for postmenopausal women to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Protective Effect of Ferments of Hot-water Extract Mixture from Rhodiola sachalinensis and Red Ginseng on Oxidative Stress-induced C2C12 Myoblast
Yoon, Bo-Ra ; Kim, Young-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Seok ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Rhee, Young-Kyoung ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 485~491
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.485
Rhodiola spp. and red ginseng have been used for food and medicinal applications in disease chemoprevention in many Asian countries. Increased oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed to be a major cause of muscle fatigue. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of a fermented hot-water extract mixture from Rhodiola sachalinensis and red ginseng (MFR) on cell damage and the antioxidant enzyme system in
-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myoblasts were treated with various concentrations of NFR (non-fermented Rhodiola sachalinensis extract), FR (fermented hot-water extract from Rhodiola sachalinensis) and MFR for up to 5 days after the standard induction of differentiation, followed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. MFR treatment dose-dependently protected oxidative damage of C2C12 cells. The treatment with MFR also enhanced mRNA expressions of MyoD, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn-SOD and GPX up to 16%. These results indicate that MFR exerts an anti-oxidative effect through a mechanism (s) that may involve the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, which may be important for the cellular redox environment in muscle cells.
A Study on the Eating Experience and Preferences for Seafood in Elementary School Students in Gyeonggi-do Area
Oh, Hee ; Chung, Hae Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 492~501
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.492
The purpose of this study was to compare the eating experience and preferences for seafood among elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do. A survey was carried out on 383 elementary school students. As for the eating experience of seafood, the students were aware of and had eaten `Scomber japonics (Go-deung-eo) (96.3%)`, `Anadara broughtonii (Jo-gea) (95.8%)`, `Ommastrephes sloani pacificus (O-jing-eo) (98.7%)`, `Panulirus japonicus (Sea-ou) (98.4%)`, `Porphyra tenera (Gim) (99.5%)`, `Shrimp, soused (81.2%)`, `Eo-muk (98.7%)`, and `Anchovy, dried (98.7%)`. As for the preferences for seafood, `like (67.6%)`, `fair (21.5%)`, and `dislike (7.3%)` were observed. Concerning the frequency of seafood consumption, 4th grade students showed higher frequency of `1~2/week` compared to others (p<0.05). 6th grade students showed higher frequency of `3~4/week` compared to others (p<0.05). In terms of preferable cooking methods for seafood, `grilling (35.0%)`, `soup (23.0%)`, and `raw fish (19.8%)` were observed. Boys showed a higher preference for `grilling`, `frying` and `raw fish` compared to the girls (p<0.05). Girls showed a higher preference for `soup`, `braising` and `steaming` compared to the boys (p<0.05). As for the seafood intake by eating place, `home (60.1%)`, `eating-out (18.3%)`, and `school lunch menus (12.8%)` were observed in that order. Therefore, in order to increase the consumption and intake of seafood, students should attempt to achieve proper intake though information of nutrition and consistent nutritional education.
Bioactivitiy Changes in Mung Beans according to the Roasting Time
Song, You-Bin ; Lee, Kyung-Seok ; Lee, Myoung-Sook ; Kim, Ae-Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 502~507
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.502
This study was investigated the optimal time that enhanced the functional activities of mung beans for use of functional food resources. Mung beans were roasted according three levels of roasting time levels (10, 20 and 30 minutes) at
and then the physicochemical compositions were determined. The reducing sugar content was decreased with the increased roasting time. Moisture was decreased with increased roasting time, whereas, crude fat, crude ash, crude protein and carbohydrate were increased with prolonged roasting time. The highest contents of total phenol and flavonoid were shown at a roasting condition
for 30 minutes. The highest inhibitory activities of DPPH radical, ABTS radical and xanthine oxidase was the best at the condition of
for 30 min. From these results optimal roasting time of mung beans were 30 minutes for use of functional food resources.
Quality Characteristics of Tarakjuk (Milk Porridge) Prepared with Brown Rice
Ahn, Jong-Sung ; Kong, Suk-Gil ; Cho, Sung-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 508~514
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.508
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various types of functional brown rice milk porridge, which has been popular as a fast yet nutritional food, to promote rice consumption and to examine the best ratio and recipe. Each sample contained 10, 20, 30, and 40% brown rice compared to non-glutinous rice and sweet rice and were applied to mechanical and sensory tests. The moisture content of both non-glutinous rice and sweet rice porridges increased with increasing brown rice content. The viscosity of non-glutinous rice milk porridge decreased as with increasing brown rice content, whereas the viscosity of sweet rice milk porridge increased with increasing brown rice content. The pH was highest for BRT0 at 6.74 and lowest for BGT0, which is sweet rice porridge with brown rice, at 6.27. The sweetness decreased significantly for both sweet rice and non-glutinous rice porridges with the increase in brown rice content. The brightness of weet rice and non-glutinous rice porridges with brown rice increased significantly (p<0.001) with the increase in brown rice content, while the redness and yellowness of the color increased significantly (p<0.001) with increasing in brown rice content. As a result of analyzing the preference in the milk porridge containing brown rice, BRT30, which is non-glutinous rice milk porridge with brown rice, was most preferred at 5.8 in terms of color, while BRT30 was most preferred at 6.2 in terms of fragrance. All samples containing brown rice powder were highly preferred in terms of taste and the overall preference of sweet rice milk porridge was highest for BRT30 (5.8). The overall preference was highest for BGT30 at 6.1 and the preference was generally higher for the experiment groups prepared with sweet rice as opposed to those prepared with non-glutinous rice. Also, the scores for the sensory test were higher when brown rice was added. Therefore, it was concluded that the milk porridge could quickly and easily be prepared with brown rice instead of non-glutinous rice or sweet rice.
Characteristics of Nutrient Intake According to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Elderly - Using Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 -
Kim, Mi Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 515~525
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.515
This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of nutrient intake according to metabolic syndrome in Korean elderly. Data on 1,200 elderly (men 545, women 655) over 65 years was obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. The subjects were divided into metabolic syndrome (MetS) and normal groups based on NCEP-ATP III guidelines and by applying the Asia-Pacific definition with waist circumference. The prevalence of MetS was 48.9% in all subjects, 35.6% in men and 58.9% in women, respectively. All nutrient intake was significantly lower in MetS than normal subjects, except iron, vitamin A, carotene, and retinol. In the carbohydrate: protein: fat (C:P:F) ratio, MetS showed a higher rate for carbohydrate, but a lower rate for protein and fat than normal. MetS was lower in calcium, vitamin B1, and vitamin C by the nutrient adequacy ratio than normal. Mean adequacy ratio of MetS (0.69) was lower than that of the normal group (0.72). These results demonstrated that undernutrition, not excess intake of specific nutrients - energy, fat, or cholesterol was associated with the risk for MetS in Korean elderly with MetS. Therefore, it is recommended to have a healthy dietary pattern with diverse nutrients for the prevention of MetS.
Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica Complex on Lipid Metabolism in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Yoon, Jin A ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 526~534
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.526
This study was conducted to examine the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica complex (OF) on the lipid metabolism, bile acid in feces, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, aspatate aminotransferase (AST) activity, composition of urine and expression of cholesterol related mRNA in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into non-diabetic control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic OF of 2% (OF-2) and diabetic OF of 5% (OF-5), then each group was fed for 3 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in OF-5 group compared to DC, but high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not changed. AST and ALT were also reduced and bile acid excretion was improved. Composition of urine in OF-5 was almost same in NC. The expression of cholesterol
-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA-R), Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) mRNA indicated that feeding OF have the effects of cholesterol decreation in plasma by synthesis of bile acid from cholesterol. These results provide experimental evidence about improved lipid metabolism of the OF feeding in the STZ-induced diabetic rats.
The Relationship between Obesity Degree and Psychological Factors, Dietary Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Women in their Twenties in Seoul and Kyungin Area
Kim, Sang-Yeon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 535~546
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.535
This study was carried out to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and general characteristics, psychological factors, eating habits, dietary behaviors, and health related quality of life using survey of 335 women aged 20 to 29 years in the Seoul and Kyungin areas. The 335 study subjects were divided into 4 groups by BMI (
) levels; normal group(
), overweight group(
), mild obesity group(
), and heavy obesity group (
) by Asian-Pacific obesity index criteria. The family income of the heavy obesity group was significantly (p<0.05) less than that of the normal weight group. Psychological factors, such as stress and depression of the normal weight group tended to be higher than those of overweight and obesity groups. The higher BMI level had the lower self-efficacy(p<0.05) among all subjects. As the BMI level increased, the preference for sweet, salty, and hot taste was significantly high. We found that normal weight women had healthier eating habits and dietary behaviors and a higher level of health-related quality of life than did those who were overweight, mildly obese, and heavily obese women. Overweight and mildly and heavily obese women were strongly associated with decreased physical and mental health related quality of life. Therefore, weight loss is desirable, and is likely to be beneficial for health-related quality of life in obese adult women. In conclusion, this study contains evidence to suggest that obesity management programs including different strategies according to obesity are required to determine the types of programs that are suitable for adult women, prior to their initiation of a program. The findings are helpful to inform researchers and practitioners who are seeking to implement appropriate strategies to create positive changes in the health behaviors of obese adult women.
Isolation and Purification of Antibacterial Components in Cortex Phellodendri
Kim, Jung-Bae ; Shin, Woon-Seob ; Kwon, Young-In ; Bang, Byung-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 547~552
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.547
Cortex Phellodendri (CP) is derived from the dried bark of Phellodendron amurense. It has been widely used as a drug in traditional Korea medicine for treating diarrhea, jaundice, swelling pains in the knees and feet, urinary tract infections and infections of the body surface. In this study, preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was successfully carried out to separate antibacterial compounds from a CP methanol extract. The optimum two-phase CPC solvent system was composed of n-butanol: acetic acid: water (4:1:5 v/v/v). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 3
in ascending mode with rotation at 1,000 rpm. The CPC-separated fraction and purification procedures were carried out by preparatory HPLC. Palmatine weas identified by
-nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy spectral data analysis.
Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Commercial Korean Traditional Soy Sauce of Mass-Produced vs. Small Scale Farm Produced in the Gyeonggi Area
Choi, Nam-Soon ; Chung, Seo-Jin ; Choi, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Hye-Won ; Cho, Jung-Joo ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 553~564
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.553
The core ingredient of traditional Korean style soy sauce is soy bean without any wheat or rice incorporated. National brands as well as regional micro-brewed companies constitute the soy sauce market in Korea. The present study investigated the physico-chemical and sensory properties of soy sauces produced by small-scale or mass-production. Additionally, the key physico-chemical parameters sufficiently representing the critical sensory characteristics have been identified. Ten types of soy sauce brewed by the Korean traditional method were selected for the study. Among these samples, seven types were brewed in small-scales in the Gyeonggi-do region whereas the other 3 types were mass-production products of major national brands. The total solid, reducing sugar, salinity, sugar content, amino nitrogen, CIELAB, acidity, and pH of soy sauce samples were measured for the physico-chemical analysis. A generic descriptive analysis was conducted to analyze the sensory characteristics of the samples using six trained panelists. The descriptive panel developed 21 sensory attributes. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, PCA and PLSR. Overall, the micro-brewed products showed significantly higher value of salinity and acidity but lower content of reducing sugar than the mass-production products. The micro-brewed soy sauces elicited stronger fermented flavor, sourness, and bitterness whereas the national brand products elicited stronger alcoholic odor, sweetness and umami taste. Sugar content, acidity, and amino nitrogen showed strong relationships with fish sauce flavor, umami taste, and rich flavor. Salinity was closely related to the overall flavor intensity.
Optimization of Processing Conditions and Selection of Optimum Species for Sweet Potato Chips
Jang, Gwi-Yeong ; Li, Meishan ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Sin, Hyun-Man ; Kim, Hong-Sig ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 565~572
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.565
This study was performed to optimize the processing conditions and to select the optimum species for colored sweet potato chips (Shinjami, Juhwangmi and Hayanmi varieties) baked by far-infrared radiation. Sweet potato chips were prepared by different slicing thickness (1~3 mm), concentration of sucrose solution for soaking (15~30%), blanching time (15~60 sec), baking temperature (
) and baking time (23~31 min) through sensory evaluation and failure stress measurement. Optimal processing condition of sweet potato chips using Shinjami was determined to 1 mm, 20%, 45 sec,
and 31 min, and those using Juhwangmi was determined as 1 mm, 25%, 45 sec,
and 29 min. Sweet potato chips using Hayanmi was determined as 1 mm, 20%, 45 sec,
and 31 min, respectively. Free sugar content of sweet potato chips was higher in chips than in raw materials. In the sensory evaluation, appearance, sweet taste, hardness, and overall acceptance were higher in Juhwangmi than in the Shinjami and Hayanmi varieties. Overall acceptance, sugar content, b-value and failure stress were highly correlated among factors affecting the sensory characteristics (p<0.01). From the results of this study, Juhwangmi variety was selected for production of sweet potato chips.
Changes in Chemical components of Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Treated with Low Dose UV-C Irradiation
Lee, Kyung-Haeng ; Jang, Hyun-Jung ; Choi, Ji-Hye ; Ban, Ki-Eun ; Park, Jae-Hee ; Lee, Yu-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 573~577
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.573
To extend the shelf-life of the domestic peach, a low dose UV-C irradiation (0~3.0
) was treated and the changes of the major chemical components were investigated. The contents of polyphenols in UV-treated peaches were higher than that of control with the highest at 0.25
UV treatment. The contents of polyphenols of control and UV treatments were slightly reduced by storage period. The contents of flavonoid were not significantly different among the control and UV treatments. Detected free sugars of the control and UV treatments were fructose, glucose, maltose and sucrose. Sucrose content was higher than that of other free sugars and free sugar content increased during storage. And free sugar content was not significantly different between the control and UV treatments. The free amino acid content of the control and UV treatments were 115.38 mg% and 95.92~120.94 mg% respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control and UV treatments.
The School Foodservice Securement Facilities and Perceptions of Barriers to Implementation of HACCP System in School Foodservice in Seoul Area
Lee, Ae-Rang ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 578~590
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.578
The subject study was targeted towards nutrition teacher (dietitian) of elementary, middle, and high schools in Seoul areal. In addition, this study was to investigate the current status of school foodservice securement facilities & equipments and to analyze the obstructive factors for executing the HACCP system. The aim of this study was to provide base-line data so that a more efficient & effective sanitary management system for school foodservise can be settled in. All surveys were distributed and collected via email. A total of 305 survey papers were collected and out of these, 300 school results were analyzed and the results are as follows. The order of the securement facilities & equipment furnished were pre-handing equipments>washing>cooking>inspection>facilities>storage>space area>distribution equipments. The awareness of obstructive factors in executing the HACCP system was a total of 3.17 points and the order was as follows. The general obstructive factors>obstructive factors in the cooking staff executing the HACCP system>collaboration between the school/team leaders and the budget supporting department>obstructive factors in the nutrition teacher (dietitian) executing the HACCP system. School foodservice securement facilities & equipments in Seoul area must be renovated and modernized so as to improve its current situation. Furthermore, leadership programs are necessary to enhance nutritionists` understanding of the HACCP system and the cooking staff`s competencies in instructing and supervising.
Changes in Nutraceutical Lipid Constituents of Pre- and Post-Geminated Brown Rice Oil
Kwak, Ji-Eun ; Yoon, Sung-Won ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Yoon, Mi-Ra ; Lee, Jeong-Heui ; Oh, Sea-Kwan ; Kim, In-Hwan ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Lee, Jeom-Sig ; Chang, Jae-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 591~600
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.591
This study investigated the changes in the nutraceutical lipid components of brown rice oil after germination. Four different high-yielding cultivars (Dasan1, Segyejinmi, Hanareum1 and Hanareum2) of Korean brown rice were selected and brown rice oil was extracted from each cultivar before and after germination. Free fatty acid, squalene, policosanols, and isomers of phytosterol were analyzed using GC, and isomers of tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienol) and
-oryzanol were quantified using HPLC from both brown rice oil (BRO) and germinated brown rice oil (GBRO). The contents of phytosterol isomers, campesterol, stigmasterol, and
-sitosterol were increased by 8.3%, 31.6%, 3.3% in GBRO, respectively. Furthermore, the squalene content showed the highest increase of up to 2.4 fold in GBRO compared to BRO. In addition, linoleic and linolenic acid composition increased whereas oleic and palmitic acid decreased in the GRBO. However, the contents of tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienol) in GBRO were lower than those in BRO, and there was no significant difference in policosanol and
-oryzanol between GBRO and BRO. These results suggest that GBRO has the potential as a healthy and functional source due to its lipid profile on improved lipid metabolism.
Physicochemical Properties of Depolymerized Barley β-Glucan by Alkali Hydrolysis
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Jang, Gwi-Yeong ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Kim, Tae-Jip ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 601~607
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.601
This study was performed to investigate the changes of total and soluble
-glucan contents, purity and physicochemical characteristics of alkali hydrolyzed barley varieties: Saessalbori (SSB), Saechalssalbori (SCSB) and Hinchalssalbori (HCSB). The barleys were hydrolyzed at different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (0.2~1.0 N) for 12 hours. Total
-glucan contents of raw SSB, SCSB and HCSB were 8.40, 7.77 and 8.28%, and soluble
-glucan contents were 4.80, 4.16 and 4.61%, respectively. The total
-glucan contents after alkali hydrolyzed at 1.0 N NaOH were 7.54, 6.89 and 7.54%, also soluble
-glucan contents were 4.82, 4.30 and 4.55%, respectively. The degree of purity of soluble
-glucan in SSB, SCSB, and HCSB were 35.79, 30.91 and 33.90%, respectively. They were increased to 74.02, 75.28 and 81.41% after hydrolyzed at 1.0 N NaOH, respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of soluble
-glucan solutions were decreased as sodium hydroxide concentration was increased. The re-solubility of raw barley
-glucan was about 50%; however, it was increased to approximately 87% as sodium hydroxide concentration was increased.