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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Antioxidative and Anticancer Activities of Xanthium strumarium Extracts prepared from Different Parts
Lee, Youn Ri ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 609~614
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.609
This study was carried out in order to investigate the functional properties of methanol extracts from two parts (root and fruit) of Xanthium strumarium by means of measuring the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoid as well as determining
, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (OH
) and anticancer activity. The examination of physiologically active substances in the two parts revealed that the Xanthium strumarium fruit had high total polyphenol, flavonoid contents,
DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The Xanthium strumarium fruit has higher activities of anticancer activities on prostate cell lines compared to other cancer cell lines.
Effect on the Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Lipid Metabolism of Zanthoxylum piperitum Extracts
Park, Jang-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 615~619
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.615
Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed world and has become a global epidemic in recent years. In this study, Zanthoxylum planispinum extracts (ZPE) were evaluated on the effect on inhibition of pancreatic lipase and lipid metabolism by oral treatment for 2 months in high-fed diet obesity-induced Balb/c mice. The ZPE showed pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity with
. No significant difference in feed intake was observed among the groups. The high-fat diet-treated Z. planispinum extracts groups (HFD+ZPE, 100mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight compared to the high-fat diet vehicle groups (HFD, p<0.05). The high-fat diet-treated Xenical
groups (HFD+Xenical, n=10, 30mg/kg) also showed a significant reduction of body weight compared to HFD (p<0.05). Biochemical parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in HFD plus ZPE diet groups were significantly lower than those of the HFD groups (p<0.05). These results indicated that ZPE more effectively suppressed the effects of HFD on body fat gain with the inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase.
Survey on Hanwoo Usage and Menu Development using Lean Cut Hanwoo for School Foodservice
Jeong, Hee Sun ; Lee, Tae Nam ; Yoon, Ji Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 620~632
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.620
The purpose of this study is to analyze Hanwoo usage in school foodservices and to develop menus of lean cut Hanwoo. As a result, satisfaction of students, parents and teachers all increased regardless of school type after using Hanwoo. The high price compared to other meats (3.98) was the biggest difficulty for using lean cut Hanwoo followed by reduced taste preferences (2.84), lack of parent awareness (2.67) and lack of appropriate cooking facilities (2.13). According to the survey on how to increase the usage of lean cut Hanwoo, improvement of meat tenderness (3.80), development of various sauces (3.74) and development of seasoning for existing menu (3.61) were identified as major necessities. This analysis of Hanwoo utilization in school foodservice was used to develop menus of lean cut Hanwoo. The menu was particularly developed to overcome the supply-demand imbalance of different cuts. For the menu development process, potential Hanwoo utilization in school foodservice, cooking method, and diverse taste were considered. In order to evaluate the applicability in school foodservice, JARS was used and the final eight menus were selected. For the selected menu, a nutrition analysis was conducted. Further, systematic recipes with a mixing ratio;product process description and a simplified product process were also developed.
Pasteurization Characteristics of Makgeolli (Korea Rice Wine) with Various Initial Concentrations of Yeasts
Lee, Jin-Won ; Chung, Yoon-Kyung ; Park, Jang-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 633~637
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.633
There is an increasing consumption of Makgeolli in both domestic and foreign markets due to a high interest in Korean traditional alcoholic beverages. However, currently, a standardized system of manufacturing, storing and circulating Makgeolli is not available. Therefore, manufacturing the constant quality of finished products is hardly achieved due to the uncertified quality index of Makqeolli. In particular, quality changes occur as a result of variable initial load of microorganisms during shelf life. Eight different commercially available brands of Makgeolli were obtained, and their initial concentrations of yeasts were measured. One brand with the highest concentration was chosen, and the variable initial concentrations were prepared at a concentration of
yeast CFU/ml. These Makgeolli samples were heat-treated at 65, 70, 75 or
. It was shown that temperatures higher than
were needed in order to pasteurize Makgeolli properly. In addition;it is considered that controlling the microorganisms by a standardized system for the processing analysis would improve the quality of Makgeolli.
Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Mung Bean Starch Gel prepared with Persimmon Powder
Choi, Hae-Yeon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 638~645
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.638
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of persimmon powder on the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of mung bean starch gel. Mung bean starch gels were prepared with different amounts (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%) of persimmon powder. The antioxidant activity was estimated by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity and by the total phenolic acid content in the persimmon powder and mung bean starch gel. For analyzing the quality characteristics, syneresis, pH, color, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluations were measured. The syneresis in the control group was higher than that in the treated group, but the mung bean starch gel prepared with 9% persimmon powder was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001). The pH, b values, total phenolic acid content, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of mung bean starch gels significantly increased with increasing persimmon powder (p<0.001), while the L values and a values of the mung bean starch gels significantly decreased with increasing persimmon powder (p<0.001). In the texture profile analysis, the mung bean starch gel with 9% persimmon powder showed significantly lower levels of chewiness, gumminess, and cohesiveness (p<0.05). The hardness and springiness of the mung bean starch gel did not show any significant difference. The consumer acceptability score for the mung bean starch gel prepared with 7% persimmon powder ranked significantly higher than that for the other groups in overall preference, appearance, flavor, and color (p<0.05). From these results;we suggest that persimmon powder is a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability and the functionality of mung bean starch gel.
Quality Characteristic and Antioxidant Activities of Majakgwa added Pine Needle Powder
Jin, So-Yeon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 646~654
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.646
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pine needle powder on antioxidant activity and the quality characteristics of Majakgwa (Korean traditional cookie). Majakgwa was prepared with different amounts of pine needle powder (in ratios of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% to the flour quantity). The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and by the total phenol content in pine needle powder and Majakgwa. For analyzing the quality characteristics, bulk density and pH of the dough, moisture content, volume, color, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluations were measured. The bulk density, volume, total phenol contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Majakgwa significantly increased with increasing pine needle powder (p<0.001), whereas the pH of the dough, L values and b values of the Majakgwa significantly decreased with increasing pine needle powder content (p<0.001). The consumer acceptability score for the 6% pine needle Majakgwa ranked significantly higher (p<0.001) than those of the other groups in overall preference, flavor, taste, crispiness and color. Acid value and peroxide value was lower in Majakgwa with pine needle powder than control. From these results;we suggest that pine needle powder is a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of Majakgwa.
Quality Characteristics and Determining the Shelf Life of Red Pepper Yukwa
Park, Jung-Mi ; Yoo, Jin A ; Kang, Hye-Jeong ; Eom, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Sang Hee ; Song, In Gyu ; Yoon, Hyang-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 655~662
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.655
This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the quality properties of red pepper Yukwa (red pepper liquid fermented with lactic acid bacteria was added to the Yukwa) during the storage period. To determine the shelf life of red pepper Yukwa, the rice Yukwa (control) and red pepper Yukwa were stored at 15, 25, and
for 70 days. Also, the quality properties of red pepper Yukwa, such as acid value, peroxide value, texture, color, and sensory evaluation were measured. Although the acid value of rice Yukwa and red pepper Yukwa increased during storage, the red pepper Yukwa showed a lower acid value score (1.09mg KOH/g) than that (1.19mg KOH/g) of the rice Yukwa. Nevertheless, these values did not exceed the guideline maximum values of 2.0 g KOH/g specified in the Korean Food Code. The peroxide values of samples had significantly increased after 42 days. Especially, the peroxide value scores for the rice Yukwa and red pepper Yukwa were the highest at 146.49 and 126.79 meq/kg at
, respectively. Hardness and brittleness in textural properties increased up to 70 days. The sensory values for the red pepper Yukwa for overall acceptance, taste;texture and appearance were the highest. The results indicated that by using the 'Visual Shelf life Simulator for foods' of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) the shelf life of red pepper Yukwa is estimated to be 274.78 days.
Recognition of Nutrition Labeling of Korean Restaurants among Adults in Gyeonggi-do Area
Pak, Hee-Ok ; Sohn, Chun-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 663~669
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.663
The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of the correct food choices and nutrition management through nutrition labeling and provide basic data for building a nutrition labeling system for Korean restaurants. In the study, a survey was conducted from February 5th to February 27th in 2010 involving adults over the age of 20 living in part of the Gyeonggi-do area. The data was used to analyze the general characteristics, the awareness of nutrition labeling and the nutrition labeling contents by using the SPSS 18.0 package program. Among the 268 people surveyed, the total number of women was greater (60.4%) than men (39.6%). The perception of the necessity of nutrition labeling was a relatively high score of 3.99 on a 1 to 5 scale and the motivation to utilize nutrition labeling scored 3.89. The study found that females perceived nutrition labeling to be more important than did the males. In addition, the perception varied according to the level of education and age. In conclusion, since customers have a high demand for nutrition labeling in Korean restaurants and are motivated to utilize labeling when eating-out is relatively strong, labeling would be a good educational tool for leading a healthy food life. Furthermore, since the study found that differences occur between nutrition labeling contents or nutrients according to general characteristics, food service companies might be able to gain benefits through differentiated nutrition labeling that is catered for their main customers.
The Effect of Prunus sargentii R. Seed Oil on the Lipid Profile in Serum in Mice
Choi, Kyung-Soon ; Shin, Kyung-Ok ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Yoo, Il-Su ; Jeong, Hun ; Kim, Kyung-Sun ; Lee, Jeong-Sill ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 670~677
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.670
In this study, the effects of the intake of Prunus sargentii R. seed oil on the lipid levels of mouse blood were compared to the effects of commercially available corn oils. Mice from the same purchase lot were separated into 3 groups [control (n=5), corn oil-treated group (n=5), and Prunus sargentii R. seed's oil-treated group (n=5)] of equal size. The oil-treated groups of mice were fed their respective supplemented diets for a total of 8 weeks. Prunus sargentii R. seed oil is high in palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. The kidney weights of mice fed Prunus sargentii R. seed oil were higher than those fed corn oil (p<0.05). The HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels in mice fed Prunus sargentii R. seed oil (
mg/dl) were higher than those of mice fed corn oil (p<0.05). The total cholesterol level was highest in mice fed Prunus sargentii R. seed oil, but the LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) level was lowest in mice fed Prunus sargentii R. seed oil. Therefore, Prunus sargentii R. seed oil may be a good resource as a natural oil material.
Influences of Squid Ink Added to Low Salt Fermented Squid on Its Changes in Lactic Acid Bacteria
Oh, Sung-Cheon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 678~684
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.678
This study measured the change of lactic acid bacteria during the ripening fermentation process of low salt fermented squid with no squid ink added. All study groups showed increase of Leuconostoc and rapid growth of total plate count at the beginning stage of ripening and the maximum microbial count showed at the optimum stage of ripening which gradually reduced after the optimum stage. It is believed that Lactobacillus occupied the major part of the total plate count after the optimum stage of the squid fermentation, and it was related to the quality after the optimized ripening stage. Streptococcus and Pediococcus were gradually increased until the optimum stage of the ripening, and then decreased rapidly. Yeasts were detected in the middle stage of the fermentation and rapid increase was shown after the last stage of the fermentation which suggests that yeasts participate in putrefaction of the low salt fermented squid. The change of lactic acid bacteria observed during the ripening fermentation of low salt fermented squid with squid ink added was that the total plate count increased until ripening middle stage but showed a tendency to slightly reduce after the middle stage. The length of time to reach the maximum value was longer than the no treatment groups. Among the lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Pediococcus has increased until the middle stage of the ripening while Lactobacillus constantly increased to the end part of the ripening. Yeasts had no increasing in the early ripening stage, but after middle of the ripening, it started to increase. That kind of tendency was similar to the case of no treatment groups. However, the amount of lactic acid bacteria tended to be less than no treatment groups. The tendency of decreasing number of all bacteria in low salt fermented squid with squid ink added shows squid ink restricts the growth of all bacteria.
Biochemical Properties, Volatile Compounds and Total Phenol Contents of Yuza Variety
Hwang, Seong-Hee ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Kang-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 685~692
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.685
Yuza (Citrus junos) has 3 varieties with variable physiochemical properties. This study analyzed these volatile compounds and physiochemical properties according to variety. Three Yuza varieties, native (Citrus junos I), improved I (Citrus junos I+Poncirus trifoliata), improved II (Citrus junos I+C. junos II) were used. The native Yuza weighted more than the improved varieties, but the peel ratio (weight of peel versus pulp) was high in improved one. Protein and ash contents were high in Improved I than native one. Native had 29.6mg% vit. C in pulp and improved I had 57.7mg% vit. C in peel. Free sugar was mainly fructose, and the main organic acid was citric acid in Yuza. Improved I Yuza had high free sugar contents, and the organic acid levels were high in improved II Yuza. Linoleic acid was the most prevalent fatty acid in Yuza; it was distributed in peel or pulp. The most common volatile flavor component was dl-limonene (64~70%); improved II Yuza showed significantly higher contents of dl-limonen and
-terpinen. Total phenol level of Yuza was identical in all types, but peels had 2.5 times more than pulps.
Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata Tea according to Heating Processes
Lee, Ji Yeon ; Kim, Byung Keuk ; Park, Hong Je ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 693~699
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.693
This study examines the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata tea according to the heating temperature and time. The browning, turbidity, reducing sugar, total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents all increased with increasing of heating temperature and time, but the pH decreased within the range of error. In particular, the total polyphenol contents of the heat treatment sample for 15 minutes at
are increased to about 4.5 times of 713.71mg/100ml as compared to the control group. From the results of the antioxidant activity test, as both the heating temperature and time increases, the antioxidant activity was increased for DPPH radical-scavenging activity, FRAP and reducing its power. In the case of the samples treated with heat for 15 minutes at
in the DPPH radical scavenging ability, it increased about twice more than the 45.17% control plot at 85.40%, and the reducing power and FRAP were increased to approximately two or three times more than the control group. According to the results for sensory test of fermented C. lanceolata tea according to heating temperature and time, the preference was confirmed as high by heat treatment due to increased temperature and time. Heat treatment process of C. lanceolata during the process is determined by the conditions required for high value-added products through the improvements of the taste and functionality of C. lanceolata.
A Study on the Types and Growth Patterns of Microorganisms and Quality Characteristics in Cherry Tomatoes and Head Lettuces According to Storage Period and Temperature
Lee, Seung Yuan ; Yu, Hao Yang ; Choi, Dong Soo ; Hur, Sun Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 700~705
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.700
The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality changes and contamination of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in cherry tomatoes and head lettuces during the storage of different temperatures and periods. This study determines the pH levels, color changes and the growth patterns of microorganisms in cherry tomatoes and head lettuces during storage of 14 days at
. According to the results, the pH level is being reduced with storage periods in cherry tomatoes and head lettuces. The
values of cherry tomatoes are decreased with storage period, whereas the
values have increased with storage of the head lettuces. With regards to the types of microorganisms, the aerobic count plate (ACP), coliform count (CC), mold and yeast are being detected when cherry tomatoes and head lettuces are stored at
, whereas the S. aureus and E. coli are not being detected at 14 days of storage. The ACP, CC and yeast of cherry tomatoes increase with storage period, whereas the mold of cherry tomatoes was decreased after 14 days of storage. For the head lettuces, APC and CC have significantly increased with storage, whereas the mold stored at
decreased after 21 days of storage. From these studies, we can confirm that changes in quality characteristics and the types of microorganisms existed in cherry tomatoes and head lettuces during storage were the ACP, CC, mold and yeast, whereas the E. coli and S. aureus are not detected.
Quality Characteristics of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) Extracts with Various Water Types
Lee, Sung-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 706~712
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.706
This is the basic study on the extraction characteristics of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) for juices of Korean traditional foods. Extraction is being performed as 25 times of the solvent ratio at room temperature and at
with deionized water, tap water and Cheong-song mineral water which have high contents of Ca and Mg. The overall good results of the extraction conditions are calculated from the values of L (Lightness), redness (a), yellowness (b), soluble solids content, acidity, pH levels and the DPPH radical scavenging activity by using the electron donating ability (EDA). The results are as follows: 12 hours of room temperature and 6 hours at
were good extraction times. The Cheong-song mineral water at
is available for rapid extractions when compared to deionized water and tap water. A longer extraction time shows lower values of acidity but increasing values of soluble solids content and DPPH radical scavenging activity when using the electron donating ability. The best sequences for the extractions are Cheong-song mineral water followed by tap water and distilled water after overall consideration.
The Comparison of Health and Nutrient Intakes between Male Smokers and Non-Smokers
Shin, Kyung-Ok ; Choi, Kyung-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 713~724
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.713
This study examines the effects of smoking on the health and nutrient intake of male adults. The subjects recruited are divided into two groups according to non-smokers (n=64), and smokers (n=50). The results show that the non-smokers are significantly more interested in health and maintain more frequency of weekly exercise as compared to the smokers. Smokers reported that the main reason for failures in quitting attempts was a lack of willingness (62.0%). 44.0% of smoker would be interested in attending a smoking cessation program if they had the opportunities to do so. The non-smoker is considered healthy, and ate a regular diet, and low in fat-rich foods compared to the smokers. The non-smokers and smokers consume lower intakes of vitamin
, folic acid, and calcium (Ca). On the other hand, intakes of phosphorus, and sodium are the highest among all groups. In the case of smokers, increased intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables should be encouraged, and the nutrition education for low-salt-type foods is also recommended.
A Study of Glutathione S-transferase Inhibitors obtained from Allium cepa var. cepa Extract
Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Kyung-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 725~730
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.725
In this study, an ethanol extract being obtained from Allium cepa var. cepa examins the inhibitory effects on the glutathione S-transferase and the separation had been done by silica-gel column chromatography using various eluents, such as ethyl acetate, methanol, and 50% methanol. A volume of column fraction was 50ml and evaporation has been performde by the rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. Each fraction is being examined by thin layer chromatography and the UV spectrum at 365 nm was used to investigate separation patterns of spots on thin layer chromatography. When the eluent was changed, the spot patterns showed another different pattern on thin layer chromatography, so on. Fractions showing similar pattern are combined and eventually, three fractions are obtained. Each fraction is testified to examine the inhibition effects on glutathione S-transferase. All of these showed inhibition effects on glutathione S-transferase. The GC-MS shows that each fraction contains more than 2 compounds.
Application of Hot Air for Shelf-Life Extension of Peach(Prunus persica L. Batsch)
Lee, Kyung-Haeng ; Park, Jae-Hee ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Ban, Ki-Eun ; Jang, Hyun-Jung ; Choi, Ji-Hye ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 731~736
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.731
To improve their shelf-life, domestic peaches were treated with hot air(
) for 0~9 hour, and the spoilage rate, changes of physico-chemical and sensory properties were investigated. The control showed spoilage at day 4, and then 50% of control showed spoilage on day 6. However, 12.5% of samples treated with hot air(
) for 6 hr showed spoilage on day 4. After 6 days, the spoilage rates of peaches treated with hot air treated for 3~9 hr were 16.7, 25.0, and 25.0%, respectively. Weight change of control was higher than that of hot air-treated samples for 6 days storage. There were no differences in pH of samples among the treatments, but pH increased with storage time. Hardness of hot air-treated samples was higher than that of control in the initial stage of storage. And then hardness of control sample was decreased faster than that of the hot air-treated samples for 6 days of storage. No significant changes in lightness and redness of the samples were observed after hot air treatment. Changes in yellowness of control occurred faster than that of hot air-treated samples during storage. The sensory parameters including taste, flavor, color, texture and overall acceptance at initial period were not different among treatments. The scores for taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptance of control decreased faster than those of hot airtreated samples during storage.
Variation Patterns of the Blood Lipid Levels on the Sprague-Dawley-Rats Fed with Kochujang Extracts
Woo, Yong-Ku ; Kim, Tae-Hyo ; Koh, Jong-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 737~744
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.737
The present study was investigated to evaluate on the health improving effect of Kochujang (Fermented Korean hot pepper paste), which was famous as Korean traditional healthy food among foreigners as it was served together with Bibimbap. For comparison, observation was made on the experimental animals (Sprague-Dawley rat) as breeding during 5 weeks, which were divided three groups as into the control groups (N-group) fed with normal feed only and high cholesterol feed only (H-group) and the K-group with combined diet of normal feed and Kochujang extracts (Water soluble complex materials). The most outstanding result was found as the definite fatty liver lesions found from all (100%) of the rats of the H-group at the abdominal opening examination. On the other hand, there was any finding on fatty liver lesions in the N-group as well as the K-group. Therefore, it was more than enough to identify the hypolipidemic effect by visual finding only. Furthermore, from the results of blood plasma analysis from SD-rats fed with Kochujang extract (K-group), more prominent differential findings were found, the value of HDL-cholesterol, which was good for preventing the arteriosclerosis, was more or less higher than that of H-groups. But the level of LDL-cholesterol, which was one of the hazardous agents of hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis, was more significantly reduced to the level even lower than that of N-group, based on the statistical analysis, in especial. According to the present results, we could find that the unidentified Korean traditional Kochujang-derived complex components had expressed both the positive health improving effects and hypolipidemic effects on the SD-rat.
Establishment of One Portion Size of Dishes Frequently Consumed by Korean Adults using 2010 KNHANES and Its Comparison with the One Portion Size using 2005 KNHANES - Focusing on Rice, Noodles, Soups, and Stews -
Kim, Sook-Bae ; Kim, Soon-Kyung ; Kim, Se-Na ; Cho, Young-Sook ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 745~752
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.745
The purpose of this study was to define a portion size for dishes frequently consumed by Korean adults especially focusing on main dishes like rice, noodles, soups, and stews. From the original 8,019 people who took part in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, we analyzed the data for 4,556 persons aged 19 to 64 years and selected dish items consumed based on an intake frequency of 30 or more by all participants. The portion size of each dish item was set on the basis of the median amount (
percentile) in a single intake by a single person. In the rice category, 15 items were selected, of which the most frequently consumed item was steamed rice with a portion size of 250ml. Among noodles and dumplings, the most frequently consumed dish was ramyeon with a portion size of 500ml. As for soups, the portion size was
for kongnamul guk and
for miyeoguk. In stews, the most frequently consumed items were kimchi jjigae followed by doenjang jjigae with a portion size of
, respectively. In a comparison of portion sizes between the KNHANES 2010 and KNHANES 2005, the portion size of some noodles, soups, and stews tended to decrease from 2005 to 2010. Portion sizes established in this study for dish items consumed regularly by adults may be conveniently and effectively used in dietary planning, in nutritional education programs, and in assessing the dietary intake status of Korean adults.
Quality Characteristics and Optimization of Premix-Type Buckwheat Soksungjang
Lee, Sun Young ; Ahn, Yu Jin ; Kim, Ji Yeon ; Song, Jin ; Choi, Hye-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 753~758
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.753
This study evaluated the quality characteristics for optimization of premix-type Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Soksungjang (BS). First, according to the amount of salt (8, 10, 12%), coliform counts were not detected in BS with 10 or, 12% salt at 21 days and Bacillus subtilis HJ 18-4 as a starter at 7 days. Therefore, 10% salt with starter culture might be considered as suitable conditions for safety. Second, according to the ratio of water (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:1.8), BS prepared with the same weights of meju powder and water showed the highest aminotype nitrogen content (688.76mg%) at 35 days; thus, an adequate fermentation state was established at this condition compared to others. Third, according to the type of container (pot, plastic, glass), the aminotype nitrogen contents were higher in the plastic container and pot than in the glass bottle. Lastly, according to the batch size (1.25, 2.5 kg), the coliform of the 2.5 kg sample decreased faster than that of 1.25 kg samples at 14 days. These results suggest that BS prepared with the same ratio of water and meju powder fermented with HJ 18-4 as a starter and 10% salt in a pot, plastic container (3 weeks) and glass container (4 weeks) showed desirable fermentation qualities.
Quality Characteristics of Cookies containing Platycodon grandiflorum Powder
Jeong, Eun-Ja ; Kim, Kwan-Pil ; Bang, Byung-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 759~765
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.759
This study investigated the quality characteristics of cookies containing Platycodon grandiflorum powder, which is well known for its various functions and biological activity. Cookie samples were prepared by adding the Platycodon grandiflorum powder at different levels of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5%. In this study, moisture, pH, color, spread factor, hardness and sensory evaluation of cookies were examined. The results showed that the pH and moisture of cookies were decreased when more amount of Platycodon grandiflorum powder was added. Regarding the color of cookies, the L value was decreased when more amount of Platycodon grandiflorum powder was added, where as the a value and b value were increased (p<0.001, p<0.01). The spread factor of cookies generally increased as more amount of Platycodon grandiflorum powder was added, but it was not statistically significant. The hardness of the cookies decreased as more amount of Platycodon grandiflorum powder was added. Cookies containing 1% of Platycodon grandiflorum powder showed the highest scores for overall acceptability, color, taste and texture. Regarding the flavor of cookies, the control showed the highest score, and the score decreased as more amount of Platycodon grandiflorum powder was added.
Quality Characteristics and Sensory Evaluation of Tomato Sauce with Added Perilla Leaf
Kim, Se-Han ; Kong, Suk-Gil ; Park, Dae-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 766~771
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.766
Tomato sauce is widely known as a health food, In this study perilla leaf was added to a tomato sauce and the resulting functional improvements were assessed. The moisture of the tomato sauce WITH 2% added perilla leaf was 89.52%, the highest observed likewise, sample pH also significantly increased with 2% perilla leaf, to the highest pH of 4.71, (p>0.001). Lightness L value of the control group was the highest at 40.70, and the redness a value and yellowness b value were highest in, the control group, at 15.77, and 17.70, respectively. The highest salinity was foung with 2% perilla leaf, 0.96, and the sugar content with 2% perilla leaf, was 9.57. The reducing sugar was highest in the control with 63.08. The change in the total bacterial counts was measured during 9 days of storage at
, When perilla leaf was added to, the tomato sauce, no microorganisms were detected until 0~1 days of storage. After five days of storage, microorganisms were detected in the group with 2% perilla leaf. The control group (
CFU/ml) had the highest levels of microorganisms. As the amount of perilla leaf, the total viable count of microorganisms detected was less. In the acceptability test results, the color 6.9 of the 1.5% treatment group, received the highest evaluation. Flavor and taste of the 2% perilla leaf treatment group were highly appreciated at 6.1 and 6.6, respectively. The ranking of overall acceptability was 1.5%>1%>0.5%>10%>2% of perilla leaf; 2% perilla leaf was the most underrated. Based on these results, up to 1.5% perilla leaf could be added to tomato sauce and the commercial potential could be very high.
Antioxidant Activity and Properties Characteristics of Pound Cakes Prepared by using Frozen Blueberry Powder ＆ Anthocyanin extracted from Black Beans
Lee, Hye Jeong ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 772~782
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.772
A study is undertaken to examine the effects of the additional frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans to quality attributes of pound cakes. Frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans are being added to the flour at a ratio of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% respectively. The antioxidant activity is highly correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans of pound cakes, respectively (r=0.8423, p<0.001 r=0.9449, p<0.001). The quality characteristics of the specific volumes decreased significantly with increasing substitution levels of frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans (p<0.01). The lightness significantly decreased with increasing frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans of pound cakes' crusts and crumbs (p<0.01). The hardness, chewiness and gumminess tend to reduce, while the cohesiveness increase in both powders. The consumer acceptability score for 0.5~3.5% of frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from black beans pound cakes ranked significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the other groups according to taste, flavor and overall preferences. These results show that frozen blueberry powder and anthocyanin powder extracted from the black beans are a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability and overall healthy.
Dietary Patterns among the Elderly in Jeollanam-do Area based on Their Physical and Mental Function State
Yoon, Eunju ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 783~796
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.783
This study investigated dietary patterns among the elderly over 75 years old living in Jeollanam-do area in May 2012. Although structured interviews were conducted with 236 consenting subjects, only 194 who completed the ADL, IADL, and K-MMSE tests were used for statistical data analysis. Using ADL, IADL, K-MMSE scores, cluster analysis was first performed and resulted in two groups: IFG (Insufficiently Functioning Group) and SFG (Sufficiently Functioning Group). Chi-square tests for nominal scales, Mann-Whitney tests for ordinal scales, and ANOVAs and t-tests for interval and ratio scales were conducted to compare two groups. More than 70% of IFG were illiterates compared to 28.1% of SFG. 'Excessive eating', 'appetite', 'digestion', and 'balanced diet' did not differ between groups. SFG more frequently had snacks and ate out and were more likely to take health supplements than IFG. Among the 100 major food items, consumption frequencies of several foods differed between groups. Study implications and limitations were discussed.
Macrophage Activation by Polysaccharides from Korean's Commercial and Traditional Soy Sauces
Lee, Moon-Su ; Shin, Kwang-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 797~805
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.797
The varying characteristics between Korean's commercial and traditional soy sauces may be initiated by raw materials and fermentation techniques such as the koji and mezu process. We have examined properties of polysaccharides isolated from two different soy sauces which were made by the commercial process (CSP-0) and the traditional Korean process (KTSP-0) as well as their macrophage activities. Two polysaccharides have not effected the RAW 264.7 cells viability. The effects of CSP-0 and KTSP-0 on RAW 264.7 cells were demonstrated by the production of nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The CSP-0 and KTSP-0 significantly augmented NO and ROS productions by RAW 264.7 cells under a dose dependent manner. However, the activity of KTSP-0 was more potent than that of the CSP-0 at
. The productions of IL-6 and TNF-
were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA. mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-
by KTSP-0 at
indicated 63 and 71 times higher than negative controls, respectively. Also, the production of IL-6 and TNF-
by KTSP-0 at
showed 32.1 and 4.5 times higher than those by the CSP-0. To assess phagocytosis activities, the effects of CSP-0 and KTSP-0 on mRNA expression of Fc receptor I and II (FcR I, II) are being determined by RT-PCR products. Only the KTSP-0 showed enhanced expressions of mRNA expression for FcR I in a dose dependent manner, whereas the CSP-0 did not affect either the FcR I or II expressions. The above data lead us to conclude that the macrophage activations of Korean traditional soy sauce polysaccharide are higher than that of the commercial soy sauce polysaccharide.
Effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Water Extract on α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells
Kim, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Young Min ; Kim, Mi-Ju ; Nam, Song-Yee ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Jang, Hwan-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 806~813
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.806
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. is a medicinal plant with anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic activities. However, few studies of the anti-diabetic effect of A. pilosa on insulin resistance status have been performed. In the present study, the anti-diabetic effect of A. pilosa water extract (AP) was determined by investigating its
-glucosidase inhibitory property, glucose utilization, and uptake, as well as insulin resistance mechanism of action in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Compared to positive control (acarbose), AP (
) showed a similar
-glucosidase inhibitory capacity. Glucose uptake was significantly increased by
insulin treatment (p<0.05). However, palmitic acid (FFA, 1 mM) induced muscle insulin resistance and glucose uptake dysfunction. On the other hand, AP (
) was capable of reversing the FFA-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes. Compared to control, AP (
without insulin) significantly increased the utilization of glucose (p<0.05) in C2Cl2 myotubes cultured in normal glucose (7 mM). AP treatment significantly increased the relative mRNA and protein expression levels of Akt. In particular, the effect of A. pilosa on the insulin signaling system is associated with the up-regulation of Akt genes and glucose uptake in C2Cl2 myotubes. These results suggest that A. pilosa is useful in the prevention of diabetes and the treatment of hyperglycemic disorders.
Genotoxicological Safety Evaluation of the Solvent Extracts for Medicinal Herbs that are of Highly Domestic Spendings
Yoon, Won Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 814~823
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.814
This study is carried out to evaluate the genotoxicity of herbs (Angelica decursiva, Polypori umbellate, Astragalus membranaceua, Paeonia iactiflora, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Cnidium officinale, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cyperus rotundus, Dioscorea batatas and Platycodi Radix) by using the Ames test. The Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay is being performed by using the Sal. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537 as tester strains. Among 70% of ethanol extracts from 10 herbs, the number of revertant colonies is being increased in Astragalus membranaceua, Cnidium officinale and Dioscorea batatas in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with negative controls of the metabolic activation. In case of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fraction from 70% of ethanol extracts, the number of revertant colonies is increased in Angelica decursiva, Astragalus membranaceua, Cnidium officinale, Rehmannia glutinosa and Dioscorea batatas in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with negative controls of metabolic activation. Such results indicate that Angelica decursiva, Astragalus membranaceua, Cnidium officinale, Rehmannia glutinosa and Dioscorea batatas all show genotoxic effects when being extracted with the solvent extractions such as 70% of ethanol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, and thus, they might be genotoxically- non-safe.
Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Bechamel Sauce with Freeze-Dried Mugwort
Kim, Se-Han ; Park, Ki-Bong ; Cho, Sung-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 824~830
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.824
As a result of the sensory test for Bechamel Sauce being prepared by varying the amount of frozen-dry mugwort, the moisture content was the highest at 83.56% in the control group and the lowest at 76.18% in the one containing 20% of mugwort. The pH level decreased significantly (p>0.001) as the addition of specimen increased. In case of color, the brightness (L) and redness (a) were highest at 81.54 and -0.85 within the control group, and the yellowness (b) was highest at 35.82 for the one containing 20% of mugwort. The viscosity was the lowest at 64.45 cp for the control group and 138.45 cp for the Bechamel Sauce containing 20% of mugwort. Reduced sugar was significantly increased (p>0.001) with the addition of specimen. The results of change in the total number of bacteria showed that there was no microorganism until the third day of storage. On the fifth day, the groups with up to 10% mugwort showed
CFU/ml microorganisms and the groups containing 15% and 20% of mugwort were free of microorganisms. All groups contained microorganisms on the seventh day of storage, but the groups with greater mugwort contents showed smaller number of microorganisms on the fifth and tenth days. Taking into acoount the DPPH free radical removal of brown sauce containing mugwort, the removal increased with greater mugwort content. In terms of preference test, the color was 3.5 for the control group without the mugwort and the taste was highest at 5.1 with 10% of mugwort. The group containing 15% of mugwort received the highest score (4.6) for the after taste and the viscosity was the lowest at 2.7 for the group containing 20% of mugwort. Overall acceptability was the highest at 5.3 for the group containing 10% of mugwort and the lowest for the group containing 20% of mugwort.
Extractions of Surface-Active Substances from Defatted Rapeseed Meal (Brassica napus L.) by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Kim, Jeong-Won ; Jeong, Yong-Seon ; Gil, Na-Young ; Lee, Eui-Seok ; Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Jang, Young-Seok ; Lee, Ki-Teak ; Hong, Soon-Taek ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 831~840
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.831
In this study, an attempt is being made to extract surface-active substances from defatted rapeseed cakes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid. Independent variables for the extraction process, being formulated by D-optimal design, are pressure (150~350 bar), temperature (
and co-solvent (ethanol, 50~250 g). The dependent variables of the extraction yield, the content of neutral lipids, phospholipids and glycolipids in the extracts were analyzed upon the results through the response surface methodology. As for the extraction yield, it was found to increase with increasing independent variables, among which the co-solvent proved to be a major influencing parameter. Similar trends were found for the content of surface-active substances (i.e, phospholipids and glycolipids) in the extracts, except for the content of neutral lipids. Regression equations were suggested to coincide well with the results from the experiments. Extraction conditions are being optimized to maximize the extraction yields, the content of phospholipids, and glycolipids were 350 bar (pressure),
(temperature) and 228.55 g (co-solvent), respectively.
The Qualitiy Characteristics of Kimchi added Vinegar, Mustard and Leaf Vegetables
Pak, Hee-Ok ; Sohn, Chun-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 841~849
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.841
The aim of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Kimchi, prepared with seasoning fluid, vinegar, and mustard extract to inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms and extend the edible period during fermentation at
. We also added perilla leaf, endive, and mustard leaf to Kimchi to improve the flavor. The pH of control Kimchi fluid over 1 day after Kimchi processing, was
and that of the experimental groups in which vinegar and mustard extract were added was
, which was lower than that of the control. As the fermentation progresses, the pH of the control decreased rapidly and that of the experimental groups decreased slowly. The initial titratible acidity of the control was low and 3 days later reached
. However, that of the experimental groups was
and 5 days later reached a level similar to that of the control. The salinities of the Kimchi juice of both the control and the experimental groups were
% after 1 day and decreased during fermentation. The amount of lactic acid bacteria of the control was
, 1 day after the Kimchi processing and that of the experimental groups was
. After 3 days, these were
, respectively. According to the result of sensory evaluation, throughout the entire period of the experiment, all sensory items such as color, odor, taste, texture, and total acceptability of the experimental groups were better than those of the control group (p<0.05). Especially, Kimchi in which perilla leaf was added was the best. With the addition of vinegar and mustard extract to the Kimchi, microorganism proliferation was inhibited and the edible period was extended. The minerals, vitamins and antioxidants of leaf vegetables could therefore be obtained.
Effects of Autoclave and Microwave Treatments for Quality of Wet Noodles
Bark, Si-Woo ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Park, Hong-Min ; Choi, Jung-Su ; Choi, Ho-Duk ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 850~856
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.850
This study was conducted to determine the effects of physical treatments for quality of wet noodles. Noodles were being tried with a microwave (for 1 min), an autoclave (for 30 or 50 min), and both autoclave and microwave (for 30/1 min or 50/1 min). The results showed that the pH levels were slightly decreased after treatments of autoclave and autoclave/microwave. The moisture contents were considerably decreased as compared to the control except autoclave (50 min). After all treatments, the lightness was decreased in all samples, but, redness was increased (except microwave) and the yellowness was increased after autoclave (50 min) and autoclave/microwave (50/1 min). Texture was increased as compared to the control except microwave. In the sensory evaluation, the noodles treated with microwave, autoclave (50 min), and autoclave/ microwave (50/1 min) showed a high score in overall preference. From these results, both the autoclave and microwave methods can be applied to the wet noodles without diminishing its quality to a great extent.
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius)
Hwang, In Guk ; Kim, Ha Yun ; Park, Bo Ram ; Han, Hye Min ; Yoo, Seon Mi ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 857~864
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.857
This study was investigated the effects of heat treatment on polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of yacon. Raw yacon was heated at
for 15, 30, or 60 min by using an autoclave. The browning intensity, levels of free and bound phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(ABTS) radical-scavenging activity of yacon extracts following heat treatment were measured. The browning index, free polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activities in the extracts were significantly increased (p<0.05) with both increased heating temperature and time, while bound polyphenolic levels were decreased. The levels of free phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the yacon extract heated to
for 60 min were increased by 1.2 and 1.1 folds compared to raw yacon respectively. Moreover, DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities of the yacon heated to
for 60 min were 1.7 fold and 2.0 fold higher, respectively, than those of raw yacon. A significant (p<0.01) correlation was observed among browning intensity, free and bound phenolic and flavonoid levels, and DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities in heated yacon extract. Thus, heat treatment can be used as a method to enhance the antioxidant compound content in and the antioxidant activity of yacon.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables Collected in Chungbuk, Korea
Woo, Nariyah ; Ko, Sung-Hee ; Park, Yong-Jeen ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 865~878
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.865
This study is being executed to investigate the pesticide residues for agricultural products on the markets in Chungbuk area from 2010 to 2012. The samples used were chard, perilla leaf, leek, spinach, crown daisy, marsh mallow, and winter grown cabbage, These were analyzed by GC/MSD and GC/ECD. Agricultural pesticide levels of spinach was 23.4%, winter grown cabbage 20.6%, chard 14.9%, marsh mallow 14.0%, perilla leaf 13.1%, leek 8.4%, and crown daisy 5.6%. Exceeds of residual pesticides were spinach, chard, leek, perilla leaf, and marsh mallow. Based on these results, a risk assessment was being conducted by used a percentage of acceptable daily intake (%ADI). The %ADI ranged from 0.00014% to 1.73910%, and these values was indicated to have no effects on human health.
Quality Characteristics of Muffins containing Akebia quinata Leaves Powder
Lee, Jun-Ki ; Lee, Kang-Ju ; Jo, Hyeon-Ju ; Kim, Kyung-Im ; Yoon, Jin-A ; Chung, Kang-Hyun ; Song, Byeong Chun ; An, Jeung Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 879~885
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.879
This study investigates the quality characteristics of muffins prepared with various concentrations of akebia leaves powder. Muffins are prepared by additions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% powder to the flour for basic formulation. Heights decrease significantly when the amount of Akebia leaves powder increases. When the weight is being measured, there are no meaningful differences between the samples. As a result from measuring the colors, the lightness, redness and yellowness of muffins decrease as the concentrations of the powder increase. When measuring the texture of akebia leaves muffins, the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness decrease, but the springiness and adhesiveness increase as the concentrations of Akebia leaves powder increase. When the sensual qualities of the muffins are measured, the color, sweetness, softness and overall quality of all of the samples have shown significant differences, and the muffins containing 4% of Akebia leaves powder reveal the highest sensual quality indexes.
National Standard Food Composition Tables Provide the Infrastructure for Food and Nutrition Research According to Policy and Industry
Lim, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Cho, Young-Sook ; Choi, YoungMin ; Park, Hong-Ju ; Kim, Se-Na ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 886~894
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.886
The National Standard Food Composition Table published by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) provides the foundations in research, nutrition monitoring, policy and dietary practices in Korea. This databases consists of several sets of data including food descriptions, nutrients, portion weights, and source of data. The National Standard Food Composition Table have been published since 1970 and, recently, new version (8th edition) of Food Composition Table which has quantitative and qualitative nutrient data is released in 2011. In addition, the User-friendly Food Composition Table is divided into adult, children, and elderly categories depending on the subjects because we need different nutrients according to various ages. The Tables of Food Functional Composition is firstly edited in 2009. RDA published the minerals and fatty acids composition table, tables of amino acid, fat-soluble vitamin composition table, and the cholesterol table. The resulting database will be widely used. The users of the databases are from diverse fields, includeing federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments ect. Therefore, consistent improvements of the database is important, so that people can better address such health challenges by providing reliable and accurate data.
A Study on the Dietary Behaviors of Female Baby Boomers and the Needs for Future Perspectives of Dietary Life
Nam, Haewon ; Myung, Choonok ; Park, Youngsim ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 895~908
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.895
The purpose of this study is to examine female baby boomers' dietary habits and their attitudes together with their needs for future perspectives of dietary life. Our aim is to use these findings as a basic data when forecasting for food-related industries or policy making. A survey is being carried out for a total of 358 female baby boomers and analyzed by SPSS 12.0. The following is a summary of this study. The average age is 52.6 years old, most of them graduated from highschool (63.1%) and had a nuclear type of family (76.1%). Only 39.0% is composed of housewives, others had either full-time or part-time jobs. Self-assessment of stress is not so high and only 8.1% are dissatisfied with their lives. 38.2% are either overweight or obese in terms of BMI, and most of them are non-smokers (97.2%) or non-drinkers (63.0%). Their mean dietary habit scores are
, and the scores show significant relations with their education levels (p<0.01), monthly income (p<0.01), life satisfaction rates (p<0.001), stress levels (p<0.001), smoking habits (p<0.05), drinking habits (p<0.05), regular exercises (p<0.001) and regular health check-ups (p<0.05). The rate of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner are 18.2%, 1.1%, 5.2% respectively. The main reason for skipping breakfast is the 'lack of time'. With regards to the frequency of grocery shopping, almost half of the subjects (55.7%) said '1~2 times per week' and bought mainly raw food sources such as vegetables, fruits, and meats. The majority of the subjects (91.3%) report that they cooked meals at homes, and took about 1 hour of time. The subjects also point out that cooking was a bothering task, and only 46.4% would prepare meals at home, while others would rather eat out or eat convenience foods. The main reasons for not wanting meal services in the elderly welfare facility are because they didn't want to live such places (48.4%) and the meals are tasteless (31.3%). As for delivery meal services, 60.1% are aware of it, and 39.9% would consider using it in the future. Factors to be considered when using the delivery meal service are sanitation (43.7%), nutrition (28.7%), taste (18.4%), price (6.3%), and brand name (2.9%). This study is expected to be used as useful information when developing food-related strategies for baby boomers in the future.
Study on the Correlation between the Nutrient Intakes and Clinical Indices of Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Kwon, Ji-Young ; Chung, Hae-Yun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 909~918
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.909
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary nutrient intakes for markers of blood glucose and inflammation which is important to the progress of type 2 diabetes and the development of its complications. For this study, 76 adults with diabetes (42 males, 34 females) were recruited from a group of patients who had visited the department of endocrine medicine. Data on anthropometric characteristics, clinical indices such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and dietary nutrient intakes were collected. Our results have shown that 66% of subjects were either overweight or obese. Serum analysis indicates that levels of C-peptide, glucose, HbA1c, CRP, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol were higher than normal range. Results from the dietary nutrient intake survey displayed that intakes of cholesterol and sodium were higher than Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. On the contrary, folate intake was lower than the guideline. Within the females, energy contribution from carbohydrate was higher than Korean Diabetes Association guideline. Statistical analysis has revealed a negative correlation between serum HbA1c level and dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA,
-carotene and vitamin E after adjustments for age, BMI, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, exercise and ingestion of diabetes mellitus medication (p<0.05). Serum CRP level was inversely associated with dietary intakes of carbohydrate, protein, vitamin C and fiber (p<0.05). Our results suggest that dietary nutrient intakes may influence the levels of HbA1c and CRP, and subsequently, it may help in the management/treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The Effects of Social Commerce Attributes on the Satisfaction and Repurchasing Intention for a College Women Student according to Restaurant and Food Choices
Choi, Jung-Hwa ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 919~927
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.919
Social commerce is becoming an increasingly popular shopping method among college women students. This study focuses on the influence of the satisfaction lavels and repurchasing intentions by consumers for restaurant and food choices according to social commerce attributes. In this survey, 351 valid surveys are being used to test the hypothesized (183 users and 168 non-usesr within 6 months), in order to ensure validity and reliability. As a result, factors such as perceived value, product diversity & information, delivery, ordering convenience, site character, price competitiveness, time pressure, and real time information are all being found. Factors of perceived value (p<0.001), price competitiveness (p<0.001), product diversity & information (p<0.05), delivery (p<0.05), and site character (p<0.05) significantly influence the customer satisfaction rates. Factors of perceived value (p<0.001), price competitiveness (p<0.001), time pressure (p<0.001), and site character (p<0.01) significantly influence the repurchasing intentions. In addition, it has been found that the customer satisfaction rates significantly influence repurchase intentions.
A Comparative Study on the Dietary Habits, Life Habits, Physical Symptoms and Body Composition of University Students by Gender Differences in Incheon City
Jang, Jae-Seon ; Hong, Myung-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 928~935
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.928
This study was designed to investigate the dietary habits, life habits, physical symptoms, and body composition of male and female students attending college in incheon, based on which to encourage proper dietary habits among and enhance the physical and psychological health of college students. The effects of personal characteristics (such as gender, grade level, residence type, means of transportation), health relative life habits (exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption), dietary habits, physical symptoms and body composition measurement were analyzed by using the questionnaire and Inbody. The subject pool was composed of 96 male and 149 female students. Smoking, drinking, exercise, and fruit intake showed significant differences between the genders (p<0.05), whereas meat intake was not significantly different (p>0.05). Differences on dietary habits and the intake of fruit showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the genders. Especially, more female than male students showed a higher frequency of fruit intake. Physical symptoms such as headache, common cold, dizziness, easy fatigue, poor concentration, indigestion and constipation showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the genders, whereas stomatitis, anorexia and pale face were not significantly different (p>0.05). Differences between the genders on body composition, height, weight, BMI, muscle soft lean mass, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and waist-hip ratio were also significantly different (p<0.05). The correlation analysis of college students by gender was negative between intake of milk and physical symptoms (p<0.01), whereas intake of cooked food and physical symptoms showed a positive correlation (p<0.01, p<0.05).
Development of an Indirect Non-Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Cronobacter muytjensii in Infant Formula Powder
Song, Xinjie ; Kim, Myunghee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 936~944
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.936
Cronobacter muytjensii is an important foodborne pathogen as a potential risk in infant formula powder (IFP). To develop a new and sensitive method for the detection of Cronobacter spp. in IFP, an immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for C. muytjensii (formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 51329) was developed. Further, an indirect noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed by using the anti-C. muytjensii IgG. As a result, this newly developed INC-ELISA method was found very sensitive for C. muytjensii with detection limit of
in pure culture and 1 cell/25 g of IFP. This INC-ELISA method also displayed excellent specificity for C. muytjensii showing no cross-reactivity with other strains of Cronobacter genus and 11 other foodborne pathogenic strains. These results show that the developed INC-ELISA method was very sensitive, efficient, and rapid for the detection of C. muytjensii. Hence, this method could be applied to the development of diagnostic kits for the rapid and easy detection of C. muytjensii.
Changes in Fermentation Properties and Ornithine Levels of Baechu Kimchi by Storage Condition
Park, Ki-Bum ; Kim, Su-Gon ; Yu, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Seon ; Kim, Eun-Seon ; Jeon, Jong-In ; Oh, Suk-Heung ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 945~951
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.945
Changes in fermentation properties and ornithine levels of Baechu Kimchi by storage conditions were investigated. After making and fermenting Kimchi at
for 32 hr (S1), 36 hr (S2), 40 hr (S3), 44 hr (S4), and 48 hr (S5) during the first 10 days of storage. The Kimchi samples are subsequently stored in the -
Kimchi refrigerator for up to 60 days. Changes in the pH values and lactic acid contents of S4 and S5 samples are slightly bigger than the S1, S2 and S3 samples which have no significance differences. According to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) number, all samples show the largest augmentation according to the number of Lactobacilli during the first 20 days of storage. After 20 days of storage, the S4 and S5 samples show larger accumulations of LAB than S1, S2 and S3 samples. The Weissella genus is predominated at the 40 day of storage in the S5 sample. Ornithine levels are increased up to 170mg per 100 g during the storage period of 40~50 days in the S5 sample. However, the increase of ornithine levels in S1, S2 and S3 samples is smaller than those of the S4 and S5 samples. These results indicate that the conditions of Kimchi fermentation, which is 48 hr at
before storage, is proved to be the most superior for ornithine levels within the Kimchi refrigerator.
Survey on the Eating Habit and Food Preference of Lower and Higher Grade Elementary School Students - Based on Daejeon Area -
Kim, Myung Hee ; Yoon, Sun Young ; Kim, Mi Won ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 952~966
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.952
The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences of food habits and food preferences between lower and higher grade students through the survey of elementary school students in Daejeon four elementary schools located in Jung-Gu and Seo-Gu in Daejeon are selected for this survey randomly and the completion of the questionnaires are according to grade. 1. Practical Analysis of Food Habits: For regular meals, the highest number of subjects skipped breakfast. It is being found that the girl students (81.61%) consumed more cooked rice than the boys (78.85%) and more boys (13.10%) ate bread or milk more than the girls (9.20%). The most important thing for the lower grades students (34.20%) when consuming is the nutritious foods, while the higher grades students (49.67%) consumed the set meals. During consumption, the highest number of the subjects watched TV or read books from time to time. More higher grades students (38.98%) preferred spicy and salty foods than the lower grades (22.09%). 2. Food Preferences: Between rice and noodles, most subjects preferred cooked rice (81.38%), Jajangmyeon (80.80%), Ramyeon (79.43%), and disliked bean-mixed rice (28.39%). For soups, Most students enjoy the Deokkguk. Majority of the subjects prefer meat and fried or steamed foods, and also grilled and pan-fried dishes. For the pan-roasted and fried dishes, most subjects did not enjoy the rhizome fry and sweet-pumpkin fry methods, and for vegetables, they did not like wild vegetable and seasoned cucumber (40.57%) The higher grades students enjoy the vegetables and salads more than the lower grades students. For Kimchi varieties, it is found that subjects like the cabbage Kimchi (69.66%) the most. There is little difference in food preference between the lower and higher grade students, but the rankings of food preferences are different according to various grades.
The Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) on the University Services of Students Who Majored in Catering Cooling in Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces
Kim, Jun-Hee ; Gu, Bon-Gil ; Oh, Wang-Kyu ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 967~974
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.967
The purpose of this study is to measure the priority items according to attributes and analyze the differences between the importance and satisfaction rates through the IPA for the university service. The results in the study are as follow: First, from the result of the factorial analysis, 5 factors are included First, the possibilities for development of universities, universities' physical environment, Universities' administrative (employee) services, majors' educational services, and majors' laboratory environment. Second, as the total average value for important attributes of the universities is 3.50 and the average value of satisfaction is 2.91, there were significant differences (p<0.001). Third, in the analytical result of IPA, the 1st quadrant includes faster developments than other universities, departments' characterization, etc. The 2nd quadrant includes the convenience to issue all kinds of certificates, kindness of administrative staffs, etc. The 3rd quadrant includes convenience of the procedure to improve unsatisfactory services, development efforts to benchmark advanced universities, etc. Finally, the 4th quadrant includes heavy investments in education and environment, efforts to reflect students' demands, and needs, etc. Even though the importance of research subjects related to university services for these attributes is high, they are not fully satisfied, and there are plenty of dissatisfied students. Therefore, urgent supplementations to increase students' satisfaction rates are important. Form the results of the study, it has been found that urgent efforts to improve satisfaction rates of university students who major in catering cooking in the university services are essential and special plans to build competitive systems which can provide high-quality services are also necessary.
An Investigation on the Metabolic Syndromes and Health-Related Risk Factors among Male Workers
Choi, Sun-Young ; Kang, Na-Eun ; Kim, Sung-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 975~984
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.975
This study is performed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male workers and to identify the relationships with many related factors including anthropometry, hematological index, serum lipid level, dietary-related behaviors and health-related behaviors. According to the age groups, the 20s are significantly higher in normal and risk groups than in the metabolic syndrome (MS) group, the 30s are significantly higher in MS group than the other groups. The levels of AST and
-GTP both show significant differences in the order of MS group (
) > risk group (
) > normal group (
). For the frequency of breakfast consumption, the response of 'Every day' is significantly higher in MS group than normal and risk groups, but the response of 'Not at all' is significantly higher in normal group than MS and risk groups. The drinking amount is positively correlated with
-GTP in normal group, and it is negatively correlated with the hematocrit level, but it is positively correlated with the systolic blood pressure in MS group. AST is positively correlated with glucose concentrations of the MS group. The ALT is positively correlated with waist circumferences and systolic blood pressure in the risk group. The results of this study show that breakfast frequency, education level, drinking amount, drinking frequency, exercise frequency, AST, ALT and
-GTP levels are all important risk factors of MS. Therefore, it is very important to maintain a healthy life style for the prevention of MS incidence.
Quality Characteristics of Toranbyung with Different Boiling Periods and Types of Gomyeong
Hwang, In Guk ; Park, Bo Ram ; Yoo, Seon Mi ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 985~989
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.985
This study was performed to determine the best conditions for preparing Toranbyung. We examined different boiling periods (0~20 min) and types of Gomyeong (pine nut, soy, black sesame, and chestnut powder), as recorded in "Sumunsasul". The boiled taros were evaluated for proximate composition, free sugar contents, and Hunter's color values. In addition, the sensory characteristics of Toranbyung boiled for different periods and prepared using different types of Gomyeong were investigated. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of taro decreased by 83.42~84.61%, 1.25~1.31%, 0.08~0.11%, and 0.62~0.81%, respectively, as the length of boiling time increased. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose, the major free sugars found in taro, decreased by 0.17~0.33%, 0.16~0.29%, and 0.26~0.38%, respectively, as the length of boiling time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no significant difference in the flavor and taste of Toranbyung boiled for different periods of time. However, Toranbyung boiled for 10 min was significantly better and was found to be the most acceptable among all the samples. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of Toranbyung prepared with different types of Gomyeong indicated that the Toranbyung prepared with soy powder was favored over Toranbyung prepared using other types of Gomyeong. In conclusion, we determine that the best conditions for preparing Toranbyung were boiling for 10 min and using soy powder as the Gomyeong.
A Study on the Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng with Codonopsis lanceolata Skin Extracts
Chae, Hyun-Seok ; Jung, Soo-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 2013, Pages 990~995
DOI : 10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.4.990
In the pursuit of practical usage for Codonopsis lanceolata and development of functional processed food material, the research on the product characterization is being performed through the manufacturing of Yanggaeng which is extracted from the Codonopsis lanceolata skin concentrate. By adding Codonopsis lanceolata skin extracts (0, 40, 60, 80, 100%) to the product, the chemical property characterization and organoleptic test of the produced Yanggaeng are being conducted. The scavenging effects on DPPH free radical have a significant proportional relationship with the addition of Codonopsis lanceolata skin extracts as 61.30 for 100% added group as compared with 52.72 for the null-addition group. It is considered that the antioxidative activity increases with the addition of the Codonopsis lanceolata skin extraction as the SOD similar activity rate was increased to 49.23% from 39.31%, the flavor preference was ranked as 80%>60%>0%>100%>40% showing that 60~80% of Codonopsis lanceolata skin extraction addition seems to be the proper amount.