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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 1 - 00 2006
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Mechanism of Methanol Conversion over Zeolite and Molecular Sieve Catalysts
Seo, Gon ; Min, Byeong-Gu ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 329~339
The production of lower olefins from methanol becomes an attractive process because of the rapid increase in crude oil price. This paper reivews the conversion mechanisms of methanol to hydrocarbons over zeolite and SAPO molecular sieve catalysts to understand the formation steps of lower olefins from methanol. The feasibility of the conversion mechanisms such as the direct mechanism based on well-defined intermediates and the hydrocarbon pool mechanism involving hydrocarbon moieties as an active centers is discussed with reepect to the induction period, the selectivity for products and the deactivation phenomena of the methanol conversion. The literature appeered since 1999 for the structure of the hydrocarbon pool and its catalytic role in the methanol conversion are summariged, and the prospect for the methanol-to-olefins process is described.
A Study on the Characteristics and Preparation of the Cation Exchange Membrane Using Various Type of Polystyrene
Song, Ju-Yeong ; Kim, Jong-Hwa ; Park, Geun-Ho ; Kim, Hui-Yeol ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 340~344
We prepared porous cation exchange membrane using polystyrene such as, EPS (expanded polystyrene), SAN (styrene acrylonitrile copolymer) and HIPS (high impact polystyrene). These three kind of polystyrene were sulfonated by acetyl sulfate to make sulfonated porous cation exchange membrane such as, SEPS (sulfonated expanded polystyrene), SSAN (sulfonated styrene acrylonitrile copolymer)and SHIPS (sulfonated high impact polystyrene). SEM was employed to validate porous structure of membrane, and IR spectroscopy was used to validate sulfonation rate of ion exchange membrane. As a results, ion exchange capacity was increased with an amount of sulfuric acid in reactants and cation exchange membrane showed the selectivity to a cation and showed the exclusivity to an anion.
Effect of Water Addition on the Conversion of Dimethyl Ether to Light Olefins over SAPO-34
Jeon, Gi-Won ; Lee, Yun-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Chan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 345~349
Conversion of DME (dimethyl ether) or methanol to light olefins (ethylene, propylene, butenes) over SAPO-34 were systematically studied, where it was observed that DME was dehydrated to light olefins and partially converted to by-products such as CO and CO2 at various reaction temperatures on the time-on-stream. SAPO-34 catalyst during the DTO (dimetyl ether-to-olefins) reaction was significantly deactivated compared with MTO (methanol-toolefins) reaction. By addition of water to the reaction feed, the yield to light olefins was not only increased, but the life time of the catalyst was also prolonged by the suppression of the coke formation by steam.
The Study on Decomposition of Metal-working Fluids Against Microbes
Kim, Yeong-Un ; Jeong, Geun-U ; Hong, Gwang-Min ; Park, Chan-Jo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 350~355
Growth curves of microbes were examined to evaluate decomposition of metal-working fluids and decompositionproperties of metal-working fluids were experimented using controled microbes such as E. coli and K. pnemoniae. According to the results of growth curve of microbes, the growth period depended on species of microbes, 2 h of E. coli, 3 h of K. pneumoniae, 4 h of P. aeruginosa and 3 h of P. oleovarans after incubation. The colony count of E. coli and K. pneumoniae controled to OD of 0.5 ranged from 4.4~10×105 CFU/mL and 1.8×9.5×107 CFU/mL, respectively. The decomposition of metal-working fluids was excellently progressed in the range of pH 6~8 than below pH 4 and above pH 10. In the case of controled fluids to pH 6~8, the decomposition of the fluid containing ester group was more accelerated than that of the fluid containing ethylene glycol.
The Reactivity for the SO2 Reduction with CO and H2 over Sn-Zr Based Catalysts
Lee, Tae-Jin ; Han, Gi-Bo ; Park, No-Guk ; Ryu, Si-Ok ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 356~362
The SO2 reduction using CO and H2 over Sn-Zr based catalysts was performed in this study. Sn-Zr based catalysts with Sn/Zr molar ratio (0/1, 1/4, 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 1/0) were prepared by the precipitation and co-precipitation method. The effect of the temperature on the reaction characteristics of the SO2 reduction with a reducing agent such as H2 and CO was investigated under the conditions of space velocity of 10,000 ml/g-cat.h, [CO (or H2)]/[SO2] of 2.0. As a result, the activity of Sn-Zr based catalysts were higher than SnO2 and ZrO2. The reactivity for the SO2 reduction with CO was higher than that with H2, and sulfur yield in the SO2 reduction by H2 was higher than that by CO. The reactivity for the SO2 reduction with H2 was increased with the reaction temperature regardless of Sn-Zr based catalyst with a Sn/Zr molar ratio. SnO2-ZrO2 (Sn/Zr=1/4) had highest activity at 550 oC, in the SO2 reduction with H2 and SO2 conversion of 94.4％ and sulfur yield of 66.4％ were obtained at 550 oC. On the other hand, in the SO2 reduction by CO, the reactivity was decreased with the increase over 325 oC. At the optimal temperature of 325 oC, SO2 conversion and sulfur yield were about 100％ and 99.5％, respectively, in the SO2 reduction over SnO2-ZrO2 (Sn/Zr=3/1). Also, the SO2 reduction using syngas with CO/H2 ratio over SnO2-ZrO2 (Sn/Zr=2/1) was performed in order to investigate the application possibility of the simulated coal gas as the reductant in DSRP. As a result, the reactivity of the SO2 reduction using syngas with CO/H2 ratio was increased with increasing the CO content of syngas. Therefore, it could be known that DSRP using the simulated coal gas over Sn-Zr based catalyst is possible to be realized in IGCC system
Synthesis of C9-Alcohol through C9-Aldehyde Hydrogenation over Copper Catalysts
Jeon, Jong-Gi ; Park, Yeong-Gwon ; No, Sang-Gyun ; Jo, Gyu-Sang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 363~368
This study selected the optimal catalyst for the process of producing C9-alcohol by hydrogenating C9-aldehyde, and carried out an experiment in order to establish the operating condition for maximizing the yield of C9-alcohol. The BET surface area and the specific area of copper were most excellent in CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 (60:30:10 wt％) catalyst produced using acetate as a precursor of copper and Na2CO3 as a precipitant, and the catalyst also showed the highest performance in C9-aldehyde hydrogenation. Using a trickle bed reactor loaded with optimized catalyst, we attained 94.1 wt％ yield of C9-alcohol under the condition of 175 oC, 800 psi and WHSV=3 hr.1. According to the result of comparing with other catalysts used in the hydrogenation of aldehyde, the catalyst showed similar performance to that of Ni/kieselghur and higher than that of Cu-Ni-Cr-Na/Al2O3 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3. According to the result of examining the stability of the catalyst through a long-term catalysis test, the yield of C9-alcohol decreased slowly after around 72 hours due to the increasing production of high boiling-point byproducts.
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Vanadium-Incorporated V-AlMCM-48 Mesoporous Material
Baek, Geon-Ho ; Won, Tae-Jin ; Lee, Cheol-Wi ; Yu, Jong-Seong ; Park, Seung-Geon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 369~374
A solid-state reaction of V2O5 with AlMCM-48 followed by calcination generated very weak paramagnetic VO2+ species in the mesoporous material. Dehydration and subsequent reduction with CO result in the formation of vanadyl VO2+ species that can be characterized by EPR. The chemical environment of vanadium centers in VO2+- AlMCM-48 was investigated by XRD, EDX, DR-UV-Vis, EPR, 29Si and 27Al and 51V NMR. Vanadium species in MCM-48 are existed as pseudotetrahedral VO2+ state when they were dehydrated or reduced with CO. The coordination of water on vanadyl ions transformed their structure to distorted octahedral.
Characteristics of Ti-SPAC as Fluidizing Phase Photocatalyst
Seo, Jeong-Gwon ; Hong, Ji-Suk ; Park, Jin-Won ; Lee, Jeong-Min ; Lee, Jun-Jae ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 375~381
In this sturdy, spherical activated carbon(SPAC) contained TiO2 was made by ion-exchanged treatment and heat treatment for applying fluidizing bed system. The ion-exchange resin was treated by TiCl3 aqueous solution. The treated resin and raw resin were heat-treated under nitrogen condition to convert into Ti-SPAC. During the heat-treatment, burn-off weight amounts and the element were measured by means of TGA and TGA/MS, individually. The physicochemical properties of Ti-SPAC was characterized by means of XRD, SEM, EDS, BET, EPMA, ESR, intensity and titanium content. The Ti-SPAC had spherical shape with diameter size about 350 μm~400 μm and 617 m2/g specific surface area. Structure of TiO2 in Ti-SPAC was anatase and rutile form. Also, TiO2 on SPAC were found that the TiO2 were uniformly distributed through EPMA analysis. Moreover, the Ti-SPAC showed indirect photocatalyst activity estimation through ESR analysis, characteristics of photocatalyst potentially. Over all results, Ti-SPAC was used in fluidizing bed UV/photocatalyst system to remove HA(Humic Acid). That results were HA removal efficiency was about 70％ and Ti-SPAC intensity was preserved during reaction. Ti-SPAC showed practical possibility as photocatalyst in fluidizing bed system.
Bio-oil Production from Rice Straw by the Catalytic Pyrolysis over Zeolites
Park, Yeong-Gwon ; Gang, Bo-Seong ; Jeon, Jong-Gi ; Kim, Ju-Sik ; Choe, Jong-Cheol ; Ryu, Ji-Hye ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 382~386
Rice straw is one of the main renewable energy sources in Korea. Bio-oil is produced from rice straw with a bench-scale equipment mainly with a fluidized bed, a char removal system and zeolite catalyst. It was investigated how the zeolite catalyst affected the production of bio-oil and chemical composition of bio-oil. Compared with non catalytic pyrolysis, the catalytic pyrolysis increased the amount of gas and char but decreased the amount of oil. The water content in bio-oil increased due to deoxygenation. The aromatic compound and heating value was increased when catalytic pyrolysis was applied.u
Hydroxylation of Phenol over (Fe, Co)/Zeolite Catalysts for the Selective Synthesis of Catechol
Lee, Cheol-Wi ; Park, Jung-Nam ; Sin, Chae-Ho ; Baek, Jin-Uk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 387~392
(Fe, Co)/zeolite catalysts such as (Fe, Co)/NaY, (Fe, Co)/NaBeta and (Fe, Co)/HUSY were prepared by ion-exchange method and their catalytic performance was examined in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 for the production of catechol. The (Fe, Co)/NaBeta catalyst showed its best performance at reaction temperature=70 oC, molar ratio of phenol/H2O2=3, weight ratio of phenol/catalyst=50 and weight ratio of solvent (water)/phenol=6 as 20％ of phenol conversion, 77％ of the selectivity for the hydroxylation, 70％ of the selectivity for catechol, and 2.5 of the formation ratio of catechol/hydroquinone. The (Fe, Co)/zeolite catalysts showed the reproducible activities without deactivation after repeated regeneration. The fresh and used(Fe, Co)/zeolites were characterized by XRD, UV-VIS DRS, and XPS and their catalytic performance was discussed based on these characterization results.|?
Adsorption Characteristics of n-Butane and 1-Butene on Mesoporous MCM-41 Containing Silver Ions
Kim, Ji-Man ; Gang, Min ; Lee, Hyeong-Ik ; Go, Chang-Hyeon ; Kim, Jong-Nam ; Yun, Dal-Yeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 393~398
There have been a lot of works in order to develop an excellent adsorbent for separation of olefin and paraffin. In the present work, the adsorption characteristics of mesoporous MCM-41 containing silver ion for 1-butene and n-butane were studied. The adsorption ability for the 1-butene depending on thermal treatment were also investigated.MCM-41 exhibits much higher adsorption amounts for 1-butene as well as n-butane, compared to those of Ag/13X zeolite. In case of MCM-41 containing silver ion, the adsorption amount of 1-butene dramatically increased due to the π-complexation, whereas the adsorption amount of n-butane decrease. The Ag/MCM-41 after the thermal treatment at 373 K under evacuation exhibit the highest 1-butene/n-butane adsorption ratio, expecially at low pressure (100 Torr).
Reproducible Synthesis of Periodic Mesoporous TiO2 Thin Film
Kim, Ji-Man ; Lee, Hyeong-Ik ; Park, Yeong-Gwon ; Ju, O-Sim ; Bae, Gwi-Nam ; Heo, Jae-Yeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 399~403
There has been numerous reports for the synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 thin films due to not only the high surface area and regular mesoscale pores but also wide band gap and photo activity. However, the synthesis has been restricted by the limited reproducibility mainly due to the extraordinarily fast hydrolysis and condensation rate of titania precursors. In this report, molar composition of eaction batch (HCl/Ti and Ti/P123) and exterior condition (humidity and temperature) during coating and anealing process. Thereafter, the mesoporous TiO2 thin films were characterized by XRD and TEM
The Study of Toluene Combustion over Palladium-copper/USY Zeolite Catalyst
Hwang, Jin-Su ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Hwang, Yeong-Gyu ; Jang, Jong-San ; Lee, Hye-Yeong ; Lee, Chang-Guk ; Baek, Sin ; Na, Do-Yeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 404~409
The catalytic combustion of toluene over Pd-Cu/USY zeolite has been examined by using FT-IR spectroscopyin a closed system under dry and humid conditions. The catalytic combustion of toluene (700 ppmv) in the temperature range of 80.220 oC has been investigated by using a fixed bed reactor. The Pd-Cu/USY catalyst showed the highest catalytic performance with respects to the PdO-CuO/USY and Pd/USY. Comparing to PdO/Al2O3 catalysts, the slight improvement in conversion was observed over PdO/USY catalysts under humid condition since USY zeolite is hydrophobic substrate and water give an additional oxygen source to zeolite surface like oxygen. The reduced catalysts showed more enhanced catalytic activity due to the reduced activation energy of combustion of toluene than oxidized catalysts such as PdO/USY and PdO-CuO/USY.
The Study on Bunsen Reaction Process for Iodine-Sulfur Thermochemical Hydrogen Production
Kim, Yeong-Ho ; Bae, Gi-Gwang ; Park, Ju-Sik ; Hwang, Gap-Jin ; Gang, Yeong-Han ; Ryu, Jae-Chun ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 410~416
For highly efficient operation of a Bunsen process section in an iodine-sulfur thermochemical hydrogen production cycle using nuclear heat, the process characteristics of H2SO4-HI-H2O-I2 mixture system for separating into two liquid phases (H2SO4-rich phase and HIx-rich phase) and the distribution of H2O to each phase were investigated.The experiments for process variables were carried out in the temperature range, from 298 to 353 K, and in the H2SO4/ HI/H2O/I2 molar ratio of 1/2/14~20/0.5~8.0. As the results, for the SO2-I2-H2O Bunsen reaction system, the ranges between the starting point and the saturation point for two liquid phases separation were determined by calculation. The best result for the minimization of impurities (HI and I2 in H2SO4 phase and H2SO4 in HIx phase) in each phase was obtained in an optimum condition with the highest temperature of 353 K and the highest I2 molar composition. In this condition, the HI/H2SO4 molar ratio in the H2SO4-rich phase and the H2SO4/HIx molar ratio in the HIx-rich phase were 0.024 and 0.028, respectively. For the distribution of H2O to each phase, it is appeared that the affinity between HIx and H2O was more superior to that between H2SO4 and H2O. The affinity between HIx and H2O was decreased with increasing temperature but increased with increasing I2 molar composition.
Knoevenagel Condensation Reaction Using Amine-functionalized MCM-41 Base Catalysts
An, Hwa-Seung ; Choe, Jeong-Sik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 4, 2006, Pages 417~423
A series of amine functionalized MCM-41 catalysts were prepared by aminopropyltrimethoxysilane grafting and their catalytic performance in Knoevenagel reaction of selected substrates was investigated. Water resistant and catalytically active amine grafted MCM-41 was prepared by post-synthetic silylation using methyltrimethoxysilane;hydrogen bonding of the water molecules formed during the condensation reaction to the active N group was suppressed, which led to high TON of the reaction. Amine functionalized MCM-41 prepared by coating method produced high conversion, but the TON of the catalyst was much lower than that of the amine grafted MCM-41; pore volume of the functionalized MCM-41 decreased substantially and large portion of the immobilized amine is believed to be hydrogen bonded to each other, which can result in decrease in the basicity of the N group. A secondary amine group was prepared by room temperature condensation between aminopropylsilane and chloropropylsilane, and the MCM-41 grafted with the secondary amine group demonstrated the highest catalytic activity among the catalysts prepared.