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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 44, Issue 1 - 00 2006
Selecting the target year
Optimum Condition of HPLC by HCI Program
No, Gyeong-Ho ; Lee, Ju-Won ; Kim, Chun-Hwa ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 555~562
Recently, liquid chromatography (LC) has been used more frequently to separate drugs and natural substances. Especially, to selection of the solutes from the products, the operation condition of analytical chromatography should be necessarily determined. So accurate computer modeling and simulation of chromatographic performances has become a necessary part of the development and design of processes. High-Purity Separation Lab. Inha University developed the resulting HCI software for the purpose of the optimization of chromatographic performances. The HCI program was utilized to find the optimum operating condition more accurately and rapidly, reducing the number of many possible experiments. The elution profiles were calculated by the plate theory based on the three retention mechanism of capacity factor.
A Study on the Growth Morphology of VGCF Nano-Materials by Acetylene Pyrolysis over Stainless Steel Catalyst - Effect of Reduction Pretreatment and Hydrogen Supply
Park, Seok-Ju ; Lee, Dong-Geun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 563~571
Diffusion of Phenol in Apples
Seo, Gon ; Song, Yo-Sun ; Choe, Dong-Ho ; Park, Hyeon-Ju ; Jeong, Gyeong-Hwan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 572~578
The accumulation of phenol in apples was measured by exposing them to phenol vapor at 25 oC. The effective diffusivities of phenol in the rind and flesh of apples were estimated by comparing the experimentally determined fractional uptake curve with the simulated ones based on a consecutive diffusion model in the rind and flesh. Phenol was detected in the flesh of apples after 5 day exposure due to its slow diffusion in the rind. The consecutive diffusion model of phenol in apples simulated well the measured fractional uptake curve when the effective diffusivities of phenol in the rind and flesh were assumed to be 5.0×10.13 m2/s and 1.5×10.10 m2/s, respectively.
Modeling of Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) through Material Flow Analysis (MFA)
Yu, Chang-Gyu ; Lee, In-Beom ; Lee, Seung-Jun ; Choe, Sang-Gyo ; Jeon, Hui-Dong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 579~587
Recently, each country has been trying to promote Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) development for industrial sustainability. Technological modeling is required to realize EIP practically even though the project contains the political concerns for many companies, government, and self-governing bodies. The four main technologies of the EIP developments include energy exchange, material flow analysis, water pinch, and life cycle assessment. Material flow analysis (MFA) methodology can be utilized in EIP modeling in view of the fact that the analysis of material flows and the optimized modeling are major purposes for the technological modeling of EIP. Through MFA methodology in POHANG EIP project, how to apply MFA modeling to EIP modeling and how to utilize software for MFA modeling are shown in this research.
Selectivity and Permeability Characteristics of Pure CO2 and N2 Gases through Plasma Treated Polystyrene Membrane
Bae, Seong-Yeol ; Hwang, Ui-Dong ; Sin, Hui-Yong ; Gwak, Hyeon-Hyeon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 588~596
surface of polystyrene membrane treated by Ar, O2 plasma, and the effects were observed before andafter the treatment and permeability of CO2, N2 and selectivity of CO2 relative to N2 was measured using continuousflow gas permeation analyzer (GPA). The mole ratio of O over C in the surface was increased from 0 to 0.179 with Arplasma treatment and route mean square of surface was increased from 15.86 to 71.64 . Therefore the contact anglewas decreased from 89.16o to 18.1o membrane tend to be highly hydrophilic.The optimum condition for the CO2 permeability and ideal selectivity of the plasma treated membrane was as folows:the measurement of Ar (60 W, 2 min, 70oC) plasma treatment was 1.14×10-12[m3(STP).m/m2.sec.atm] and 4.22. In thecase of O2 plasma treatment, the contact angle was decreased at 13.56° with increase of O/C ratio (0.189 ) and routemean square of surface (57.10 ). The optimum condition for the CO2 permeability and ideal selectivity of the plasmatreated membrane was as follows: the measurement of O2 (90 W, 2min, 70oC) plasma treatment was 7.1×10-12[m3 .m/m2 .sec.atm] and 11.5. After plasma treatment, the changes of membrane surface were all subtly linked with both cros-linking andetching effects. Finally, it was confirmed that the gas permeation capacity and selectivity of the modified membrane withplasma could be improved by an appropriate control of the plasma conditions such as treatment time, the power inputand sort of plasma gas
Degradation of Nafion Membrane by Oxygen Radical
Park, Gwon-Pil ; Jo, Gyu-Jin ; Kim, Tae-Hui ; Lee, Jeong-Hun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 597~601
degradation of the Nafion membrane by oxygen radical (OH, HO2) was investigated in Polymer elec-oxide (10-30. ) and ferous ion (1-4 ppm) at 80 °C. After degradation in Fenton solution, C-F, S-O and C-O chemicalbonds of membrane were broken by oxygen radical attack. Breaking of C-F bond reduced the mechanical strength ofNafion membrane, and hence induced pinholes, resulting in increase of H2 crossover through the membrane. Decom-position of S-O and C-O bonds decreased the ion exchange capacity of the electrolyte membrane. The performance ofunit cel composed the membrane, which was degraded in 30. H2O2 with 4ppm Fe2+ solution for 48 hr, was about halftimes as low as one with normal membrane
Physical Properties and Electrical Conductivity of PAN-based Carbon Fiber Reinforced Paper
Yu, Seung-Gon ; Jang, Jun ; Lee, Chang-Ho ; Park, Gwan-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 602~608
fiber (CF) reinforced papers using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based CF and wood pulp were pre-pared by varying the lengths and the concentrations of CF, and the basis weight of paper to investigate adhesive statebetwen CF and pulp, and physical properties and electrical conductivity of the paper. The reinforcement was caused bystrength and the thickness of the paper increased as increasing the concentration of CF, while the tensile and the burststrength of the paper decreased. The improved dispersion of CF in the paper was obtained from mixing shorter CF, butthe maximum electrical conductivity of the paper was gained from mixing 10 m chopped CF. The electrical conduc-tivity of the paper increased sharply from 2 wt. to 8 wt. of CF showing S-curve, and increased linearly as increasingthe basis weight of the paper. Therefore, in order to improve the electrical conductivity and the physical property of thepaper, the increase of basis weight of the paper is also important as the increase of CF content in the paper.
The Photoluminescence Characteristic of Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu Phosphor Particles Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis
Gang, Yun-Chan ; Park, Seung-Bin ; Gang, Hui-Sang ; Gu, Hye-Yeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 609~613
Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu2+ phosphor particles with the high photoluminescence (PL) intensity under long wavelength ultraviolet (UV) were prepared by spray pyrolysis. The photoluminescence, morphological and crystalline characteristics of Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu2+ phosphor particles prepared by spray pyrolysis were investigated. Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu2+ phosphor particles prepared by spray pyrolysis had various colors from bluish green to yellow by changing the ratio of barium and strontium of the host material. In case of x=0, the main emission peak of Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphor was 500 nm. In case of x=2, the main emission peak of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphor was 554nm. Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu2+ phosphor particles obtained by spray pyrolysis had spherical shape and hollow structure. On the other hand, the post-treated Ba2-xSrxSiO4:Eu2+ phosphor particles had large size and irregular shape. The Ba1.488Sr0.5SiO4:Eu0.0122+ phosphor particles had the maximum PL intensity after post-treatment at temperature of 1,200 oC for 3h under reduction atmosphere.
A Study on the Characteristics of Solid Capacitor According to the Pyrolysis Methods
Kim, Jae-Geun ; Yu, Hyeong-Jin ; Hong, Ung-Hui ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 614~622
Study on the characteristics of Ta/Ta2O5/MnO2 capacitor applied MnO2 by means of pyrolysis of man-ganese nitrate solution was carried out. Single phase of MnO2 was obtained in the pyrolysis temperature range of 230 to250oC by TG/DSC analysis on manganese nitrate solution. Temperature of pyrolysis, concentration of manganesenitrate solution and the number of pyrolysis were selected for the basic parameters of embodying MnO2 solid electrolyteand then the effects of these parameters on the characteristics of capacitor were estimated. The characteristics of capac-itor pyrolyzed radiationally was superior to that of capacitor pyrolyzed convectionally on the basis of these optimizedparameter conditions. It was verified that radiational pyrolysis formed smaller spherical MnO2 particles than those ofmicroporous sintered body of capacitor.
Prediction of Tcv for Coal Slags under Reducing Condition
O, Myeong-Suk ; Park, Yun-Gyeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 623~630
The slag viscosity is an important factor determining the operation temperature of entrained flow type of gasifiers. The temperature of critical viscosity, Tcv, for 5 crystalline slags was predicted by empirical models and Fact-Sage equilibrium calculations, and the validity of each method was tested. Two empirical models were employed: one using Th from the ash fusion test, and the other using the concentrations of 5 major components. The first model using Th over-predicted Tcv by 20~100 oC, while the model based on the slag composition under-predicted Tcv by 80~120 oC. In the equlibrium calculations, Tcv was obtained from the liquidus temperature. When the 4-major component concentrations were used in the calculation, the predicted temperatures were higher than the observed. The liquidus temperature was very sensitive to the concentrations of minor components, and the addition of MgO and Na2O lowered the liquidus temperature. The results with 4 major and 3 minor components most closely described experimentally observed Tcv. In the case that a chromia refractory was used, it was shown that Cr2O3 concentration in the slag also needs to be included for more accurate prediction of Tcv.
Characteristics of Coal Methanation in a Hydrogasifier
Lee, Jae-Gu ; Choe, Yeong-Chan ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Si-Hun ; Yun, Sang-Jun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 631~635
To investigate the characteristics of substitute natural gas (SNG) production from direct coal methanation, the continuous lab-scale entrained flow hydrogasifier (I.D. : 0.025 m, Height : 1.0 m) was used in this experiment. The hydrogasification system consisted of high pressure gas handling system, high pressure coal feeder, entrained flow hydrogasifier, and unreacted char separator. The experiment was performed at the various conditions of reaction temperature (600~800 oC), H2/coal ratio (0.2~0.4), and coal feed rate (0.8~2.5 g/min). Although it was shown that carbon conversion was different trends with coals from the methanation results for 6 sample coals, the carbon conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature. And it increased with increasing H2/coal ratio, whereas the concentration of CH4 decreased. Also. the carbon conversion increased with the carbon content of coal sample and had a maximum value at volatile matter content of 35 wt.
Supercritical water oxidation of Dimethyl methylphosphonate(DMMP)
Lee, Hae-Wan ; Ryu, Sam-Gon ; Lee, Jong-Cheol ; Hong, Dae-Sik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 636~643
Supercritical water oxidation of DMMP using continuous flow reactor was studied at temperature ranging from 440 to 540 oC and a fixed pressure of 242 bar. The range of residence times in the reactor was from 10 to 26 s, and oxygen excess value varied from -40 to 200％. Destruction efficiencies (DE) of DMMP were greater than 99.7％ at 540 oC, and increased as the DMMP concentrations were increased. DE of DMMP were significantly affected by oxygen concentration under stoichiometric amount, but showed little difference over stoichiometric amount. On the basis of 30 data with conversions greater than 85％, kinetic correlations for the DE of DMMP were developed. The pre-exponential factor was (1.10±0.76)×106, and the activation energy was 90.66±3.87 kJ/mol, and the reaction orders for DMMP and oxygen were 1.02±0.03, 0.32±0.03, respectively. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data.
Influence of Ozone Treatment on Cr(VI) Adsorption of Activated Carbon
Park, Su-Jin ; Kim, Byeong-Ju ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 644~649
In this paper, the Cr(VI) adsorption behaviors of activated carbons (ACs) treated by various ozone treatment conditions were studied. The surface properties of the ACs studied were determined by pH, acid-base, and FT-IR measurements. N2 adsorption isotherm characteristics at 77K were confirmed by BET equation, Boer’s t-plot method, and Horvath-Kawazoe’s slit pore model. Also, the total Cr adsorption amount onto the ACs was measured by ICP-AES. As a result, the ozone treatment led to an increase of oxygen-containing polar functional groups and total acidity as well. Meanwhile, the specific surface areas or micropore volumes were slightly decreased after the ozone treatment due to the micropore filling or blocking. Nevertheless, the total Cr adsorption of ACs was increased with increasing of the ozone treatment time, attributed to the good interaction between Cr ions and polar functional groups on the ACs
Optimization of TDA Recycling Process for TDI Residue using Near-critical Hydrolysis Process
Han, Ju-Hui ; Han, Gi-Do ; Jeong, Chang-Mo ; Do, Seung-Hoe ; Sin, Yeong-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 650~658
The recycling of TDA from solid waste of TDI plant(TDI-R) by near-critical hydrolysis reaction had been studied by means of a statistical design of experiment. The main and interaction effects of process variables had been defined from the experiments in a batch reactor and the correlation equation with process variables for TDA yield had been obtained from the experiments in a continuous pilot plant. It was confirmed that the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst type and concentration, and the weight ratio of water to TDI-R(WR) on TDA yield were significant. TDA yield decreased with increases in reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, and increased with an increase in WR. As a catalyst, NaOH was more effective than Na2CO3 for TDA yield. The interaction effects between catalyst concentration and temperature, WR and temperature, catalyst type and reaction time on TDA yield had been defined as significant. Although the effect of catalyst concentration on TDA yield at 300 oC as subcritical water was insignificant, the TDA yield decreased with increasing catalyst concentration at 400 oC as supercritical water. On the other hand, the yield increased with an increase in WR at 300 oC but showed negligible effect with WR at 400 oC. The optimization of process variables for TDA yield has been explored with a pilot plant for scale-up. The catalyst concentration and WR were selected as process variables with respect to economic feasibility and efficiency. The effects of process variables on TDA yield had been explored by means of central composite design. The TDA yield increased with an increase in catalyst concentration. It showed maximum value at below 2.5 of WR and then decreased with an increase in WR. However, the ratio at which the TDA yield showed a maximum value increased with increasing catalyst concentration. Thecorrelation equation of a quadratic model with catalyst concentration and WR had been obtained by the regression analysis of experimental results in a pilot plant.
Optimization of Supercritical Water Oxidation(SCWO) Process for Decomposing Nitromethane
Han, Ju-Hui ; Jeong, Chang-Mo ; Do, Seung-Hoe ; Han, Gi-Do ; Sin, Yeong-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 659~668
The optimization of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process for ecomposing nitromethane was studied by means of a design of experiments. The optimum operating region for the SCWO process to minimize COD and T-N of treated water was obtained in a lab scale unit. The authors had compared the results from a SCWO pilot plant with those from a lab scale system to explore the problems of scale-up of SCWO process. The COD and T-N in treated waters were selected as key process output variables (KPOV) for optimization, and the reaction temperature (Temp) and the mole ratio of nitromethane to ammonium hydroxide (NAR) were selected as key process input variables (KPIV) through the preliminary tests. The central composite design as a statistical design of experiments was applied to the optimization, and the experimental results were analyzed by means of the response surface method. From the main effects analysis, it was declared that COD of treated water steeply decreased with increasing Temp but slightly decreased with an increase in NAR, and T-N decreased with increasing both Temp and NAR. At lower Temp as 420~430 oC, the T-N steeply decreased with an increase in NAR, however its variation was negligible at higher Temp above 450 oC. The regression equations for COD and T-N were obtained as quadratic models with coded Temp and NAR, and they were confirmed with coefficient of determination (r2) and normality of standardized residuals. The optimum operating region was defined as Temp 450-460 oC and NAR 1.03-1.08 by the intersection area of COD < 2 mg/L and T-N < 40 mg/L with regression equations and considering corrosion prevention. To confirm the optimization results and investigate the scale-up problems of SCWO process, the nitromethane was decomposed in a pilot plant. The experimental results from a SCWO pilot plant were compared with regression equations of COD and T-N, respectively. The results of COD and T-N from a pilot plant could be predicted well with regression equations which were derived in a lab scale SCWO system, although the errors of pilot plant data were larger than lab ones. The redictabilities were confirmed by the parity plots and the normality analyses of standardized residuals.
Adsorption Characteristics of Three-components Volatile Organic Compounds on Activated Carbonaceous Adsorbents
Lee, Si-Hun ; Kim, Sang-Do ; Yu, Seung-Gon ; Son, Mi-Suk ; U, Gwang-Jae ; Park, Hui-Jae ; Seo, Man-Cheol ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 44, issue 6, 2006, Pages 669~675
Toluene of aromatic compounds, MEK of ketones and IPA of alcohols were extremely used as VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) on the getting into step with industrial process. The adsorption characteristics of three component solvent vapors (Toluene-MEK-IPA) on the activated carbonaceous adsorbents such as AC, ACF and AC+ACF were investigated in a stainless steel fixed bed adsorption experimental apparatus in order to identify those carbons for eliminating and recovering solvent vapors from industrial emission sources. The used activated carbonaceous adsorbents were pelletized commercial activated carbon and activated carbon fiber. The breakthrough curves and adsorption capacity have been obtained at atmospheric pressure in a adsorption fixed bed. It has been found that non-polar and larger molecules have been adsorbed better than polar and smaller molecules. Especially, alcohols and ketones were poorly adsorbed due to competitive adsorbability in ternary mixture system. However, it could be overcome by employment of activated carbonaceous adsorbent which have different porosity distribution appropriately.