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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
High Value-added Technology of Oil Sand
Park, Yong-Ki ; Choi, Won-Choon ; Jeong, Soon-Yong ; Lee, Chul-Wee ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 109~116
conventional light oil resources deplete, it is becoming necessary to develop unconventional resources.To met the demand for petrochemical industry, heavier sources such as heavy oil and bitumen are being utilized. Bitu-mens, a complex hydrocarbon made up of a long chain of molecules, are found in oil sand. It is estimated that 830 bil-lion barrels of oil are located in the oil sand in Alberta, Canada. This paper will review briefly (1) the basic concept ofoil sand, bitumen, and heavy oil, (2) methods how to extract oil from oil sand, (3) methods how to upgrade to syntheticcrude oil, and (4) economic evaluation of technology.
Effect of Aluminium Addition to MCM-41 on Catalytic Cracking of an LDPE-LLDPE-EVA Copolymer Mixture
Kim, Min-Ji ; Jeon, Jong-Ki ; Park, Young-Kwon ; Ko, Young-Soo ; Sohn, Jung-Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 117~123
The effect of aluminium addition to MCM-41 on product yield and carbon number distribution was investigated in the catalytic cracking of a polymer mixture, LDPE, LLDPE, and EVA copolymer, with a composition similar to that found in real agricultural film wastes. Al-MCM-41 catalyst synthesized by post-synthetic grafting method (Al-MCM-41-P) as well as Al-MCM-41 catalyst synthesized by direct sol-gel (Al-MCM-41-D). The catalytic cracking of polymer mixture was carried out in vapor phase contact as well as in liquid phase contact. The amount of acid sites increased with aluminium addition by post method as well as direct method, which was seemed to be due to Lewis acid sites. In liquid phase catalytic cracking, the yield of light hydrocarbon fraction increased with aluminium addition. The effect of aluminium addition on production of C5-C12 hydrocarbons over Al-MCM-41-P catalysts was greater than that over Al-MCM-41-D catalysts. In the case of vapor phase catalytic cracking, the effect of aluminium addition was smaller than that of liquid phase catalytic cracking. The selectivity to C13-C32 hydrocarbons was smaller in vapor phase catalytic cracking.
Characteristics of Ti Platinization for Fabrication Sn-modified Platinized Ti Electrode
Kim, Kwang-Wook ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Lee, Eil-Hee ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 124~132
work investigated a fabrication way of stable platinized Ti electrode and evaluated the electrochem-ical characteristics of the Sn-modified platinized Ti electrode in nitrate solution. A Pt electro-plating way to form someopen special clearances within the Pt coating layer on etched Ti substrate was very important to remove effectively theresidual contaminate due to plating solution out of the fabricated electrode surface and to maximize the actual electrodesurface area contacting solution. Both boiling and electro-cleaning processes of the fabricated electrode was essential toobtain a stable platinized-Pt electrode with reproducible and stable surface property which was necessary for the correctrode surface with some downy hair-like polyps formed during the deposition disappearing, which made the electrode
Prediction of Ammonia Emission Rate from Field-applied Animal Manure using the Artificial Neural Network
Moon, Young-Sil ; Lim, Young-Il ; Kim, Tae-Wan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 133~142
As the environmental pollution caused by excessive uses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is aggravated, organic farming using pasture and livestock manure is gaining an increased necessity. The application rate of the organic farming materials to the field is determined as a function of crops and soil types, weather and cultivation surroundings. When livestock manure is used for organic farming materials, the volatilization of ammonia from field-spread animal manure is a major source of atmospheric pollution and leads to a significant reduction in the fertilizer value of the manure. Therefore, an ammonia emission model should be presented to reduce the ammonia emission and to know appropriate application rate of manure. In this study, the ammonia emission rate from field-applied pig manure is predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) method, where the Michaelis-Menten equation is employed for the ammonia emission rate model. Two model parameters (total loss of ammonia emission rate and time to reach the half of the total emission rate) of the model are predicted using a feedforward-backpropagation ANN on the basis of the ALFAM (Ammonia Loss from Field-applied Animal Manure) database in Europe. The relative importance among 15 input variables influencing ammonia loss is identified using the weight partitioning method. As a result, the ammonia emission is influenced mush by the weather and the manure state.
Desulfurization of Sulfur Compounds in City-gas using Metal Salt Impregnated Zeolite
Song, Hirn-Ill ; Ko, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Chang ; Kim, Jong-Nam ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 143~148
hydrogen production for fuel cell by reforming city-gas, sulfur compounds, odorant in city-gas, are detrimental to reforming catalyst and fuel cell electrodes. We prepared metal salt impregnated β-zeolite(BEA) to remove sulfur compound in city-gas by adsorption. The sulfur breakthrough adsorption capacity was changed depending on the concentration and species of metal salt. AgNO3 impregnated BEA showed the highest sulfur breakthrough capacity among adsorbents used in this experiment(41.1 mg/g). But metal salt impregnated BEA such as Ni(NO3)2/BEA, Fe(NO3)3/BEA, Co(NO3)2/BEA showed a certain amount of sulfur adsorption capacity comparable to AgNO3/BEA. Adsorption temperature effect, desorption study, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the dominant interaction between metal impregnated adsorbent and sulfur compounds was not chemisorption but physisorption.
The Surface Treatment Effect for Nanoimprint Lithography using Vapor Deposition of Silane Coupling Agent
Lee, Dong-Il ; Kim, Ki-Don ; Jeong, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Eung-Sug ; Choi, Dae-Geun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 149~154
lithography (NIL) is useful technique because of its low cost and high throughput capabilityfor the fabrication of sub-micrometer paterns which has potential applications in micro-optics, magnetic memorydevices, bio sensors, and photonic crystals. Usually, a chemical surface treatment of the stamp is needed to ensure aclean release after imprinting and to protect the expensive original master against contamination. Meanwhile, adhesionpromoter betwen resin and substrate is also important in the nanoscale pattern. In this work, we have investigated theeffect of surface treatment using silane coupling agent as release layer and adhesion promoter for UV-Nanoimprintlithography. Uniform SAM (self-assembled monolayer) could be fabricated by vapor deposition method. Vapor phaseprocess eliminates the use of organic solvents and greatly simplifies the handling of the sample. It was also proven that3-acryloxypropyl methyl dichlorosilane (APMDS) could strongly improve the adhesion force betwen resin and sub-strate compared with common planarization layer such as DUV-30J or oxygen plasma treatment.
Preparation and Mesomorphic Properties of tetramethylene-1,4-bis (p-oxybenzylidene p-substituted aniline)
Choi, Ok-Byung ; Park, Joo-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Seop ; Lee, Whan-Myung ; Kim, Ki-Hwan ; Lee, Eun-Kyoung ; Ko, Kyung-Kon ; Lee, Eun-Sang ; So, Bong-Keun ; Lee, Chang-Joon ; Lee, Soo-Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 155~159
A series of new dimesogenic compounds having two identical, terminal Schiff base type mesogens and a central tetramethylene spacer were synthesized. Their thermotropic and mesomorphic properties of the compounds were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing microscopy. The compounds with X= -F, -Cl, -Br, -CN and -OCH3 were enantiotropically nematic liquid crystal. In contrast, the compounds with X= -I and -CF3 were non-liquid crystal. The nematic forming efficiency of the groups was in the order of -CN > -OCH3 > -Br > -Cl > -F.
Synthesis of LSX Zeolite and Characterization for Nitrogen Adsorption
Hong, Seung-Tae ; Lee, Jung-Woon ; Hong, Hyung-Phyo ; Yoo, Seung-Joon ; Lim, Jong-Sung ; Yoo, Ki-Pung ; Park, Hyung-Sang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 160~165
The synthesis and the characterization of Low Silica X (LSX) zeolite for nitrogen adsorption have been studied. The performance of LSX zeolite for nitrogen adsorption was compared to that of the commercial zeolite. The Na2O/(Na2O+K2O) ratio in the gel and the crystallization time were fixed as the synthetic factor. The LSX zeolite was formed at the Na2O/(Na2O+K2O) ratio of 0.75. The formation of LSX zeolite was confirmed by XRD and SEM. The Si/Al ratio was investigated by using XRF and FT-IR. The synthesized LSX zeolite showed a lower Si/Al ratio than the NaY and NaX zeolites although they have a same faujasite structure. The Si/Al ratio of the LSX zeolite converged close to 1. 1A (Li, Na, K) and 2A (Mg, Ca, Ba) group elements were ion-exchanged to the LSX zeolite. As the charge density of cation rises, the amount of nitrogen adsorbed increased. Li+ ion-exchanged LSX zeolite showed the highest nitrogen adsorption weight. When the Li/Al ratio was over 0.65, nitrogen adsorption increased remarkably. Li+ ions located on the supercage (site III, III') in the LSX zeolite played a role as nitrogen adsorption sites. When the Ca2+ ions were added to the LiLSX zeolite by ion-exchange method, the performance for nitrogen adsorption increased more. The performance for the nitrogen adsorption was the highest at the Ca/Al ratio of 0.26. Nitrogen adsorption capacity of LiCaLSX (Ca/Al=0.26) zeolite was superior to the commercial NaX zeolite.
Adsorption Behavior of
Ions on Alginate Beads and Capsules
Shin, Eun-Woo ; Lien Thuong, Nguyen Thi ; Yoo, Ik-Keun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 166~171
adsorption behavior of Pb2+ was compared between calcium alginate beads and capsules, which haveadsorption kinetics and isotherms, adsorption characteristics depending on pH and hardening time were compared forboth adsorbents and also released calcium ion during the adsorption process was monitored. The adsorption of Pb2+ onboth adsorbents was caused by surface complexation and ion exchange mechanisms, both of which have similar effectson adsorption process regardless of the amount of adsorbed Pb2+. The dependence of Pb2+ adsorption upon pH was alsosimilar for both adsorbents indicating the existence of similar functional groups on the surface of adsorbents. However, adiferent Pb2+ adsorption behavior was observed considering the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption kinetic of Pb2+ onalginate beads was slower than on alginate capsules and the maximum adsorption loading (Q ) onto alginate beadswas also less than onto alginate capsules by 49%. This drawback of alginate beads compared to capsules were ascribedto a difusion limitation due to solid gel-core structure of alginate beads.
Hydrolysis of Sarin(GB) in Aqueous NaOH Solution
Lee, Yong-Han ; Lee, Jong-Chol ; Hong, Dea-Sik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 172~177
hydrolysis reaction of sarin(GB), one of the nerve agents was studied in aqueous sodium hydroxide(NaOH)solutions to find the experimental conditions which can convert GB into the less toxic compounds. 10 wt% of GB wasadded into the aqueous NaOH(2.05 eq) in a small-scale jacket-attached reactor connected to a circulator. The reactionrate constants were measured at three temperatures(50, 70 and 90oC) and the reaction times required to degrade thematerial to > 9% were calculated at diferent temperatures. In this study, 10 wt% of GB was degraded to 99.9% in 1.2hr at 90oC by the aqueous NaOH solution. The major hydrolysate of GB was isopropyl methylphosphonate.
The Preparation of Non-aqueous Supercapacitors with
/C Composite Positive Electrodes
Kim, Kyoung-Ho ; Yoo, Jee-Young ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Yeu, Tae-Whan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 178~182
Non-aqueous supercapacitors by using activated C and LiMn2O4 as an active material in a positive elec-trode were prepared and characterized. From the cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance analysis, the capacitive effectby electric double layer of activated carbon and the faradic efect by intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ ion wereobserved. Increasing the ratio of LiMn2O4, specific capacitances and energy densities of supercapacitor were increased.At the ratio of 0.86:0.14 (LiMn2O4:C), the maximum specific capacitance of 17.51 Wh/L and energy density of 23.83 F/1,000 charge/discharge cycle, the supercapacitor by using the electrode containing 14% of activated carbon and 86% ofLiMn2O4 showed 60% beter specific capacitance and energy density than that by using the electrode containing 100%activated carbon.
Oxidation of Elemental Mercury using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Process
Byun, Young-Chul ; Ko, Kyung-Bo ; Cho, Moo-Hyun ; NamKung, Won ; Shin, Dong-Nam ; Koh, Dong-Jun ; Kim, Kyoung-Tae ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 183~189
study examined the nitrate removal efficiency which uses an electrowinning, and also analyzed the nitrateremoval efficiency under a variety of operating conditions such as nitrate concentrations, pH, current densities, electrodes,reducing agents in order to determine optimal conditions. In addition, the multi-step electro-chemical proces test has been alsoanalyzed. During the electrowining, the identical Zn-Zn and Pt-Ti electrodes in the insoluble oxidation electrode(Pt) has3-N/L concentration. In the concentration of 150 mg NO3-N/L,the eficiency of the Zn-Zn electrode were 70~85%, and that of Pt-Ti electrode were 40~50% without any change of pH. In thehigh concentration of 500 and 1,000 mg NO3-N/L, the higher the concentration, the more decrease of its nitrate removal effi-ciency decreased. However, the energy consumed for nitrogen removal increased when the nitrate concentration was high. Asa result of the multi-step electro-chemical process test, We chose the Test 4. Because the first, most of the zinc consumed from1 step was recovered from over the 2 step. The second, amount of consumption anode decreased with insoluble anode Pt fromover the 2 step. And the third, Zn cathode increased the possibility of reusing Zn deposited. In view of the results so farachieved, the multi-step electro-chemical proces would be aplied to treat nitrogen involved in metal finishing wastewater.
The Electro-Chemical Treatment for Nitrogen Removal of Metal Finishing Wastewater
Sim, Joo-Hyun ; Seo, Hyung-Joon ; Kim, Dae-Hwan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 190~196
Absorption Equilibrium of
in the Sterical Hindered Amine, AMP Aqueous Solution
Han, Keun-Hee ; Lee, Jong-Seop ; Min, Byoung-Moo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 197~202
research was basically carried out to extend the application of CO2 absorption processes for flue-gassystem, which are mainly applied to a reforming process in petro-chemical industries. In general, MEA absorbent hassome problems in flue-gas treatment, such as, degradation, regeneration energy and absorption capacities. As we known,lems. In this paper, the characteristics of CO2 absorption in aqueous AMP solution were measured and compared withthat of MEA. It has ben found that the CO2 absorption capacity in AMP is double than that of MEA in the low CO2partial pressure system such as flue-gas. Also, the equilibriums of CO2-AMP system were partially sugested, which areessentially needed to design the absorption process.
Particle Removal on Silicon Wafer Surface by Ozone-HF-
Lee, Gun-Ho ; Bae, So-Ik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 45, issue 2, 2007, Pages 203~207
this paper eficient method for particle removal from silicon wafers by usage of HF and ozone was stud-ied. It was found that at least 0.3 vol% concentration of HF was required for particle removal and removal efficiencyincreased with the application of megasonic in ozonated water. Additional cleaning with minute amount of ammonia(0.01 vol%) after HF/Ozone step showed over 99% in removal eficiency. It is proposed that the superior cleaning efi-ciency of HF-Ozone-ammonia is due to micro-etching of silicon surface and impediment of particle re-adsorption inalkali environment. Compared to SC-1 cleaning method micro roughness has also been slightly improved. Therefore it isexpected that HF-ozone-amonia cleaning method is a viable alternative to the conventional wet cleaning methods.this paper eficient method for particle removal from silicon wafers by usage of HF and ozone was stud-ied. It was found that at least 0.3 vol% concentration of HF was required for particle removal and removal efficiencyincreased with the application of megasonic in ozonated water. Additional cleaning with minute amount of ammonia(0.01 vol%) after HF/Ozone step showed over 99% in removal eficiency. It is proposed that the superior cleaning efi-ciency of HF-Ozone-ammonia is due to micro-etching of silicon surface and impediment of particle re-adsorption inalkali environment. Compared to SC-1 cleaning method micro roughness has also been slightly improved. Therefore it isexpected that HF-ozone-amonia cleaning method is a viable alternative to the conventional wet cleaning methods.this paper eficient method for particle removal from silicon wafers by usage of HF and ozone was stud-ied. It was found that at least 0.3 vol% concentration of HF was required for particle removal and removal efficiencyincreased with the application of megasonic in ozonated water. Additional cleaning with minute amount of ammonia(0.01 vol%) after HF/Ozone step showed over 99% in removal eficiency. It is proposed that the superior cleaning efi-ciency of HF-Ozone-ammonia is due to micro-etching of silicon surface and impediment of particle re-adsorption inalkali environment. Compared to SC-1 cleaning method micro roughness has also been slightly improved. Therefore it isexpected that HF-ozone-amonia cleaning method is a viable alternative to the conventional wet cleaning methods.