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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Electrochemical Metallization Processes for Copper and Silver Metal Interconnection
Kwon, Oh-Joong ; Cho, Sung-Ki ; Kim, Jae-Jeong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 141~149
The Cu thin film material and process, which have been already used for metallization of CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor), has been highlighted as the Cu metallization is introduced to the metallization process for giga - level memory devices. The recent progresses in the development of key elements in electrochemical processes like surface pretreatment or electrolyte composition are summarized in the paper, because the semiconductor metallization by electrochemical processes such as electrodeposition and electroless deposition controls the thickness of Cu film in a few nm scales. The technologies in electrodeposition and electroless deposition are described in the viewpoint of process compatibility between copper electrodeposition and damascene process, because a Cu metal line is fabricated from the Cu thin film. Silver metallization, which may be expected to be the next generation metallization material due to its lowest resistivity, is also introduced with its electrochemical fabrication methods.
Study on the Optical Characteristics of the Green Phosphor for PDP Application
Han, Bo-Yong ; Yoo, Jae-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 150~156
Plasma Display Panels(PDPs) require to have improved luminous efficiency, low manufacturing cost, and high image quality to compete with other flat display devices such as Liquid Crystal Displays(LCDs) and organic lightemitting diodes(OLEDs). In addition, the diversity of product line-up may be needed for high market share. In this paper, the optical characteristics of typical green phosphor for PDP application are reviewed and the problem-based solution will be proposed. We also shortly describe the principle of 3D-PDPs which are promising. Then, the requirement of green phosphor for 3D-PDP application is summarized and research achievement, as of now, is described. The typical problems of
:Mn phosphor, which is the most well-known, are the negatively charged surface property and the long decay time, which leads to unstable discharge in green cell and afterimage. These problems were solved by coating the phosphor surface with metallic oxide. It was found that
would be the best material for
:Mn phosphor. It gives longevity as well as low operating voltage due to the charging effect in green cells. Also, new phosphors, (Y, Gd)
:Tb and (Mg, Zn)
:Mn phosphor are proposed for increasing the luminance and reducing the decay time, which are capable to apply for 3D-PDP application.
Physical Property and Optimal Operating Condition in the Salting-out Dye Crystallization System
Pyun, Yu-Ri ; Han, Hyun-Kak ; Jung, Hyong-Ki ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 157~162
In this paper, the density, viscosity and solubility are measured to know the physical properties of dye. By changing the concentration of dye solution, the density change of the dye solution was very small and the viscosity of the dye solution was increased. Also, by changing the temperature of dye solution, the density change of the dye solution was increased but the viscosity of the dye solution was decreased. Solubility of dye conducts under the changing the salt and concentration of dye. In 20 wt% of dye and 15 wt% KCl, the amount of dye crystal is maximal. Also, batch salting-out experiments were performed with various conditions to know the optimal operating conditions of dye crystal. Under the various experiments, optimal operating condition was found based on amount of dye; added 15 wt% KCl,
temperature, 100 RPM, added at once.
STM Studies of Keggin-type and Wells-Dawson-type Heteropolyacid Catalysts
Park, Gyo-Ik ; Barteau, Mark A. ; Jung, Ji-Chul ; Song, In-Kyu ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 163~168
Negative differential resistance(NDR) behaviors of Keggin-type and Wells-Dawson-type heteropolyacids with cation, heteroatom, and polyatom substitutions were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. A reliable correlation between NDR peak voltage and reduction potential of heteropolyacid catalysts was established. It was found that more reducible heteropolyacid catalyst showed NDR behavior at less negative voltage, regardless of the structural difference. Thus, NDR peak voltage of heteropolyacid catalyst could be utilized as a single correlating parameter for the reduction potential of heteropolyacid catalyst.
A Study on Effects of Vulcanization Systems on Cross-linking and Degradation Reactions of NR/CR Blends Using Dynamic DSC and TGA
Min, Byung-Kwon ; Park, Dong-Ryul ; Ahn, Won-Sool ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 169~173
Effects of variations sulfur/accelerator ratio on cross-linking and thermal degradation behavior of NR/CR rubber compounds were studied using both dynamic DSC and non-isothermal TGA. DSC thermograms of the given samples were obtained with several different heating rates, and after cross-liked in DSC, TGA thermograms with the same samples also obtained. Kissinger analysis was applied to assess the activation energies for the cross-linking and thermal decomposition processes. Results showed that the formation and thermal decomposition reaction of the samples occurred in the overall temperature range of 120~180
, respectively, exhibiting that data could be well-fittable by Kissinger method. Furthermore, formation activation energy by DSC was estimated as 83.0
5.0 kJ/mol, which was much smaller than that of degradation by TGA, 147.0
2.0 kJ/mol. From these results, it was considered that, although variations of sulfur/accelerator ratio in the present experiments affected little on the formation mechanism and/or thermal degradation, they could play roles as the catalysts which lower the activation energy of formation. Because of stabilization after formation reaction, however, they have no more effects on the lowering the activation energy, showing higher values when decomposition, caused by main-chain scissions.
Natural Convection During Directional Solidification of a Binary Mixture
Hwang, In-Gook ; Choi, Chang-Kyun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 174~178
A mushy layer of dendritic crystals is often formed during solidification of a binary mixture. Natural convection in the mushy layer is analyzed by using the propagation theory we have developed. The critical Rayleigh numbers for the onset of convection are evaluated numerically using the self-similar stability equations based on Emms and Fowler’s model. The present results approach those from quasi-static stability analysis in the limit of a large superheat or a small growth rate of the mushy layer.
A Study on the 3-Dimensional Implementation of Computer-Aid Management of Stereo Images
Lee, Joong ; Yoon, Do-Young ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 179~184
Recent evolution of computer technology enhances the effectiveness of CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis for the 3-dimensional complex transport phenomena including turbulent flows. Cheaper and easier than laser and ultra-sonic methods, the windows simulator name by CAMSI(Computer-Aided Management of Stereo Images) has been developed in order to implement the 3-dimensional image using a disparity histogram extracted from left and right stereo images. In our program using the area-based method, the matching pixel finding methods consist of SSD(Sum of Squared Distance), SAD(Sum of Absolute Distance), NCC(Normalized Correlation Coefficient) and MPC(Matching Pixel Count). On performing the program, stereo images on different window sizes for various matching pixel finding methods are compared reasonably. When the image has a small noise, SSD on small window size is more effective. Whereas there is much noise, NCC or MPC is more effective than SSD. CAMSI from the present study will be much helpful to implement the complex objects and to analyze 3-dimensional CFD around them.
Absorption Rate of Carbon Dioxide into Blended Ammonia Solution with Amine Additives in a Stirred Cell Reactor
Park, Ho-Seok ; You, Jong-Kyun ; Hong, Won-Hi ; Kim, Jong-Nam ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 185~189
Absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous ammonia absorbent(10 wt%) was measured in the temperature range from 293 K to 337 K using a stirred-cell reactor. The reaction rate constant was correlated with the Arrehnius equation and the activation energy was 50.42 kJ/mol.
absorption rate into modified ammonia absorbent was also investigated. For the modified ammonia absorbent, 1 wt% sterically hindered amines of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol(AMP), 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propandiol(AMPD) and 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propandiol(AEPD) were used as additives. The
absorption rate increased by adding 1 wt% of the amine additive, in the case of AMP additive, the absorption rate enhanced by about 53%.
Removal of Aqueous Iron Ion by Micellar Enhanced Ceramic Microfiltration Adding Surfactant
Park, Jin-Yong ; Yu, Byeong-Gwon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 190~194
In this study sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which was anionic surfactant, was added for forming micelles to remove iron ion that could be contained with small amount in industrial water. Then aggregates binding between iron ions and micelles were rejected by a ceramic microfiltration membrane. As result of SDS concentration effect on removal rates of iron and SDS in modified iron solution, the removal rate of iron was the highest value of 92.26% and the removal rate of SDS was 61.10% a little higher than the result of calcium ion at 8 mM which was CMC (Critical micelle concentration) of SDS. As final resistance of membrane fouling
increased the more at the higher SDS concentration, it showed the highest value at 4 mM and the lowest at 10 mM of SDS. The final permeate flux
had the highest value and the largest total permeate volume could be finally acquired at SDS 10 mM. In case of CMC 8 mM, low
was shown as same as that of 10 mM until 80 minutes of operation, and tended to increase dramatically to 120 minutes and increase slowly again until 180 minutes.
Development of Solid Separator for Selective Solid Circulation in Two-interconnected Fluidized Beds System
Ryu, Ho-Jung ; Park, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Seung-Yong ; Kim, Hong-Ki ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 195~202
As a basic research of developing two-interconnected fluidized beds system for selective solid circulation, a solid separator was developed to separate fine and coarse particles by means of particle size difference with particle size separation system equipped with metal screen. The effects of gas velocity, height of solid separator, and separation area on the solid separation rate were investigated as well. The solid separation rate increased as the gas velocity, height of solid separator, and separation area increased. As the gas velocity and height of the solid separator increased, the variation of the solid separation rate was consistent with that of bubble size. Consequently, coarse(212~300
m) and fine(63~106
m) particles were separated using the solid separator and the solid separation rate was ranged from 4.4 to 127 g/min. We also proposed two interconnenced fluidized beds system for sorption enhanced water-gas shift process equipped with the developed solid separator.
Effect of Amino Modified Siloxane on the Properties of Epoxy Composites for MEMS Adhesives
Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Yu, Ki-Hwan ; Kim, Dae-Heum ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 203~207
In the NCAs(non-conductive adhesive) for adhesion of Micro Electro Mechanical System(MEMS), there are some problems such as delamination and cracking, because of the differences of CTE(coefficients of thermal expansion) between NCAs and substrates. Addition of inorganic particle or flexibilizer have been performed to solve those problems. In this study, to improve the flexibility of epoxy adhesive, epoxy/siloxane composites were prepared by adding 1, 3, or 5 phr of amino modified siloxane(AMS). Glass transition temperatures(Tg), moduli and CTE of those composites were measured to confirm effects of siloxane on thermal/mechanical properties of siloxane/epoxy-composites. Tg of AMS/epoxy-composites decreased from 134
with increasing AMS contents and moduli decreased from 2,425 MPa to 2,143 MPa with increasing AMS contents. But CTE of AMS/epoxy-composites increased from 67 ppm/
to 71 ppm/
with increasing AMS contents. In short, the addition of siloxane is effective for enhancing the flexibility of epoxy but leads to the decrease of Tg.
Influence of Ultrasonic Treatment and Nano-Clay content on the Properties of Nano-Clay/Polyurethane Foam
Her, Ki-Young ; Lim, Soon-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Heum ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 208~212
The nano-clay is widely used in polymer-nanocomposites due to the high aspect ratio, heat resistance and nano-scale dimension. In recent researches, the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane foam were improved with introducing the nano-clay. In this study, we describe the influence of ultrasonic treatment and content of nano-clay on properties of polyurethane foam. The nano-clay/polyurethane foam were characterized using their recovery time, compressive deflection, cell morphology and tensile test. The ultrasonic treatment was very effective for dispersion of nano-clay. Moreover, we found that introducing over 3 wt% of nano-clay bring the decrease of properties due to the poor dispersion. Expecially, ultrasonically treated 20A/polyurethane foam(1 wt%) showed greatly improved properties, such as homogeneous cell size and good dimension stability. We expect that our results could be applied to insulating materials for construction.
Polymorphism of Calcium Carbonate Crystal by Addition of Various Amino
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Min ; Kim, Woo-Sik ; Kim, In-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 213~219
Crystallization experiments were performed by addition of various amino acids into biomineralization mixture of calcium carbonate. Liquid-liquid reaction of calcium carbonate was investigated by mixing calcium chloride, sodium carbonate and additives such as silk fibroin, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and glycine. Also, the effects of reaction time, pH and solution concentration were observed. Analysis of crystals was done by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR equipments. FESEM was used in order to analyze morphology and crystal size. XRD was used to measure peak intensities and presence of
crystal. Two kinds of crystals were confirmed by FT-IR spectrum. Crystal distribution with reaction time was identified with measured peak areas of XRD and FT-IR data.
Importance of Strain Improvement and Control of Fungal cells Morphology for Enhanced Production of Protein-bound Polysaccharides(
-D-glucan) in Suspended Cultures of Phellinus linteus Mycelia
Shin, Woo-Shik ; Kwon, Yong-Jung ; Jeong, Yong-Seob ; Chun, Gie-Taek ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 220~229
Strain improvement and morphology investigation in bioreactor cultures were undertaken in suspended cultures of Phellinus linteus mycelia for mass production of protein-bound polysaccharides(soluble
-D-glucan), a powerful immuno-stimulating agent. Phellineus sp. screened for this research was identified as Phellinus linteues through ITS rDNA sequencing method and blast search, demonstrating 99.7% similarity to other Phellinus linteus strains. Intensive strain improvement program was carried out by obtaining large amounts of protoplasts for the isolation of single cell colonies. Rapid and large screening of high-yielding producers was possible because large numbers of protoplasts (1
protoplasts/ml) formed using the banding filtration method with the cell wall-disrupting enzymes could be regenerated in relatively high regeneration frequency(
) in the newly developed regeneration medium. It was demonstrated that the strains showing high performances in the protoplast regeneration and solid growth medium were able to produce 5.8~6.4%(w/w) of
-D-glucan and 13~15 g/L of biomass in stable manners in suspended shake-flask cultures of P. linteus mycelia. In addition, cell mass increase was observed to be the most important in order to enhance
-D-glucan productivity during the course of strain improvement program, since the amount of
-D-glucan extracted from the cell wall of P. linteus mycelia was almost constant on the unit biomass basis. Therefore we fully investigated the fungal cell morphology, generally known as one of the key factors affecting cell growth extent in the bioreactor cultures of mycelial fungal cells. It was found that, in order to obtain as high cell mass as possible in the final production bioreactor cultures, the producing cells should be proliferated in condensed filamentous forms in the growth cultures, and optimum amounts of these filamentous cells should be transferred as active inoculums to the production bioreactor. In this case, ideal morphologies consisting of compacted pellets less than 0.5mm in diameter were successfully induced in the production cultures, resulting in shorter period of lag phase, 1.5 fold higher specific cell growth rate and 3.3 fold increase in the final biomass production as compared to the parallel bioreactor cultures of different morphological forms. It was concluded that not only the high-yielding but also the good morphological characteristics led to the significantly higher biomass production and
-D-glucan productivity in the final production cultures.
An Energy Characteristics of Carbonization Residue produced from Sewage Sludge Cake
Rhee, Seung-Whee ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 230~236
Sewage sludge cake(SSC) is seriously concerned because ocean dumping, which is the cheapest treatment method now, will be banned in 2012. On the basis of this reason, recycling of SSC is emphasized to convert the treatment method. One of the method to recycling SSC could be carbonization process which also can be reduced greenhouse gas effectively. And carbonization residue of SSC produced by carbonization process can become a renewable energy source. However, carbonization process has not been evaluated by considering basic operating data such as heating value, yield and fuel ratio. In this study, the basic characteristics of SSC such as proximate analysis, elementary analysis and heating value are analyzed. In carbonization process, the effect of carbonization temperature and time on the residue of SSC are estimated. And the analysis is carried out to obtain basic properties of the residue of SSC. From the result of chemical composition of SSC residue, there is 27% of phosphate in SSC. Phosphate will take a role of reductant to convert from hazardous substance to non-hazardous material. As increased carbonization temperature and time, heating value and yield are decreased but fuel ratio(fixed carbon/volatile combustible) of the residue is increased. In the carbonization process, the optimum temperature and time in carbonization test for SSC can be decided by
and 15 min, respectively. However, the carbonization residue of SSC can not be deserved to use one of renewable energy sources because the heating value at the optimum condition is relatively low. Hence, it is desirable that SSC can be mixed with other organic waste to carbonize.
Determination of Fuel Properties for Blended Biodiesel from Various Vegetable Oils
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Jeon, Cheol-Hwan ; Kim, Shin ; Yim, Eui-Soon ; Song, Hung-Og ; Shin, Seong-Cheol ; Kim, Dong-Kil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 237~242
Various type of alternative fuel have been developed due to exhaustion of fossil fuel reserves and high oil price. Biodiesel is produced from the reaction of triglyceride, which is main component of animal fat and vegetable oil, and methanol by methanolysis as it is known for eco- friendly fuel for alternative petrodiesel. In this work, it was analyzed for the characteristics of the blended biodiesel with domestic petrodiesel according to blending ratio. Density, kinematic viscosity and flash point were increased with increasing the content of biodiesel. But the characteristic of blended biodiesel fuel were changed to aggravate in low temperature. Also, the derived cetane number(DCN) from IQT was increased by added biodiesel. Especially, the DCN of biodiesel from palm oil showed 71.26.
Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Efficiency of Ethylene Glycol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production
Kim, Kyoung-Suk ; Park, Chan-Hyun ; Jun, Jin-Woo ; Cho, Sung-Yul ; Lee, Yong-Kul ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 243~247
This study is purposed to analyze thermodynamic properties on the hydrogen production by ethylene glycol steam reforming. Various reaction conditions of temperatures(300~1,600 K), feed compositions(steam/carbon= 0.5~4.5), and pressures(1~30 atm) were applied to investigate the effects of the reaction conditions on the thermodynamic properties of dimethyl ether steam reforming. An endothermic steam reforming competed with an exothermic water gas shift reaction and an exothermic methanation within the applied reaction condition. Hydrogen production was initiated at the temperature of 400 K and the production rate was promoted at temperatures exceeding 500 K. An increase of steam to carbon ratio(S/C) in feed mixture over 1.0 resulted in the increase of the water gas shift reaction, which lowered the formation of carbon monoxide. The maximum hydrogen yield with minimizing loss of thermodynamic conversion efficiency was achieved at the reaction conditions of a temperature of 900 K and a steam to carbon ratio of 3.0.
Prediction of Exposure and Risks of Environmental Pollutants via Emission Assessment and Multimedia Transport Modeling
Kim, Jong-Ho ; Kwak, Byoung-Kyu ; Shin, Chee-Burm ; Jeon, Won-Jin ; Yi, Jong-Heop ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 248~257
In this paper, human exposure and risk of environmental pollutants were predicted using an emission assessment model and multimedia fate model. Eight environmental pollutants, acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, aniline, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, formaldehyde and vinyl chloride, were selected for the risk assessment in an urban and industrial area in Korea. The emission rate of target pollutants were estimated after considering a variety of point and non-point emission sources including geographical information. A spatially refined multimedia fate model was applied to predict the environmental concentration and fate of pollutants. Hazard data of target materials were obtained from the IRIS(Integrated Risk Information System) database. Using the modeling results with hazard data, the human risks were assessed. Modeling results demonstrate that the considerable risks were observed for several pollutants.
Extraction of Genistein and Formononetin from Sophoraflavescens Aiton using Ultrasonic wave
Kim, Young-Sik ; Lee, Kwang-Jin ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 258~261
In this work, we the ettect on extraction amounts and general composition content of phytoestrogen genistein and formononetin extracted from Sophoraflavescens Aiton by various ultrasonic waves(35, 72, and 170 KHz) and extraction time(30, and 60 min) were compared using extraction solvent water 100%. The pretreatment step was composed of ultrasonic waves extraction, filtration, concentration, and membrane filtration. The extracted sample was analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC). And the mobile phase applied was linearly changed with A/B of 80/20~65/35 vol% for 60 min(A water/acetic acid, 99.9/0.1 vol%, B acetonitrile/acetic acid, 99.9/0.1 vol%). The experimental results, general composition carbohydrate(0.255 to 0.413%) excepts, other ingredients was confirmed almost similarly. Also, The highest yield of extraction amount 3.17g was obtained by ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 170 KHz and an extraction time of 60 min. This work offers would be useful for chemical and biological studies of natural plants and its products.
Principle of Exchange of Stabilities in the Marangoni Convection System
Kim, Min-Chan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 47, issue 2, 2009, Pages 262~265
For the initially quiescent fluid layer, the principle of the exchange of stabilities for the Marangoni convection due to the impulsive temperature change is proven analytically. Under the linear stability theory, the temperature and vertical velocity disturbances are express as the liner combination of the orthogonal functions. It is shown that the growth rate of the temperature disturbance is the real function for all positive Marangoni numbers.