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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Droplet Based Microfluidic System
Jung, Jae-Hoon ; Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 545~555
Recently, droplet-based microfluidic systems are widely used in various areas ranging from fundamental science including chemistry, biology, and physics to material science and engineering. This article reviews recent development in the droplet based microfluidic system from basic fabrication of tiny device, principle of droplet formation, merging, mixing, control of droplets, and application for the synthesis of novel functional materials. We discuss strong advantages of the droplet based microfluidics in point of control of particle size, morphologies, shapes, and structures.
Improvement of adhesion strength of Butadiene Rubber using Atmospheric Plasma
Seul, Soo-Duk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 556~560
An atmospheric surface modification using plasma treatment method was applied to butadiene rubber to improve its adhesion strength by plate type reactor. In order to investigate the optimum reaction condition of plasma treatment, type of reaction gas(nitrogen, argon, oxygen, air), gas flow rate(30~100 mL/min), treated time(0~30 s) and primer modification method(GMA, 2-HEMA) were examined in a plate type plasma reactor. The results of the surface modification with respect to the treatment procedure was characterized by using SEM and ATR-FTIR. As the gas flow rate and treated time increases the contact angle decreases. The greatest adhesion strength was achieved at optimum condition such as flow rate of 60 mL/min, treated time 5 s and modification primer containing 2-HEMA for air. Due to the atmospheric surface modification using plate plasma method consequently reduced the wettability of butadiene rubber and resulted in the improvement of the adhesion.
Preparation of Silylated Waterborne Polyurethane/Silica Nanocomposites Using Colloidal Silica
Hong, Min-Gi ; Shin, Yong-Tak ; Choi, Jin-Joo ; Lee, Won-Ki ; Lee, Gyoung-Bae ; Yoo, Byung-Won ; Lee, Myung-Goo ; Song, Ki-Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 561~567
Silylated waterborne polyurethane was synthesized by capping the NCO groups of polyurethane prepolymer, prepared from isophrone diisocyanate, poly(tetramethylene glycol) and dimethylol propionic acid, with aminopropyl triethoxysilane. Subsequently, it was mixed with colloidal silica to prepare silylated waterborne polyurethane/silica nanocomposites. The average sizes of nanocomposite particles, measured by dynamic light scattering, showed almost the same value, irrespective of increasing silica content. However, the prepared nanocomposites showed better thermal stability than pure waterborne polyurethane.
Adhesion Between HNBR Compound and Polyester Fabric Treated with RFL
Yi, Ju-Hui ; Kang, Yun-Hee ; Park, Deuk-Joo ; Kim, Wook-Soo ; Son, Woo-Jeong ; Byun, Young-Hoo ; Kim, Won-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 568~573
Adhesive strength was evaluated for the polyester fabric treated with various concentration of polymeric isocyanate to introduce functional group on the surface. Also experiments were performed to find out the type of latex, F/R mole ratio, and FR resin/latex weight ratio for the RFL solution to optimize adhesion between HNBR compound and the treated polyester fabric. Optimum adhesion strength was obtained when 7 wt% of the concentration of polymeric isocyanate, NBR latex because of the compatibility of HNBR compound, 1/1 of F/R mole ratio, and 20 wt% of FR resin/latex were applied. Optimum cure temperature for the RFL solution was
according to the results of peel test and the reason was determined by analyzing the ATR FTIR spectra of the RF resin according to the curing temperature.
Quartz Crystal Microbalance Modified by a Novel Vapor Diffused Molecular Assembly Technique and Measurement of Chiral Mandelic Acid
Kim, Jong-Min ; Kim, Seung-Jin ; Woo, Sun-Young ; Jang, Suk-Hee ; Kim, Woo-Sik ; Chang, Sang-Mok ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 574~582
In this study, the possibility of a quartz crystal micro-balance(QCM) modification of crystallization of L-Penicillamine and D-Penicillamine with a Vapor Diffused Molecular Assembly Technique and its application to the R-(-)- Mandelic acid and S-(+)- Mandelic acid measurement was investigated. The 3-dimensional structures of L-Penicillamine and D-Penicillamine on the surface of QCM were verified to be different from each other through QCM and AFM analyses. The D-Penicillamine modified QCM had specific recognition to the R-(-)-Mandelic acid, but L-Penicillamine modified QCM had no specificity to the R-(-)-Mandelic acid and S-(+)- Mandelic acid. From these results, it was known that the QCM could be modified with various selective meterials via VDMA, and the chiral isomer such as a Mandelic acid isomer could be detected by using a modified QCM.
The Esterification of Oleic Acid Using Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalysts Immobilized on Silica Gel
Choi, Jae-Hyung ; Park, Yong-Beom ; Lee, Suk-Hee ; Cheon, Jae-Kee ; Woo, Hee-Chul ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 583~588
Esterification of free fatty acid with methanol to biodiesel was investigated in a batch reactor using various solid acid catalysts, such as polymer cation-exchanged resins with sulfuric acid functional group(Amberlyst-15, Dowex 50Wx8), acidic ionic liquids (ILs)-modified silica gels respectively with -
H and -
Cl functional group (
]) and grafted silica gels respectively with -
H and -
Cl functional group (
Cl). The effects of reaction time, temperature, reactant concentration(molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid), and catalyst amount were studied. Allylimidazolium-based ILs on modified silica gels were superior to other tested solid acid catalysts. Especially, the performance of
] (immobilized by grafting of 3-allyl-1-(4- sulfobutyl)imidazolium hydrogen sulfate on silica gel) was better than that of a widely known Amberlyst-15 catalyst at the same reaction conditions. A high conversion yield of 96% was achieved in the esterification reaction of the simulated cooking oil at 353 K for 2 h. The high catalytic activity of
] was attributed to the presence of strong Bronsted acid sites from the immobilized functional groups. The catalyst was recovered and the biodiesel product was separated by simple processes such as decantation and filtration.
Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrading to Advanced Nutrient Removal Treatment Using Modeling Methodology and Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Process Optimization
Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Min-Han ; Kim, Yong-Su ; Yoo, Chang-Kyoo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 589~597
Strengthening the regulation standard of biological nutrient in wastewater treatment plant(WWTP), the necessity of repair of WWTP which is operated in conventional activated sludge process to advanced nutrient removal treatment is increased. However, in full-scale wastewater treatment system, it is not easy to fine the optimized operational condition of the advanced nutrient removal treatment through experiment due to the complex response of various influent conditions and operational conditions. Therefore, in this study, an upgrading design of conventional activated sludge process to advanced nutrient removal process using the modeling and simulation method based on activated sludge model(ASMs) is executed. And a design optimization of advanced treatment process using the response surface method(RSM) is carried out for statistical and systematic approach. In addition, for the operational optimization of full-scale WWTP, a correct analysis about kinetic variables of wastewater treatment is necessary. In this study, through partial least square(PLS) analysis which is one of the multivariable statistical analysis methods, a correlation between the kinetic variables of wastewater treatment system is comprehended, and the most effective variables to the advanced treatment operation result is deducted. Through this study, the methodology for upgrading design and operational optimization of advanced treatment process is provided, and an efficient repair of WWTP to advanced treatment can be expected reducing the design time and costs.
Modelling and Simulation of H2 separation in Pd Membrane System with Co-current and Current-current Flow
Yi, Yong ; Noh, Seung-Hyo ; Oh, Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 598~602
In this paper, we carried out CFD modelling and simulation for the membrane system to separate H2 gas from the multi-component feed gas. The membrane system is of the annulus tubular type consisting of the external lumen side for the feed gas and the internal permeation side for the sweeping gas. The operating temperature and pressure of the lumen side inlet flow are 374
and 7 bar respectively and those of the sweeping gas are 374
and 3 bar, and considering these conditions, Pd membrane system was employed. CFD simulations were performed for the co-current flow and counter-current flow membrane system based on the flow directions between the feed and the sweeping gas. Comparisons and discussions were made for the H2 partial pressure, H2 mole fraction and H2 flux for both cases. Furthermore, we executed CFD simulations for the each case of the various inlet flow rates of the feed gas at the lumen side. Accordingly, we reviewed the effects of the flow rate and residence time on the performance of the membrane system.
Flame Spreading Over Metal Dust Deposits With Particles Size
Han, Ou-Sup ; Choi, Yi-Rac ; Han, In-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Suk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 603~608
A study has been conducted experimentally to investigate behavior of ignition and flame spread over metal dust deposits with particle size using by a developed apparatus and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA). Zr, Ta and Mg-Al(90:10 wt%) alloy metal powders including Mg and Ti with different particle size were used. Also we used PMMA(Polymethylmethacrylate) powder to compare the combustion properties to those of metal powders. When dust layers were more than 5 mm in thickness, the dependency of deposit depth on flame spread rate over dust layer was not shown. With decreasing mean particle diameter, flame spread rate over Ti dust layer decreased, while the spread rate over Mg dust layer increased. For mean diameter of 51
, fire spread rate over pure Mg dust layer decreased to about 50 percent in Mg-Al(90:10 wt%) dust layer. The oxide thickness of metal dust used in this study tended to be inversely proportional with the spread rate, and it was quite small for influence with particle size. From the results of TGA for Ti and Mg, weight increasing curves(550 for Mg, 578 for Ta) were observed in the oxidation process, and they seems to be caused by ignition of upper dust layer.
Study on Polymerization Condition of Water-based Acrylic Adhesion
Lee, Haeng-Ja ; Jang, Suk-Hee ; Chang, Sang-Mok ; Kim, Jong-Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 609~614
In this study, emulsion polymerizations for synthesizing acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) were carried out using 2-ethylhexyl acrylate(2-EHA), n-butyl acrylate(n-BA), methyl metacrylate(MMA) as fundamental monomers and acrylic acid(AAc) as a functional monomer in the presence of anionic SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate). To obtain the optimized synthetic condition in the polymerization, we analyzed the polymerization variables such as the effect of surfactant concentration and hydrophilic lipophilic values(HLB). At the same time, the final adhesive properties were also analyzed by the function of the initiator concentration and buffer concentration. In the results, the most stable emulsion was obtained at the surfactant concentrations between 3 and 5 wt%. It was also determined the effect of HLB value of nonionic surfactant and the initiator concentrations on the gel content. Stable emulsion is obtained using the surfactant having HLB value of 12.3. The rate of emulsion polymerization was increased at the initiator concentration greater than 1 wt%, but the stability of the emulsion was decreased. Finally, the effect of the buffer concentrations on the pH and the conversion of the acrylic emulsion product were experimentally measured. At the sodium bicarbonate concentration above 0.4 wt%, the buffer infulence was apparent. The buffer effect was fully acceptable at the concentrations between 0.6 and 0.8 wt% regardless of the monomer composition.
Thermotropic Polyurethanes Prepared from Diisocyanates and 4,4'-Bis(3-hydroxypropoxy)Biphenyl Containing Mesogenic Unit
Lee, Jong-Baek ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 615~620
In this study, five series of novel polyurethanes was synthesized by the polyaddition reaction of diisocyanates such as 2,6-tolylene diisocyanate(2,6-TDI), 2,5-tolylene diisocyanate(2,5-TDI), 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate(2,4-TDI), and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate(1,4-PDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate(HDI) with 4,4'-Bis(3-hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl (BP3), 4,4'-bis(3-hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl exhibited a smectic type mesophase. Monotropic mesophase was found for all synthesized liquid crystalline polyurethanes except HDI/BP3. In contrast, 1,4-PDI/BP3 without a methyl substituent in the phenylene unit exhibited no explicit mesomorphic behavior, which was confirmed by DSC and polarizing microscopy experiments. Structures of the compound were identified by FT-IR and
-NMR spectroscopies. Their phase transition temperatures and thermal stability were also investigated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), polarized optical microscopy(POM) and x-ray diffraction analysis.
Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Performance of Ionic Liquid Immobilized onto Polystyrene-based Polymer for the Synthesis of Allyl Glycidyl Carbonate
Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Choi, Hye-Ji ; Park, Dae-Won ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 621~626
In this study, imidazole-based ionic liquid on polystyrene was prepared and its catalytic performance in the cycloaddition of
with allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) to produce allyl glycidyl carbonate was investigated. The ionic liquid was generated on the polystyrene-based polymer through the immobilization of imidazole. The prepared catalyst was characterized using a number of instrumental analysis including EA, FT-IR, TGA and SEM. The immobilized ionic liquid showed very good catalytic activity for the cycloaddition of
with AGE, having 80% of AGE conversion with over 96% of the carbonate selectivity at 120
under 1.48 MPa
pressure. The immobilized ionic liquid can be used for the reaction up to four consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic activity.
Effect of Metal Fluoride on the Formation of
Seo, Geum-Suk ; Lee, Sang-Geun ; Ahn, Byung-Hyun ; Ju, Chang-Sik ; Hong, Seong-Soo ; Park, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Gun-Dae ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 627~631
-Alumna particles were prepared by a precipitation method with metal fluoride additive. Aluminum nitrate and ammonia solution were used as starting materials.
were utilized as additives. The effects of precipitation solvent and metal fluoride on the phase transformation temperature, size and morphology of
-alumna particles were investigated. The solvent for precipitation did not affect the phase transformation temperature, while it influenced the size of
-alumna particles. The phase transformation temperature to
-alumna was reduced by addition of metal fluoride and was different with metal cation in metal fluoride (
)). The addition of each of three metal fluorides led to the formation of platelike particles and, among the three additives,
additive resulted in the formation of relatively small particle.
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the Quaternary System Water + Tetrahydrofuran + Butyl Acetate + Isoamyl Alcohol Mixture at 298.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure
Kim, Young-Kyu ; Ok, Dong-Seok ; Park, Dong-Won ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 632~637
Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the quaternary system water +tetrahydrofuran + butyl acetate + isoamyl alcohol mixture were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Binodal curves, tie-lines, distribution, and selectivity for the quaternary system have been determined in order to investigate the effect of using binary solvents, butyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol, on extracting tetrahydrofuran from aqueous solution. In addition, these experimental tie-line data were also compared with the values predicted by the UNIFAC model. For the quaternary system, an average rootmean- square deviation for the system in 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 mass ratios as mixed solvents are(3.35, 5.21 and 5.65)%, respectively.
Surface Resistance and Tensile Strength of Polyester Resin by Anti-static Agents
Lee, Jeon-Kyu ; Choi, Hwan-Oh ; Kim, Eun-Bong ; Kim, Si-Young ; Ju, Chang-Sik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 638~642
In order to develope anti - static polyester resin which may be employed to dangerous circumstance with high organic vapor content, the effect of anti - static agents on the surface resistance and tensile strength of polyester resin were studied. Three organic anti - static agents and a conductive carbon black were adapted and used separately and together. The effects of anti - static agents, their contents, and synergic effect of anti - static agents were experimentally examined. Surface resistance and tensile strength of the polyester resin were decreased with the content of anti - static agents, and polyester resin with low surface resistance and relatively high tensile strength could be prepared by synergic effect of organic anti - static agent and carbon black.
Synthesis of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil Using Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids Containing Metal Chloride Salts
Choi, Jae-Hyung ; Park, Yong-Beom ; Lee, Suk-Hee ; Cheon, Jae-Kee ; Choi, Jae-Wook ; Woo, Hee-Chul ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 643~648
Production of biodiesel from soybean oil catalyzed by Lewis acidic ionic liquids(ILs) containing metal chloride salts was investigated in this study. Metal chloride salts, such as SnCl2, ZnCl2, AlCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl, were screened for oil transesterification in the range of 363-423 K. Among these metal chlorides, tin chloride showed particularly high catalytic property for the oil transesterification. Similarly, among these Lewis acidic ionic liquid catalysts, [
resulted in a high fatty acid methyl esters(FAMEs) content of 91.1% under the following reaction conditions: 403 K, 14 h, and a molar ratio of 1:12:0.9 (oil:methanol:catalyst). Unlike the pure tin chloride catalysts, Lewis acidic ILs containing tin chloride [
catalyst could be recycled up to five times without any significant loss of activity by separating from the FAMEs with simple decantation. The Lewis acidity and high moisture-stability of this catalyst appeared to be responsible for the excellent catalytic performance. The effects of reaction time and the molar ratio of methanol/catalyst to oil on the FAMEs production were also studied in this work.
Efficiency Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Heat Treatment Temperature of P-25 Photocatalyst
Park, Ki-Min ; Kim, Tae-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Guk ; Cho, Sung-Yong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 649~653
In this study, the variation of characteristics of P-25 photocatalyst with calcination temperature(Pure: nonthermally treated, 450, 650, 850
) was studied. The photocatalysts were used as working materials for dye-sensitized solar cells: DSSCs) later on and their photovoltaic characterization was carried out. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using the P-25 photocatalyst with different calcination temperature was almost same expect for 850
. The solar energy conversion efficiency (
) of DSSCs prepared by the nanoparticles (photocatalyst) reached 6.9% (for pure), 6.5%(for 450), 5.8%(for 650) and 5.6%(850).
Performance Characteristics of p-i-n type Organic Thin-film Photovoltaic Cell with Rubrene:CuPc Hole Transport Layer
Kang, Hak-Su ; Hwang, Jong-Won ; Kang, Yong-Su ; Lee, Hye-Hyun ; Choe, Young-Son ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 654~659
We have investigated the effect of rubrene-doped CuPc hole transport layer on the performance of p-i-n type bulk hetero-junction photovoltaic device with a structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc: rubrene/CuPc:C60(blending ratio 1:1)/C60/BCP/Al and have evaluated the current density-voltage(J-V) characteristics, short-circuit current(
), open-circuit voltage(
), fill factor(FF), and energy conversion efficiency(
) of the device. By rubrene doping into CuPc hole transport layer, absorption intensity in absorption spectra decreased. However, the performance of p-i-n organic type bulk hetero-junction photovoltaic device fabricated with crystalline rubrene-doped CuPc was improved since rubrene shows higher bandgap and hole mobility compared to CuPc. Increased injection currents have effected on the performance improvement of the present device with energy conversion efficiency(
) of 1.41%, which is still lower value compared to silicone solar cell and many efforts should be made to improve organic photovoltaic devices.
Study on the Separation of
Mixture Gas Using Polyimide Hollow Fiber Membrane
Kim, Dae-Hoon ; Kim, Guang-Lim ; Jo, Hang-Dae ; Park, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Hyung-Keun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 660~667
In this research polyimide, Matrimid 5218, hollow fiber membrane was used to recover sulfur hexafluoride(
) which is one of the six greenhouse gases from
mixture gas. Fibers were spun from using dry-wet phase inversion method. The module was manufactured by fabricating fibers after surface coating with silicone elastomer. The scanning electron microscopy(SEM) studies showed that the produced fibers typically had an asymmetric structure; a dense top layer supported by a sponge-like substructure. The developed module had a permeance of 0.78-1.36 GPU for
selectivity of 2.44-5.08 at various pressure and temperature. For recovery of
, a membrane module and 10 vol.%
mixture gas was used. The effects of various operating condition such as pressure, temperature, and retentate side flow rate were tested. When pressure and temperature were increased and retentate flow rate was decreased, the
purity in recovered gas was increased up to 37.5 vol.% with decreasing recovery ratio. When retentate flow rate was increased pressure and temperature was decreased, the
recovery ratio in retentate side was increased up to 89% with decreasing the
purity in retentate side.
Development of Small Distillation Column for Performance Evaluation of Distillation Column
Kim, Byoung-Chul ; Cho, Tae-Je ; Kim, Young-Han ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 48, issue 5, 2010, Pages 668~671
A lab scale distillation experiment is conducted with small size packing used in lab scale multi-tray distillation equipment for the performance evaluation of distillation system. A sufficient surface are yielded with 6.7 mm cylindrical packings made of stainless steel, and a good liquid holdup and residence time are resulted. The comparison between the theoretical tray from the HYSYS and the experimental distillation outcome indicates that a 7 cm HETP from 27 cm packing height and a 8 cm HETP from 45 cm packing height are obtained. Comparing with the 8 cm HETP of commercial structured packing shows a similar experimental results obtained here. The 7 cm HETP is available with a complete insulation, and the importance of the insulation is proved. The results of this study indicates that a practical distillation column used in field can be tested in lab.