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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Chemical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 50, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 50, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 50, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 50, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 50, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 50, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Tritium Fuel Cycle of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
Song, Kyu-Min ; Sohn, Soon Hwan ; Chung, Hongsuk ; Yun, Sei-Hun ; Jung, Ki Jung ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 595~603
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.595
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be constructed in 2019 according to the JIA (Joint Implementation Agreement) of 7 countries. The ITER fusion fuel cycle consists of fusion vacuum vessel, tritium plant and fuelling system. The tritium plant provides the functions of storage, delivery, separation, removal and recovery of the deuterium and tritium used as fusion fuels for the ITER. The tritium plant systems supply deuterium and tritium from external sources and treat all tritiated fluids from ITER operation through Storage and Delivery System (SDS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), Water Detritiation System & Atmosphere Detritiation System (WDS & ADS) and Analysis System (ANS). In this paper, the functions and design requirements of the major systems in the tritium plant and the status of R&D are described. Korean party is developing the SDS for ITER tritium plant and partially attaining the WDS technology through the construction and operation experience of the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF). Now it is expected that researchers in other fields such as chemical engineering take part in the development of upcoming technologies for ISS and TEP.
The Effect of Fcoidan Molecula Weight on Cosmetic Function
Cha, Seong Han ; Ahn, Myeong Won ; Lee, Jung Shik ; Kim, Young Suk ; Kim, Dong-Uk ; Byun, Tae Gang ; Park, Kwon Pil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 604~609
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.604
Properties of fucoidan used for functional cosmetic ingredients and the effect of fucoidan molecular weight on the cosmetic functions were studied. Fucoidan was extracted from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls and molecular weight (35~160 kDa) of fucoidan was controlled by contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE). To test possibility of fucoidan as a cosmetics material, tyrosinase inhibition property, water-holding property, elastase activity inhibition property and DPPH free radical scavenging property were measured. Water-holding property of fucoidan was higher than that of hyaruronic acid, which is known as the one of the best water-holding material. The water-holding strength of fucoidan slightly increase as molecular weight of fucoidan decrease. Elastase activity inhibition (anti wrinkle effect) of fucoidan was higher than that of adenosine using standard material for anti wrinkle test. Optimum molecular weight of fucoidan to obtain highest tyrosin inhibition effect, elastase inhibition effect and radical scavenger effect is 100 kDa.
Cosmetic Effect of Mixed Plant Extracts Including Saururus Chinensis, Morus Bombycis Stem and Morus Papyrifera Stem
Jeong, Hyang Li ; Kim, Hyun Woo ; Kim, Ji Hye ; Kim, Jin Hong ; Kim, Donguk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 610~613
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.610
In this study, plant extracts including 25% Saururus chinensis, 20% Morus bombycis stem and 20% Morus papyrifera stem were tested to use as possible cosmetic agent. As cosmetic effect test, cell toxicity test, elastase inhibition assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay, anti-oxidation assay and temperature stability test were done as cosmetic assays. Plant extract showed low cell toxicity, excellent elastase inhibition and anti-oxidation effect, however, tyrosinase inhibition effect was lower. Skin, lotion and essence formulation was made using plant extracts and temperature stability test was done. Skin and essence indicated good stability, however, lotion showed phase separation and severe viscosity variation, which means lotion formulation change. From the research, plant extracts including Saururus chinensis, Morus bombycis stem and Morus papyrifera stem were suitable for possible cosmetic agent.
Preparation of Antistatic Coating Solutions by Blending Aniline Terminated Waterborne Polyurethane with PEDOT/PSS
Hong, Min Gi ; Huh, Woo Young ; Byun, Tae Gang ; Song, Ki Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 614~620
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.614
Polyurethane prepolymers were prepared from poly (carbonate diol), isophrone diisocyanate and dimethylol propionic acid. Then, aniline terminated waterborne polyurethane dispersion (ATPUD) was synthesized by capping the NCO group of the prepolymer with aniline monomer. Subsequently, ATPUD and waterborne polyurethane dispersion (PUD), respectively, were blended with conducting polymer, poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate [PEDOT/PSS], to yield antistatic coating solutions, and the mixture was coated on the polycarbonate substrates. At adequate addition amounts of PEDOT/PSS less than or equal to 2.5 g, the surface resistances (
) of coating films from ATPUD showed better electronic conductivities than those (
) from PUD. However, at excess amount of PEDOT/PSS of 3.0 g, the surface resistance from ATPUD showed similar electronic conductivity with that from PUD.
Thermal Insulation Property of UV Cure Coatings Using Hollow Micro-Spheres
Kim, Nam Yi ; Chang, Young-Wook ; Kim, Seong Woo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 621~626
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.621
In this study, the composite coating materials with improved thermal insulation property were prepared by incorporating the hollow micro-spheres with high heat transfer resistance. The UV curable resin system consisting of hexa aliphatic urethane acrylate (UP118), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and photoinitiator (Irgacure184) was employed as an organic binder. The glass substrates were coated by the prepared composites via bar coating method and cured under UV radiation. The optical transparency, thermal insulation property, adhesion, and surface hardness of the glass coated with composites containing different type of micro-spheres were investigated. The incorporation of micro-spheres with only 20 vol% of content resulted in remarkable improvement in the thermal insulation property of the coated glass. In addition, the transparent coated glass with light transmittance of about 80% could be obtained when silica micro-sphere (SP) was used as a thermal barrier.
Durability of Co-P-B/Cu Catalyst for NaBH
Hwang, Byungchan ; Jo, Ara ; Sin, Sukjae ; Choi, Daeki ; Nam, Sukwoo ; Park, Kwonpil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 627~631
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.627
, shows a number of advantages as hydrogen source for portable proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability of Co-P-B/Cu catalyst for sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction was studied. The effect of reaction temperature,
concentration, NaOH concentration and calcination temperature of catalyst on the durability of Co-P-B/Cu catalyst were measured. The gel formed during hydrolysis reaction affected the durability of catalyst (loss of catalyst). Formation of gel increased the loss of the catalyst. When
concentration was high and reaction temperature was higher than
, loss of catalyst was low because gel was not formed. But under the temperature of
, loss of catalyst increased due to gel formation When
concentration was 40 weight % and the reaction temperature was
, the loss of catalyst increased as the NaOH concentration increased. As the calcination temperature of catalyst decreased, the loss of catalyst decreased and the activity of catalyst decreased. Calcination of the catalyst at high temperature enhanced the durability of catalyst but diminished the activity of catalyst.
Effect of Addition Amounts of Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate and Methyl Methacrylate on the Properties of Waterborne Polyurethane-Acrylic Hybrid Solutions
Kim, Byung Suk ; Yoo, Byung Won ; Lee, Myung Goo ; Byun, Tae Gang ; Song, Ki Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 632~638
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.632
Waterborne polyurethane dispersions (PUD) were synthesized from isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), polycarbonate diol (PCD) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) as starting materials. Subsequently, waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid solutions were prepared by reacting the PUD with different amounts of the mixture of acrylate monomers, HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and MMA (methyl methacrylate). As a result, the average particle size of waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid solutions was increased with increasing the addition amounts of acrylate monomers. Also, the prepared coating films from waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid solutions showed better abrasion resistance and chemical resistance than those of pure PUD.
Preparation of Silylated Acrylic Polyurethane Dispersion Using Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane and Acrylate Monomers
Kim, Byung Suk ; Yun, Dong Gu ; Yoo, Byung Won ; Lee, Myung Goo ; Byun, Tae Gang ; Song, Ki Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 639~645
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.639
Waterborne polyurethane dispersion (PUD) was synthesized by capping the NCO groups of polyurethane prepolymers, prepared from isophorone diisocyanate, polycarbonate diol and dimethylol propionic acid, with aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APS). Subsequently, silylated acrylic polyurethane dispersion was synthesized by reacting the PUD with the mixture of acrylate monomers, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate. The average particle size of silylated acrylic polyurethane dispersion, measured by the dynamic light scattering method, was increased from 39.0 nm to 399.8 nm by increasing the addition amounts of APS. Also, the pencil hardness of coating films of silylated acrylic polyurethane dispersion was enhanced from B grade to F grade with increasing APS content.
Economic Evaluations of CO
Capture Process from Power Plant Flue Gas Using Dry Sorbents
Shin, Byung Chul ; Kwak, Hyun ; Lee, Kwang Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 646~653
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.646
We studied the economic evaluations on Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)'s
capture process using dry sorbents, and compared the results with those of comparable technologies. Capital and operating costs of the
capture system for 500 MW coal fired power plant were estimated to determine the economic feasibility. LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy) and
capture cost appeared 32.46$/MWh and 28.15$/ton
, respectively. The internal rate of return (IRR), the net present values (NPV), and the payback period (PBP), were calculated by assuming several variables. As the result of calculation, IRR of KIER's
capture system was 15%, NPV was calculated 6,631,000$, and PBP was 5.93 years at $50/t
of CER price. Consequently, this process can compete with other comparative processes using dry sorbents.
Analysis of CO
Capture Efficiency in Relation to the Inlet Moisture Content of the Regenerator in the Continuous Process by using Sorbent Analysis
Lee, Do-Young ; Kim, Ki-Chan ; Park, Young Cheol ; Han, Moon-Hee ; Yi, Chang-Keun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 654~658
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.654
In this study,
capture efficiency in relation to the inlet moisture content of the regenerator was investigated using potassium-based sorbents in the continuous process composed of two bubbling fluidized-bed reactors, where solid outlet configuration in the regenerator was converted from underflow to overflow. XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and TGA were performed to find out the effect of water pre-treatment according to inlet moisture content in the regenerator. The
structure of solid sorbents has been increased as inlet moisture content of the regenerator increased. As a result, the
capture efficiency increased as the
structure of solid sorbents increased since the reactivity of the sorbents has been improved by that structure generated by the water pre-treatment. And
capture efficiency increased about 3~8% after sorbent outlet configuration of the regenerator was changed underflow to overflow.
Separation Characteristics of IgY (Immunoglobulin Yolk) in Various HPLC Columns
Song, Sung Moon ; Kim, In Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 659~665
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.659
IgY (Immunoglobulin Yolk) in egg yolk corresponds to IgG (Immunoglobulin G) in animal serum and plays an important role as immunological proteins in intestines. Carrageenan and Arabic gum were used as pretreatment agents to purify IgY from fresh egg yolk. DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose column in FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid chromatography) was an ion exchange tool to remove contaminants as well as to elute IgY from the column. GF HPLC (Gel Filtration High Performance Liquid Chromatography) enables to measure the molecular weights of IgY and to identify the purified IgY by comparing the molecular weight of standard IgY with the purified one. IgY is a heterogeneous group of different molecular weight and ionic properties, which was investigated with various IE HPLC (Ion Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography) columns such as AX, CX and SCX. Three peaks of IgY were separated in the AX column under the conditions of 0.5 M NaCl and pH=8. The SCX column also gave the three peaks of IgY at 0.5 M NaCl and pH=5.
Measurements of Dissociation Enthalpy for Simple Gas Hydrates Using High Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Lee, Seungmin ; Park, Sungwon ; Lee, Youngjun ; Kim, Yunju ; Lee, Ju Dong ; Lee, Jaehyoung ; Seo, Yongwon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 666~671
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.666
Gas hydrates are inclusion compounds formed when small-sized guest molecules are incorporated into the well defined cages made up of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Since large masses of natural gas hydrates exist in permafrost regions or beneath deep oceans, these naturally occurring gas hydrates in the earth containing mostly
are regarded as future energy resources. The heat of dissociation is one of the most important thermal properties in exploiting natural gas hydrates. The accurate and direct method to measure the dissociation enthalpies of gas hydrates is to use a calorimeter. In this study, the high pressure micro DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) was used to measure the dissociation enthalpies of methane, ethane, and propane hydrates. The accuracy and repeatability of the data obtained from the DSC was confirmed by measuring the dissociation enthalpy of ice. The dissociation enthalpies of methane, ethane, and propane hydrates were found to be 54.2, 73.8, and 127.7 kJ/mol-gas, respectively. For each gas hydrate, at given pressures the dissociation temperatures which were obtained in the process of enthalpy measurement were compared with three-phase (hydrate (H) - liquid water (Lw) - vapor (V)) equilibrium data in the literature and found to be in good agreement with literature values.
Recovery of Lipids from Chlorella sp. KR-1 via Pyrolysis and Characteristics of the Pyrolysis Oil
Lee, Ho Se ; Jeon, Sang Goo ; Oh, You-Kwan ; Kim, Kwang Ho ; Chung, Soo Hyun ; Na, Jeong-Geol ; Yeo, Sang-Do ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 672~677
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.672
Lipids in microalgal biomass were recovered by using pyrolysis method. The pyrolysis experiments of two Chlorella sp. KR-1 samples, which have triglyceride contents of 10.8% and 36.5%, respectively were carried out at
to investigate the effects of lipid contents in the cells on the reaction characteristics. The conversion and liquid yield of the lipid-rich sample were higher than those of the lipid-lean sample since its carbon to hydrogen ratio was low. There were low molecular weight organic acids, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols in the liquid products from both KR-1 samples, but the pyrolysis oil of the lipid-rich sample was abundant in free fatty acids, particularly palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid while the content of nitrogen containing organic compounds was low. The microalgal pyrolysis oil had two layers composed of the light hydrophobic fraction and the heavy hydrophilic fraction. The light fraction might be originated from triglycerides and the heavy fraction might be from carbohydrates and proteins. In the light fraction of the liquid products, there were considerable linear alkanes such as pentadecane and heptadecane as well as free fatty acids, implying that deoxygenation reaction including decarboxylation was occurred during the pyrolysis. The yield of the liquid products from the pyrolysis of the KR-1 sample having triglyceride content of 36.5% was 56.9% and the light fraction in the liquid products was 68.2%. Also more than 80% of the light fraction was free fatty acids and pure hydrocarbons, thus showing that most triglycerides could be extracted in the form of suitable raw materials for biofuels.
Synthesis of Ceria Nanoparticles Using Supercritical Methanol with Various Surface Modifiers
Ahn, Ki Ho ; Shin, Nae-Chul ; Kim, Minsoo ; Youn, Yong-Suk ; Hong, Giyoung ; Lee, Youn-Woo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 678~683
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.678
Ceria is one of the most important catalytic materials which can be used in three-way catalysts, waste water treatment, petroleum refining, etc. So far, many methods have been studied to produce ceria nanoparticles. In this study, ceria nanoparticles were prepared via solvothermal synthesis using supercritical methanol in short reaction time using a batch reactor. The size of synthesized ceria nanoparticles in supercritical methanol is 6 nm without capping agent, which is smaller than that made in supercritical water at the same conditions of
and 30 MPa. Size difference results from density and critical point difference between water and methanol and slow reaction rate at the surface of ceria particles in supercritical methanol which reduces crystal growth rate. Several organic compounds were added to modify the surface of ceria nanoparticles, and in-situ surface modification was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA analysis. Surface modified ceria nanoparticles have excellent dispersibility in organic solvent. Size and shape of surface modified ceria particles can be controlled by adjusting molar ratio of modifier to precursor and selection of modifier.
A Study on the Extraction of Monasil PCA using Liquid CO
Cho, Dong Woo ; Oh, Kyoung Shil ; Bae, Won ; Kim, Hwayong ; Lee, Kab-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 684~689
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.684
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) microspheres is one of the widely-used polymeric materials for the bio-field application and the electric materials. For the synthesis of PAA microspheres, the polymerization technique using surfactants is applied. After the synthesis, the purification and separation processes are required for the removal of surfactant. When general organic solvents were used, many problems, such as huge amount of waste solvent, additional separation processes, and the possibility of residual media, were occurred. Thus, High-pressure Soxhlet extraction using liquid
was developed to solve these problems. In this study, High-pressure Soxhlet extraction of the synthesized PAA microspheres using liquid
was conducted for the removal of Monasil PCA which is used for the dispersion polymerization of acrylic acid in compressed liquid Dimethyl ether (DME). The morphology of the extracted PAA particles was checked by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the residual concentration of Monasil PCA was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For studying the effect of the solvent effect, Soxhlet extraction was conducted using n-hexane, liquid DME, and liquid
. In case of n-hexane, some extracted PAA microspheres were produced. However, deformation was also occurred due to the high thermal energy of n-hexane vapor. Liquid DME could not remove Monasil PCA. When using liquid
, the extracted PAA microspheres which were free for the residual solvent were produced without deformation. For finding the optimum operating condition, high-pressure Soxhlet extraction was conducted for 8 hours with changing the temperature of reboiler and condenser. When the extractor temperature is
and the pressure is
bar, the best removal efficiency was obtained.
Study on Characteristic of CO
Hydrate Formation Using Micro-sized Ice
Lee, Jong-Hyub ; Kang, Seong-Pil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 690~695
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.690
Gas hydrate is an inclusion compound consisting of water and low molecular weight gases, which are incorporated into the lattice structure of water. Owing to its promising aspect to application technologies, gas hydrate has been widely studied recently, especially
hydrate for the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) issue. The key point of
hydrate technology for the CCS is how to produce gas hydrate in an efficient and economic way. In this study, we have tried to study the characteristic of gas hydrate formation using micro-sized ice through an ultrasonic nozzle which generate 2.4 MHz frequency wave.
as a carrier gas brings micro-sized mist into low-temperature reactor, where the mist and carrier gas forms
and atmospheric pressure condition and some part of the mist also remains unreacted micro-sized ice. Formed gas hydrate was average 10.7 of diameter at average. The starting ice particle was set to constant pressure to form
hydrate and the consumed amount of
gas was simultaneously measured to calculate the conversion of ice into gas hydrate. Results showed that the gas hydrate formation was highly suitable because of its extremely high gas-solid contact area, and the formation rate was also very high. Self-preservation effect of
hydrate was confirmed by the measurement of
hydrate powder at normal and at pressed state, which resulted that this kind of gas storage and transport could be feasible using
Analysis on Distribution Characteristics of Spent Fuel in Electrolytic Reduction Process
Park, Byung Heung ; Lee, Chul Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 696~701
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.696
Non-aqueous processes have been developed for stable management and reuse of spent fuels. Nowadays, a plan for the management of spent fuel is being sought focusing on a non-aqueous process in Korea. Named as pyroprocessing, it includes an electrolytic reduction process using molten salt at high temperature for the spent fuels, which provides metallic product for a following electro-refining process. The electrolytic reduction process utilizes electrochemical reaction producing Li to convert oxides into metals in high temperature LiCl medium. Various kinds of elements in the spent fuels would be distributed in the system according to their respective reactivity with the reductant, Li, and the medium, LiCl. This study elucidates the reactions of the elements to understand the behavior of composite elements on the spent fuels by thermodynamic calculations. Uranium and transuranic are reduced into their metallic forms while rare-earth oxides, except for Eu, are stable against the reaction at a process temperature. This study also covers the tendency of reactions with respect to the temperature and, finally, estimates radioactivity and heat load on the distributed phases based on the reference spent fuel characteristics.
Thermal and Electrochemical Stability of Morpholinium Ionic Liquids
Kim, Hyun-Taek ; Hong, Yeon Ki ; Kang, Jeong Won ; Lee, Young-Woo ; Kim, Ki-Sub ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 702~707
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.702
During the last few decades, toxic chemicals used in various industries have caused global pollution and the side products such as carbon dioxide and methane gas have contributed to global warming. Thus, it is desirable to develop new alternative solvents. It is well known that ionic liquids display a variety of environmentally friendly physical properties: nonvolatile, nonflammable, wide electrochemical windows, high inherent conductivities, wide thermal operating ranges, chemically inert, and limited miscibilities with organic solvents. Because of these characteristics, ionic liquids are promising candidates as solvents for synthetic chemistries, catalysis, and gas separations. In this study, we synthesized morpholiunium salts as N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate, and N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate. The melting points, decomposition temperatures and electrochemical stabilities of the salts were measured by DSC, TGA, and CV, respectively. The salts with halide anion showed high melting points (
), low decomposition temperatures (
), narrow electrochemical stabilities (3.4~3.6 V). The synthesized salts with inorganic anions, on the other hand, presented low melting point (
), high decomposition temperatures (
), wide electrochemical stabilities (6.1~6.3 V). We also found that the properties depend on the length of the carbon chain.
Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids
Oh, Sooyeoun ; Kang, Jeong Won ; Park, Byung Heung ; Kim, Ki-Sub ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 708~712
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.708
Ionic liquids (ILs) existing as liquid state at room temperature are composed of a immense heterocyclic cation and inorganic anion which is smaller than cation's size. Thus, the species of cation and anion as well as the length of alkyl group on the cation have influence on their physical properties. Their outstanding properties such as non-volatility, thermal stability and wide range of electrochemical stability make these materials excellent candidates for green solvent which can substitute the conventional organic solvents. In this study, ILs based on imidazolium cation have been synthesized such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([BMIM][Br]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM] [Cl]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([BMIM][I]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][
]). The density, viscosity, refractive index, heat capacity and ionic conductivity of [BMIM][Br], [BMIM][I], and [BMIM] [
] were measured over range of temperature of 293.2 to 323.2 K. The density and refractive index values of [BMIM][I] were the highest among three ILs and the viscosity values of [BMIM][Br] were the highest among three ILs. The heat capacities [BMIM][
] were higher than those of [BMIM][Br]. The ionic conductivities of [BMIM][
] were higher than those of [BMIM][I].
Identification of Proteins in Egg White Using Ion Exchange Cartridge and RP-HPLC
Kim, Hyun Moon ; Kim, Ah Reum ; Lee, Chang Soo ; Kim, In Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 713~717
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.713
Approximately forty proteins in egg white have been widely studied for their functional properties. To develop a procedure of separation for pure and non-altered proteins from egg white, purification study was conducted to isolate lysozyme, ovotransferrin, and ovalbumin. Ion exchange cartridge can selectively separate proteins from egg white, and reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) could identify separated proteins. Proteins in egg white were purified by HI trap ion exchange cartridge SP and Q with buffers pH 8.0 and 5.2. C18 column (Phenomenex, USA) was used for RP-HPLC analysis and isocratic mobile phase was used with acetonitrile (ACN)/distilled water (DW)/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the ratio of 50/50/0.1. Comparing the retention times of standards in RP-HPLC experiments showed that ovotransferrin, ovalbumin, and lysozyme in egg white were eluted successively in the RP-HPLC column after the pretreatment in SP and Q ion exchange cartridges.
Adsorption Characteristics of H
S on Adsorbent Made by Sewage Sludge in Fixed Bed Adsorption Column
Park, Chun-Dong ; Youn, Ju-Young ; Park, Yeong-Seong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 718~722
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.718
adsorption characteristics of adsorbent made by sewage sludge were investigated. For analyses of the manufactured adsorbent, various methods such as Iodine adsorptivity, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and measurements of BET surface area and pore volume were adopted. As the major adsorption characteristic, breakthrough curve was measured by using a continuous fixed bed adsorption column for operating variables such as adsorption temperature (
), aspect ratio (L/D)(3~9), gas flow rate (0.1~2.0 liter/min) and
gas concentration (50~200 ppm). The experimental result showed that the carbonization and activation of sewage sludge are very important for the improvement in
Synthesis of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil over MoO
Jung, Won Young ; Lee, Man Sig ; Hong, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 723~728
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.723
The production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil was performed on
mixed oxides. The catalysts were characterized using XRD and
showed the highest activity among the three metal oxides. When 7 wt% of catalysts was introduced into the reactants, the highest activity was obtained and the water added to reactant decreased the catalytic activity.
mixed with 50:50 showed the highest activity and
added with 20% on the
mixed oxide also showed the highest activity. The catalytic activity showed to have a good relationship with the amount of acid site of catalysts. When the waste soybean oil was used as a reactant, the conversion was decreased about 30%.
Study about the In-situ Synthesis and Structure Control of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and their Nanocomposites
Park, Ho Seok ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 729~732
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.729
Herein we report the in-situ synthesis and direct decoration of chalcogenide naoparticles (NPs) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through an ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical method (ILASM). The as-obtained MWCNT/
/ZnTe and MWCNT/
/ZnSe nanocomposites were characterized by TEM images and EDS spectra. In particular, the morphologies of nanocomposites such as bump-like, rough, and smooth core-shell structures were strongly influenced by the type of precursors and the interactions with MWCNT. This synthetic strategy opens a new way to directly synthesize and deposit semiconducting NPs (s-NPs) onto CNTs, which consist of binary components obtained from two precursors with different reaction rates.
Microfluidic Preparation of Monodisperse Multiple Emulsion using Hydrodynamic Control
Kang, Sung-Min ; Choi, Chang-Hyung ; Hwang, Sora ; Jung, Jae-Min ; Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 733~737
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.733
This study reports the microfluidic preparation of monodisperse multiple emulsions using hydrodynamic control. To generate multiple emulsions, we fabricate a microfluidic capillary device based on co-flowing stream without any surface modification of microchannels. Based on the system, we can successfully generate multiple emulsions (W/O/W) using water containing 0.5 wt% Tween 20, n-hexadecane with 5 wt% Span 80, and 10 wt% poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution, respectively. Furthermore, we control the number of inner droplets by modulation of flow rate of inner fluid at fixed flow rate of middle and outer fluid. The multiple emulsions having precisely controlled inner droplets' size and number can be applicable for multiple chemical reactions as an isolated microreactor.
Fabrication of Nano-filter Device for High Efficient Separation and Concentration of Biomolecules
Huh, Yun Suk ; Choi, Bong Gill ; Hong, Won Hi ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 738~742
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.738
Here, we develop a new nanofilter device for the rapid and efficient separation of nanoparticles and biomolecules, exploiting the use of AAO mebrane with ordered nanopores in the range from 20 nm to 200 nm. Briefly, the chip comprises of a series of the upper and lower PDMS channels containing embedded inlet and outlet ports, and
width microfluidic channel, and AAO membrane to be made the filtering zone. After assembling these components, the acrylate plastic plates were used to fix the device on the top and bottom side. When introducing the samples into the inlet ports of the upper PDMS channel, we were able to separate and concentrate the nanoparticles and target molecules at the filtering zone, and to elute the solutions containing the unwanted materials toward the lower PDMS channels normal to the direction of AAO membrane. To demonstrate the usefulness of the device we apply it to the SERS detection of nucleic acid sequences associated with Dengue virus serotype 2. We report a limit of detection for Dengue sequences of 300 nM and show excellent enhancement of Raman signals from the filter zone of the nanofilter device.
Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Motility in Microchannels
Jang, Sung-Chan ; Jeong, Heon-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 743~748
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.743
This study presents the effects of micro-geometries on the swimming behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. First, we have measured parameters of single-cell motility including cell speed, run duration time, and tumble angle under two dimensional space. The results are used to calculate motility coefficients in the width of microchannels ranging from 10 to
. Since the single-cell motility parameters measured depend on the interaction of flagella with the microchannel wall, the duration time of the running cell in restricted geometries is distinctively different. Therefore, the motility of bacteria is decreased by restricted geometries. This study suggests that microfluidic approach is useful tool for the analysis of bacterial motility under the restricted space and rapid analytical tool.
Fabrication and Evaluation Properties of Micro-Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
Kim, Hwan ; Kim, Wan-Je ; Lee, Jong-Won ; Lee, Seung-Bok ; Lim, Tak-Hyoung ; Park, Seok-Joo ; Song, Rak-Hyun ; Shin, Dong-Ryul ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 749~753
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.749
In present work, anode support for micro-tubular SOFC was fabricated with outer diameter of 3 mm and characterized with microstructure, mechanical properties and gas permeability. The microstructure of surface and cross section of a porous anode support were analyzed by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) image. The gas permeability and the mechanical strength of anode support was measured and analysed by using differential pressure at the flow rates of 50, 100, 150 cc/min. and using universal testing machine respectively. The unit cell composed of NiO-YSZ, YSZ, YSZ-LSM/LSM/LSCF was fabricated and operated with reaction temperature and fuel flow rate and showed maximum power density of
on the condition of
. The performance of single cell for micro-tubular SOFC increased with the increasing the reaction temperature due to the decrement of ohmic resistance of cell by the increment of the ionic conductivity of electrolyte through the evaluation of electrochemical impedance analysis for single cell with reaction temperature.
Electrochemical Characterization of Porous Graphene Film for Supercapacitor Electrode
Choi, Bong Gill ; Huh, Yun Suk ; Hong, Won Hi ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 50, issue 4, 2012, Pages 754~757
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2012.50.4.754
In this report, we fabricate the porous graphene films through embossing process and vacuum filtration method and demonstrate their superior electrochemical properties as supercapacitor electrode materials. Insertion/removal of polystyrene nanoparticles between the graphene sheets allows to provide pore structures, leading to the effective prevention of restacking in graphene films. As-prepared porous graphene films have a large surface area, a bicontinuous porous structures, high electrical conductivity, and excellent mechanical integrity. The electrochemical properties of the porous graphene films as electrode materials of supercapacitor are investigated by using aqueous
and ionic liquid solution under three-electrode system. The porous graphene films exhibit a high specific capacitance (284.5 F/g), which is two-fold higher than that of packing graphene films (138.9 F/g). In addition, the rate capability (98.7% retention) and long-term cycling stability (97.2%) for the porous graphene films are significantly enhanced, due to the facilitated ion mobility between the graphene layers.