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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Chemical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 51, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 51, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 51, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 51, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 51, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 51, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Effect of Fe Ion-Exchanged BEA Zeolite Catalysts on N
O Decomposition Reaction Following Heat-treatment Temperatures
Jeong, Gi-Rim ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Ryu, In-Soo ; Moon, Seung-Hyun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 531~535
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.531
The effect of heat-treatment temperature on the activity of catalysts was studied by investigating
decomposition reaction in Fe ion-supported BEA Zeolite. As a result of
decomposition reaction experiment,
decomposition activity significantly decreased as heat-treatment temperature of Fe/BEA catalyst increased. the shape and size of the particles of Fe/BEA catalyst following the rise of heat-treatment temperature did not display a significant change. But following the rise of the heat-treatment temperature, its surface area was significantly reduced. Also it was confirmed that as the heat-treatment temperature rose, the crystallization of
structure was greatly reduced. And as heat-treatment temperature rose, while SiO structure either increased or did not exhibit much change, the structure of Fe bonded with lattice structure was speculated to decrease. From the stated results, it was concluded that the increase of heat-treatment temperature became the cause of the declined activity of catalysts by destruction of its
structure of bonding aluminium and Fe atoms.
Antimicrobial Activity and Safety Test of Mixed Plant Extracts Including Phellodendron Amurense and Eucommia Ulmides Oliv
Kim, Hyunwoo ; Shin, Hyejin ; Hwang, Danbi ; Lee, Jieun ; Bak, Manchun ; Kim, Jinhong ; Kim, Donguk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 536~539
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.536
In this study, mixed plant extracts including Phellodendro namurense and Eucommia ulmides Oliv were tested for antimicrobial activity and safety. Antimicrobial activity was measured by disc diffusion method using normal skin flora and opportunistic microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. As safety test, single dose oral toxicity test, single dose inhalation toxicity test and repeat dose inhalation toxicity test were done. From antimicrobial test, plant extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, however, did not indicate any antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli. From 3 kinds of safety tests, toxicity of mixed plant extracts was not observed. From experimental results, mixed plant extracts including Phellodendro namurense and Eucommia ulmides Oliv showed good potential for natural antimicrobial agent.
Performance Degradation of Dead-end Type PEMFC by Startup and Shutdown Cycles
Jeong, Jaehyeun ; Jeong, Jaejin ; Song, Myunghyun ; Chung, Hoibum ; Na, Ilchai ; Lee, Ho ; Park, Kwonpil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 540~544
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.540
During start up and shut down of a proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the performance and lifetime of PEMFC were reduced. In this study, effect of startup and shutdown were investigated in dead-end type PEMFC using oxygen as a cathode gas with polarization curve, impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dummy load which eliminates residual hydrogen and oxygen during startup and shutdown operation should be applied to mitigated the degradation of PEMFC performance. At 50% relative humidity (RH) under the repetitive on/off cycling, the cell performance decayed faster than at 100% RH because of corrosion of the cathode carbon support. Water suppling into cell reduced the degradation rate of dead-end type PEMFC during start up and shut down cycling at 50% RH.
Development of a Synthetic Process for N-Cyclohexylmaleiamic Acid Isobutyl Ester
Moon, Bu-Hyun ; Ju, Chang-Sik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 545~549
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.545
For the purpose of development of effective synthetic process of CHMI, a series of experiments were preformed on the preparation of CHMAIE, the intermediate of CHMI. For the first step, CHMA was synthesized by dropwise mixing of cyclohexylamine with maleic anhydride in toluene and 98.2% of theoretical CHMA was obtained by precipitation at
for 2 hours. The optimum reaction temperature of the esterfication, preparation reaction of CHAMIE from CHMA, was
, and equilibrium conversion at optimum temperature was 98.5%. Equilibrium reaction time decreased with reaction temperature, and 4 hours was taken to reach equilibrium at optimum reaction temperature. Toluene in the final reaction product could be recovered by vacuum distillation. The recovery of toluene was increased with distillation temperature and 98% of toluene could be recovered at
Electrochemical Properties of Activated Carbon Supecapacitor Containing Poly(acrylonitrile) Nonwoven Separator Coated by a Hydrogel Polymer Electrolyte
Latifatu, Mohammed ; Ko, Jang Myoun ; Lee, Young-Gi ; Kim, Kwang Man ; Jo, Jeongdai ; Jang, Yunseok ; Yoo, Jung Joon ; Kim, Jong Huy ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 550~555
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.550
A hydrogel electrolyte consisting of potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) (3 wt%) in 6 M KOH aqueous solution is coated on poly(acrylonitrile) nonwoven separator to examine high-rate characteristics of activated carbon supercapacitor adopting the separator. The hydrogel is homogeneously coated on the surface pores of the nonwoven separator. The electrolyte uptake of the PAAK hydrogel maintains for 24 days higher than 230% and the coated separator shows slightly lower ionic conductivity (
) than that (
) of using 6 M KOH only. The activated carbon supercapacitor adopting the coated separator shows a specific capacitance higher than
and a retention ratio higher than 97% after the 1000th cycle. This is due to strong interfacial contact of coated hydrogel electrolyte between the activated carbon electrode and the nonwoven separator.
Characteristics of Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Jeong, Jae-Jin ; Shin, Yong-Cheol ; Lee, Moo-Seok ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Na, Il-Chai ; Lee, Ho ; Park, Kwon-Pil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 556~560
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.556
Recently, there are many efforts focused on development of more economical non-fluorinated membranes for use in PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells). In this study, characteristics of poly(arylene ether sulfone)(PAES) were compared with fluorinated membrane at PEMFC operation condition. I-V polarization curve, hydrogen crossover, electrochemical surface area, membrane resistance and charge transfer resistance were measured. PAES membrane showed similar performance compared with fluorinated membrane at 100% relative humidity, but the performance of PAES membrane decreased largely due to low ionic conductivity at low relative humidity.
A Comparative Study on Green Liquor Pre-Pulping Extraction of Mixed Hardwood Chips
Um, Byung-Hwan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 561~567
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.561
Mixed hardwood chips were pre-pulping extracted with green liquor prior to kraft pulping in order to recover hemicelluloses for use as biofuels. This green liquor solution containing mainly sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate was applied at different alkali charges (expressed as
) of 0, 1, 3, and 5% on dry wood weight. The extractions were performed at
for residence times ranging from about 1-2 h to determine the effect of extraction severity on composition of the pre-pulping extract. The severity of hemicellulose extraction time and green liquor charge controls the concentration of acetic acid and monosaccharide sugars available for downstream processing, the accumulation of degradation products such as organic acids and furans in the extract. As the alkali charge was increased, the amount of acetate side chains on the hemicelluloses and the dissolved lignin in the extract increased but the carbohydrate and sugars in the extract decreased appreciably. Hot water extraction (0% alkali addition) released the greatest amount of carbohydrates, up to 29.80 g/L measured as component sugars, but resulted in the greatest decrease in pulp yield. Meanwhile, pre-pulping extraction with 3% green liquor increased the pulp yield while greatly reducing the component sugars to 7.08 g/L. Fundamental data obtained in this study will allow selection of optimum hemicellulose extraction conditions for integrating the extraction operation into the Kraft pulping process.
Semi-pilot Scaled Biofilter Treatment of Malodorous Waste Air Containing Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia: 1. Performance of Biofilter Packed with Media with Immobilized Thiobacillus sp. IW and Return-sludge
Lee, Eun Ju ; Park, Hyeri ; Lim, Kwang-Hee ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 568~574
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.568
A semi-pilot biofilter packed with media with immobilized Thiobacillus sp. IW and return sludge, was operated under various operating conditions in order to treat malodorous waste air containing both hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which are major air pollutants emitted from composting factories and many publicly owned treatment works (POTW). At the incipient and middle stages of a semi-pilot biofilter operation, the hydrogen sulfide-removal efficiency behaves regardless of an inlet-load of ammonia. However, the ammonia-removal efficiency decreased as an inlet-load of hydrogen sulfide increased. Nevertheless, at the final stage of the semi-pilot biofilter operation, the ammonia-removal efficiency was not affected by the increase of hydrogen sulfide-inlet load. It is attributed to that a serious acidification of semi-pilot biofilter-media did not occur due to continuous injection of buffer solution at the final stage of the semi-pilot biofilter operation. When both hydrogen sulfide and ammonia contained in malodorous waste air were treated simultaneously by semi-pilot biofilter, the maximum elimination capacities of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia turned out to be ca. 58 and
, respectively. These maximum elimination capacities were estimated to be ca. 39 and 46% less than those for lab-scaled biofilter-separate elimination of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, respectively. Thus, for the simultaneous biofilter-treatment of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, the maximum elimination capacity of ammonia decreased by 7% more than that of hydrogen sulfide.
Effect of Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids on Extraction Characteristics for 1,3-Propanediol by Aqueous Two Phases Systems
Hong, Yeon Ki ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 575~579
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.575
1,3-Propandiol is a promising chemical which can be produced from fermentation of glycerol because the application of 1,3-propanediol is mainly in the production of bio-polytrimethylene terephthalate (bio-PTT). However, the cost of downstream processes in the biological production of 1,3-propanediol can make a high portion in the total production cost due to the large amount of water and the by-produced carboxylic acids such as succinic, lactic and acetic acids in 1,3-propanediol fermentation broth. In this study, aqueous two-phases systems composed of hydrophilic alcohols and phosphate salts were applied to the recovery of 1,3-propanediol from its artificial aqueous solution. Formation of aqueous biphases in hydrophilic alcohols and phosphate salts was due to the salting-out effect of salts in bottom phase, thereby 1,3-propanediol in bottom phase was moved into top phase. Extraction efficiency for 1,3-propanediol was proportional to the polarity of hydrophilic alcohols and the basicity of salts and the maximum value of extraction efficiency was more than 98%. In the aqueous two-phases systems after extraction, there was no carboxylic acid in top phase. Therefore, it was concluded that the aqueous two-phases systems composed of hydrophilic alcohols and phosphate salts were effective for the selective recovery of 1,3-propanediol without any coextraction of carboxylic acids.
Preparation of Organic/Inorganic Siloxane Composite Membranes and Concentration of n-butanol from ABE Solution by Pervaporation
Jee, Ki Yong ; Lee, Yong Taek ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 580~586
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.580
In this paper, polymer composite membranes and ceramic composite membranes were prepared in order to compare differences in pervaporation performances relative to the support layers. PVDF was used for the polymer support layers, and
was used for the ceramic support layers. For active layer was coated for PDMS, which is a rubbery polymer. The characterization of membranes were analysed by SEM, contact angle, and XPS. We studied performances relative to the composite membrane support layers in the ABE mixture solutions. The results of the pervaporation, the flux of the ceramic composite membrane was shown to be
, which was higher than that of polymer composite membranes, at
. However, it was determined that the separation factor of the polymer composite membranes was 31.98 which were higher than that of the ceramic composite membranes, at 20.66.
Studies of Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria for Mixtures of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone+2-pyrrolidone and Growth Rate of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone Crystal Using Melt Crystallization
Kim, Sun Hyung ; Seo, Myoung Do ; Tak, Moon Seon ; Kim, Woo Sik ; Yang, Dae Ryuk ; Kang, Jeong Won ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 587~590
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.587
Solid-liquid equilibria for mixtures composed of n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and 2-pyrrolidone were measured as a basic study for the melt crystallization process to remove 2-pyrrolidone as impurity included in NVP. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a crystallizer were used and the experimental results obtained from two methods were similar. The mixture showed a eutectic system which has a single composition at the minimum melting temperature. Calculation results from simple thermodynamic equations were found in general agreements with present data. To determine the growth rate of NVP crystal which is important for the design of crystallization process, thicknesses of the crystal were measured with the time using a layer melt crystallizer. The growth rates increased as cooling temperatures decreased. Heat transfer coefficient correlated from present data was found to successfully describe the crystal growth behavior.
Ursolic Acid Isolated from Mume Fructus Inhibits Urease Activity of Helicobacter pylori
Park, Chan-El ; Park, Chang-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 591~596
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.591
Urease activity of Helicobacter pylori was most strongly inhibited by extract of Mume Fructus among ethanol (70%, v/v) extract of 6 herbal materials selected from our previous work, database on traditional herbal materials, and literature data on Korean plant resources. Active compounds in the extract of Mume Fructus were separated by batch extraction, and further purified by chromatography in a silica gel column and an octadecyl silica gel column using solvents of different polarity. By NMR analysis of the last chromatographic fraction we identified ursolic acid as the active compound of urease inhibition. The result suggests that this component in Mume Fructus can possibly be used for the eradication of H. pylori.
Fabrication of Polymeric Microcapsules in a Microchannel using Formation of Double Emulsion
Nam, Jin-Oh ; Choi, Chang-Hyung ; Kim, Jongmin ; Kang, Sung-Min ; Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 597~601
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.597
In this study, we present simple microfluidic approach for the synthesis of monodisperse microcapsules by using droplet-based system. We generate double emulsion through single step in the microfluidic device having single junction while conventional approaches are limited in surface treatment for the generation of double emulsion. First, we have injected disperse fluid containing FC-77 oil and photocurable ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) and water containing 3 wt% poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as continuous phase into microfluidic device. Under the condition, we easily generate double emulsion with high monodispersity by using flow focusing. The double emulsion droplets are transformed into microcapsules under the UV irradiation via photopolymerization. In addition, we control thickness of double emulsion's shell by controlling flow rate of ETPTA. We also show that the size of double emulsions can be controlled by manipulation of flow rate of continuous phase. Furthermore, we synthesize microcapsules encapsulating various materials for the application of drug delivery systems.
Study on Characteristic of Self-preservation Effect of CO
Hydrate according to Temperature, Particle Diameter and Shape
Kim, Yeon-Soo ; Kang, Seong-Pil ; Park, So-Jin ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 602~608
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.602
Gas hydrate studies are attracting attention of many researchers as an innovative, economic and environmentally friendly technology when it is applied to
capture, transport, and storage. In this study, we investigated whether
hydrate shows the self-preservation effect or not, that is the key property for developing a novel
transport/storage method. Especially the degree of self-preservation effect for
hydrate was studied according to the particle size of
hydrate samples. We prepared three kinds of
hydrate samples varying their particle diameter as millimeter, micron and nano size and measured their change of weight at
under atmospheric pressure during 3 weeks. According to our experimental result, the lower temperature, larger particle size, and compact structure for higher density are the better conditions for obtaining self-preservation effect.
Surface Characteristics and Spontaneous Combustibility of Coal Treated with Non-polar Solvent under Room Temperature
Jo, Wan Taek ; Choi, Ho Kyung ; Kim, Sang Do ; Yoo, Ji Ho ; Chun, Dong Hyuk ; Rhim, Young Joon ; Lim, Jeong Hwan ; Lee, Si Hyun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 609~614
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.609
This study investigated the spontaneous combustion behavior of solvent-treated low rank coals. Indonesian lignite (a KBB and SM coal) and sub-bituminous (a Roto coal) were mixed with non-polar 1-methyl naphthalene (1MN) either by mechanical agitation or ultrasonication. The property change associated with 1MN treatment was then analyzed using proximate analysis, calorific value analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and moisture re-adsorption test. Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion was evaluated using crossingpoint temperature (CPT) measurement along with gas analysis by GC. A FT-IR profile showed that oxygen functional groups and C-H bonding became weaker when treated by 1 MN. XPS results also indicated a decrease of the oxygen groups (C-O-, C=O and COO-). Increased hydrophobicity was found in the 1MN treated coals during moisture readsorption test. A CPT of the treated coals was
higher than that of the corresponding raw coals and the ultrasonication was more effective way to enhance the stability against spontaneous combustion than the agitation. In the gas analysis less CO and
were emitted from 1MN treated coals, also indicating inhibition of pyrophoric behavior. The surface functional groups participating in the oxidation reaction seemed to be removed by the ultrasonication more effectively than by the simple mechanical agitation.
Characterization of Commercial Membranes for Non-aqueous Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
Sung, Ki-Won ; Shin, Sung-Hee ; Moon, Seung-Hyeon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 615~621
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.615
Membrane characterization methods for aqueous redox flow batteries aqueous RFBs were modified for non-aqueous RFBs. The modified characterization methods, such as ion exchange capacity, transport number, permeability and single cell test, were carried out to evaluate commercial membranes in non-aqueous electrolyte. It was found that columbic efficiency and energy efficiency in a single cell test were dependent on the ion selectivity of commercial anion exchange membranes. Neosepta AHA anion exchange membrane showed the anion transport number of 0.81, which is a relatively low ion selectivity in non-aqueous electrolyte, however, exhibited 92% of coulombic efficiency and 86% of energy efficiency in a single cell test. It was also found that a porous membrane without ion selectivity is suitable for a non-aqueous redox flow battery at a high current density.
Effect of Concentration and Surface Property of Silica Sol on the Determination of Particle Size and Electrophoretic Mobility by Light Scattering Method
Cho, Gyeong Sook ; Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Dae Sung ; Lim, Hyung Mi ; Kim, Chong Youp ; Lee, Seung-Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 622~627
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.622
Colloidal silica is used in various industrial products such as chemical mechanical polishing slurry for planarization of silicon and sapphire wafer, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings, binder of investment casting, etc. An accurate determination of particle size and dispersion stability of silica sol is demanded because it has a strong influence on surface of wafer, film of coatings or bulks having mechanical, chemical and optical properties. The study herein is discussed on the effect of measurement results of average particle size, sol viscosity and electrophoretic mobility of particle according to the volume fraction of eight types of silica sol with different size and surface properties of silica particles which are presented by the manufacturer. The measured particle size and the mobility of these sol were changed by volume fraction or particle size due to highly active surface of silica particle and change of concentration of counter ion by dilution of silica sol. While in case the measured sizes of small particles less than 60 nm are increased with increasing volume fraction, the measured sizes of larger particles than 60 nm are slightly decreased. The mobility of small particle such as 12 nm are decreased with increase of viscosity. However, the mobility of 100 nm particles under 0.048 volume fraction are increased with increasing volume fraction and then decreased over higher volume fraction.
Effects of Surface-modification of Carbon Black on the Characteristics of Polymerized Toner
Lee, Eun Ho ; Kim, Dae Su ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 628~633
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.628
Carbon black was surface-modified to prepare styrene-based suspension polymerized toner with excellent carbon black dispersibility inside toner particles. Carbon black was oxidized first to introduce hydroxyl groups on the surfaces, then esterification between the hydroxyl groups and carboxyl groups of organic acids (oleic acid, palmitic acid, acrylic acid) was followed to obtain organically surface-modified carbon black. The surface-modification of carbon black was confirmed by FTIR. Apparent carbon black dispersibility in the monomer mixture of the binder resin was tested and the particle size of dispersed carbon black was measured by particle size analyzer. Optical micrographs showed that carbon black dispersibility inside toner particles was improved considerably when the carbon black surfacemodified with oleic acid was used. The polymerized toner prepared with the carbon black surface-modified with oleic acid showed ideal particle size and size distribution as a toner.
Effects of Low Workfunction Metal Acetate Layers on the Electroluminescent Characteristics of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Kim, Mansu ; Yu, Geun-Chae ; Kim, Young Chul ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 634~639
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.634
We investigated the effects of a cathode underlayer on the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using various metal acetates (M-acetate, M = Li, Na, K, Cs) as a cathode underlayer. When 1 nm thick M-acetate layers were used as a cathode underlayer, the OLEDs with M-acetate showed better EL performance than the device with the conventional LiF electron injection layer except the device with Cs-acetate. More enhanced current density and improved EL characteristics were obtained when lower work function metal acetate was employed. In addition, the optimum M-acetate layer thickness that gives the best device performance proved to be 0.7 and 2.0 nm for Li-acetate and Cs-acetate, respectively, probably depending on the molecular size of M-acetate. The OLEDs with the M-acetate layers of optimized thickness demonstrated more than 60% enhanced current efficiency compared with that of the device using an LiF layer at the same applied voltage.
Quick Fabrication of Three Dimensional Colloidal Crystals and Their Applications
Lee, Su Jin ; Im, Sang Hyuk ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 51, issue 5, 2013, Pages 640~643
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2013.51.5.640
On evaporation of water in polystyrene colloidal emulsion, the polystyrene colloidal particles are instantly protruded on the surface of water and are self-assembled by capillary force among the protruded particles. At the same time, the assembly of polystyrene colloidal particles is occurred on the surface of water owing to its lower effective density than water. Here we devised that the three-dimensional polystyrene colloidal crystals are quickly transferred onto the glass substrate by constructing wettable confined geometry on the glass substrate. We also applied the three-dimensional colloidal crystals to optical filters reflecting certain wavelength of light selectively by tuning the size of building blocks and incident angle of light.