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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Chemical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
KIM JAE JEONG
Volume & Issues
Volume 52, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 52, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 52, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 52, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 52, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 52, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing
Choi, Eun-Young ; Hong, Sun-Seok ; Park, Wooshin ; Im, Hun Suk ; Oh, Seung-Chul ; Won, Chan Yeon ; Cha, Ju-Sun ; Hur, Jin-Mok ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 279~288
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.279
Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO2 emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-
electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.
Adhesive Properties of Emulsion PSA Polymerized Using Tween Series Nonionic Surfactants
Lim, Tae Kyun ; Lee, Myung Cheon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 289~293
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.289
In making emulsion type pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA), environmentally friendly Tween series nonionic surfactants were used to find out the possibility of substituting the traditional nonyl-phenyl nonionic surfactant (NP-40) by comparing their adhesive properties. Results exhibited that the PSA used Tween series nonionic surfactants showed much better adhesive properties in peel strength and holding power than that used NP-40.
Entropy Generation Analysis for Various Cross-sectional Ducts in Fully Developed Laminar Convection with Constant Wall Heat Flux
Haghgooyan, M.S. ; Aghanajafi, C. ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.294
This study focuses on analysis and comparison of entropy generation in various cross-sectional ducts along with fully developed laminar flow and constant uniform wall heat flux. The obtained results were compared in ducts with circular, semicircular, and rectangular with semicircular ends, equilateral triangular, and square and symmetrical hexagonal cross-sectional areas. These results were separately studied for aspect ratio of different rectangular shapes. Characteristics of fluid were considered at average temperature between outlet and inlet ducts. Results showed that factors such as Reynolds number, cross section, hydraulic diameter, heat flux and aspect ratio were effective on entropy generation, and these effects are more evident than heat flux and occur more in high heat fluxes. Considering the performed comparisons, it seems that semicircular and circular cross section generates less entropy than other cross sections.
Effects of Fermentation Parameters on Cellulolytic Enzyme Production under Solid Substrate Fermentation
Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 302~306
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.302
The present study was carried out to optimize fermentation parameters for the production of cellulolytic enzymes through solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger grown on wheat straw. A sequential optimization based on one-factor-at-a-time method was applied to optimize fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, moisture content and particle size. The results of optimization indicated that
, pH 7, moisture content 75% and particle size between 0.25~0.5 mm were found to be the optimum condition at 96 hr fermentation. Under the optimal condition, co-culture of T. reesei and A. niger produced cellulase activities of 10.3 IU, endoglucanase activity of 100.3 IU,
-glucosidase activity of 22.9 IU and xylanase activity of 2261.7 IU/g dry material were obtained. Cellulolytic enzyme production with optimization showed about 72.6, 48.8, 55.2 and 51.9% increase compared to those obtained from control experiment, respectively.
Optimization Study for Pressure Swing Distillation Process for the Mixture of Isobutyl-Acetate and Isobutyl-Alcohol System
Cho, Sung Jin ; Shin, Jae Sun ; Choi, Suk Hoon ; Lee, Euy Soo ; Park, Sang Jin ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.307
In this study, an optimization process design has been performed to separate 99.9 mol% of Isobutyl Acetate from binary azeotropic mixture of Isobutyl Acetate and Isobutyl Alcohol system using a Pressure Swing Distillation (PSD). PSD is used to separate binary azeotropic mixtures using the difference between the relative volatilities and azeotropic compositions by changing the system pressure. Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model for liquid phase and the Peng-Robinson equation for vapor phase are used. An optimization study for the reflux ratio and feed stage locations which minimize the total reboiler heat duties are studied. Since PSD process consists of two columns, i.e. high pressure and low pressure, the effect of column sequence on the optimum conditions is reported.
Analysis of the Gas Feed Distribution at the Gas Sweetening Absorber Using CFD
Lee, Ji Hyun ; Shim, Sung-Bo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 314~320
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.314
Regarding the design of the gas sweetening absorber, the gas distribution analysis for the increase of the sour gas removal and reduction of the tower height is very important research topics. Recently, regarding the
capture technology which is a promising option for the reduction of the greenhouse gas (GHG), the need for the gas distribution improvement is increased as the gas treating capacity increases. In this paper, we have investigated the sour gas distribution in the absorber using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) based on 10 MW post-combustion
capture plant installed in Boryeong power station, Korea Midland Power company. For this purpose, we suggested the three possible technology options (splash plate, spiral gas line and U-tube) for the gas distribution enhancement and compared the effect of the each cases. The result showed that the U-tube installed in the absorber increase the gas distribution about 30% compared to the base case, while the delta P increasement was about 10%. From these results, it was found that the U-tube installation is an effective technology option for the gas distribution enhancement in the gas sweetening absorber.
Change of Electro-optical Properties of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Lens with Addition of Extra Photo-initiator
Kim, Jaeyong ; Han, Jeong In ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 321~327
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.321
Polymer dispersed liquid crystal lenses of the cell gap of
were made from a uniformly dispersed mixture of 40 wt% NOA65 prepolymer - 60 wt% E7 liquid crystal with the variations of the additional photoinitiator. The photoinitiator, benzophenone of 5.0 wt% was originally in the commercial prepolymer NOA65. In this works, the influence of the benzophenone amount intentionally added in the commercial NOA65 on the electrical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses. The additional quantities of the photoinitiator were 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 wt% of the weight of NOA65 - E7 mixture. All the electro-optical properties of the sample with added benzophenone such as the driving voltage, the slope of the linear region, the response time and contrast ratio were more improved than that of commercial NOA65 only. These improvements were due to the increase of the average size of E7 liquid crystal droplets in the samples with the increase of the added benzophenon amount. The liquid crystal droplet size was increased from
when the photoinitiator was added from 0 wt% to 8 wt%. At the same concentration range of the photoinitiator, the driving voltage was ranged from 11.1 V to 17.3 V. The slopes of the linear region were in the range of 10.35~13.96 %T/V, which were more enhanced than that of NOA65 without the additional benzophenone. In particular, though the deteriorations by cell gap of
were so effective to offset the influence of the added benzophenone for both rising and falling response time, it is confirmed that there were still somewhat improvement by the additional benzophenone. Response time and contrast ratios of all the samples with excess benzophenone were slightly enhanced.
Characteristics of Flux Decline in Forward Osmosis Process for Asymmetric Cellulose Membrane
Lee, Keun-Woo ; Han, Myeong-Jin ; Nam, Suk-Tae ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 328~334
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.328
This study examined the effect of concentration polarization on permeate flux in forward osmosis (FO) membrane process for saline and sucrose solution. The reduction in permeate flux during the FO membrane process is largely due to the formation of concentration polarization on membrane surfaces. The flux reduction due to internal concentration polarization formed on the porous support layer was larger than that due to the external concentration polarization on the active membrane surface. Water permeate flux through the FO membrane increased nonlinearly with the increase in osmotic pressure. The water permeability coefficient was
for draw solution on active layer (DS-AL) mode and
for draw solution on support layer (DS-SL) mode in NaCl solution system. The corresponding membrane resistance was
, respectively. With respect to the sucrose solution, the permeate flux for DS-AL mode was 1.33~1.90 times higher than that for DS-SL mode. The corresponding variation in the permeation flux (J) due to osmotic pressure (
) would be expressed as
for the forward and
for the latter.
A Study on Mechanical Properties of Composite of Silica Aerogel and pulps
Yoo, Jeong-Kun ; Kim, Hak-Hee ; Kim, Hak-Soo ; Choi, Chang-Ha ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 335~339
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.335
The studies on the characteristics of composite of silica aerogel and pulps were carried out. The composite was manufactured by mixing the paste of silica aerogel and pulps and analyzed by SEM. Using the impedence tube, the sound absorption measurement was investigated. The maximum value of sound absorption coefficient of this composite was obtained in the range of 900 Hz. It was found that the composite of silica aerogel and pulps could be a new sound absorbent because of high absorption capacity and durability which was due to hydrophobic effect on the surface of the composite.
Preparation and Gas Permeability of ZIF-7 Membranes Prepared via Two-step Crystallization Technique
Li, Fang ; Li, Qiming ; Bao, Xinxia ; Gui, Jianzhou ; Yu, Xiaofei ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 340~346
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.340
Continuous and dense ZIF-7 membranes were successfully synthesized on
porous substrate via two-step crystallization technique. ZIF-7 seeding layer was first deposited on porous
substrate by in-situ low temperature crystallization, and then ZIF-7 membrane layer can be grown through the secondary high-temperature crystallization. Two synthesis solutions with different concentration were used to prepare ZIF-7 seeding layer and membrane layer on porous
substrate, respectively. As a result, a continuous and defect-free ZIF-7 membrane layer can be prepared on porous
substrate, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope. XRD characterization shows that the resulting membrane layer is composed of pure ZIF-7 phase without any impurity. A single gas permeation test of
was conducted based on our prepared ZIF-7 membrane. The ZIF-7 membrane exhibited excellent H2 molecular sieving properties due to its suitable pore aperture and defect-free membrane layer.
Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals
Lee, Ji Hyun ; Lee, Dong Woog ; Gyu, Jang Se ; Kwak, No-Sang ; Lee, In Young ; Jang, Kyung Ryoung ; Choi, Jong Shin ; Shim, Jae-Goo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 347~354
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.347
Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this
carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.
Production of Levulinic Acid from Chitosan by Acidic-Hydrothermal Reaction
Jeong, Gwi-Taek ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 355~359
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.355
Recently, many chemicals produced from renewable resources such as lignocellulosics, micro-algae and marine macro-algae, were introduced to chemical industry. Chitin/chitosan is secondly abundant feedstock on Earth. It is easily obtained from crusraceans' shells such as crab, shrimp and insects. In this work, we performed the acidic-hydrothermal hydrolysis to produce levulinic acid from chitosan using statistical approach. By design of response surface methodology, the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and reaction time and their reciprocal interactions were investigated. As a result, higher reaction temperature and catalyst amount increased the higher concentration of levulinic acid. However, reaction time did not caused large increase of levulinic acid after some reaction period. Levulinic acid of 2.7 g/L produced from chitosan in the optimized condition of reaction temperature of
, sulfuric acid of 2.4% and reaction time of 40.7 min.
Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants using Vapor-phase Hydrogen Peroxide
Kim, Yun-Ki ; Yoo, Hyun-Sang ; Kim, Min-Cheol ; Hwang, Hyun-Chul ; Ryu, Sam-Gon ; Lee, Hae-Wan ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 360~365
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.360
Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide(VPHP) has been used as a sterilant in the field of medical and pharmaceutical application due to low corrosive than chlorine contained sterilant. In addition, it is well known that VPHP is effective for decontamination of chemical warfare agents by adding ammonia gas. In this study, the decontamination efficiency was confirmed about CEPS, DFP and dimethoate as simulants of HD, GD and VX using VPHP respectively. For this purpose, VPHP generated from self configured device was injected into decontamination chamber and maintained for reaction time. After the decontamination, the residues are analyzed by GC/MS and decontamination efficiency was calculated. Through by-product for each simulants, the similarities in reaction mechanism of chemical warfare agents were confirmed. CEPS was completely decontaminated at 30% relative humidity within 60 min. By adding ammonia gas, DFP and dimethoate were completely decontaminated within 30 and 150 min respectively.
Improvement of Solar Cell Power Using Electron Relay Enhancer (ERE)
Yun, So-Young ; Hong, Joo-Hee ; Kim, Hak-Hee ; Kim, Hak-Soo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 366~370
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.366
The studies to improve the power of Solar Cell using ERE (Electron Relay Enhancer) system with Variable parallel-feeder (DC1) and variable series-feeder (DC2) were carried out. For DC1 voltage was higher than that of Solar Cell, this was raised because that functioned as a load, whereas a current was lowed. At that moment, the power of the Solar Cell was increased because the DC2 replenished the lower current. Not only increased the DC ERE series-parallel system the voltage of Solar Cell to 2.0~3.0 V, but they also increased the rate of power increase to about 10%.
Holdup and Flow Behavior of Fluidized Solid Particles in a Liquid-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed
Lim, Dae Ho ; Lim, Ho ; Jin, Hae Ryong ; Kang, Yong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 371~377
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.371
Characteristics of holdup and flow behavior of fluidized solid particles were investigated in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (
). Effects of liquid velocity (
), particle size (
) and solid circulation rate (
) on the solid holdup, overall particle rising velocity, slip velocity between liquid and particles and hydrodynamic energy dissipation rate in the riser were examined. The particle holdup increased with increasing
but decreased with increasing
. The overall particle rising velocity increased with increasing
but decreased with increasing
. The slip velocity increased with increasing
but did not change considerably with
. The energy dissipation rate, which was found to be closely related to the contacting frequency of micro eddies, increased with increasing
. The solid particle holdup was well correlated with operating variables such as
Sterilization Effect of the Ion-exchanger Filter Using by Radiation Graft Polymerization
Kim, Ye-Jin ; Hong, Yong-Cheol ; Kim, Min ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 378~381
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.378
We studied the pasteurization effect of the microorganism involved in the water, using ion-exchanging filter made of the Radiation Induced Grafted Polymerization. This ion-exchanging filter is made by the graft polymerization of GMA, after irradiation of electron beam to the non-woven filter. Then, we made the ion-exchanging filter (EtA, DEA, SS) applying ion-exchanging base to the GMA filter. As a result, the density of the ion-exchanging base is shown as 2.38 mol/kg in case of EtA, 1.79 mol/kg in case of DEA and 0.75 mol/kg in case of SS. Through this filter made by this method, we measured the pasteurization power of E. coli. We found very high elimination rate such as log 4.65 in case of SS-dial filter, which is higher as 3.00 times in comparison with EtA, and 1.10 times in comparison with DEA. This data show the result is very excellent comparing with 3,000 CFU/ml. of city water treatment basis.
Study on the Morphology of the PC/ABS Blend by High Shear Rate Processing
Lee, Dong Uk ; Yong, Da Kyoung ; Lee, Han Ki ; Choi, Seok Jin ; Yoo, Jae Jung ; Lee, Hyung Il ; Kim, Seon-Hong ; Lee, Kee Yoon ; Lee, Seung Goo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 382~387
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.382
The PC/ABS blends were manufactured with high shear rate processing. Changes of the blend morphology were analyzed according to the screw speed and processing time. To find optimal conditions of the high shear rate processing of the PC/ABS blend, blend morphology and size of the dispersed phase, ABS, were observed with a SEM. Also, tensile properties of the PC/ABS blends were measured to investigate the effect of the high shear rate process with the screw speed of 500 rpm to 3000 rpm for processing times of 10s to 40s. Especially, to observe the dispersed phase of the PC/ABS blend clearly, fracture surfaces of the PC/ABS blend were etched with chromic acid solution. As screw speed and processing time increase, dispersed phase size of the PC/ABS blend decreases and mechanical properties of the blend decrease as well. Especially, at screw speed over than 1000 rpm of high shear rate processing, mechanical properties of the PC/ABS blends decrease drastically due to the degradation of the blend during the high shear rate processing. Consequently, the optimal condition of screw speed of the high shear processing of the PC/ABS blend is set at 1000rpm, in this study. Under optimal condition, the PC/ABS blend has relatively high mechanical properties with the relatively stable micro-structure having nanometer scale dispersed phase.
Preparation of Hard Coating Films with High Refractive Index using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating Solutions
Choi, Jin Joo ; Kim, Nam Uoo ; Ahn, Chi Yong ; Song, Ki Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 388~394
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.388
Inorganic-organic hybrid coating solutions were synthesized using titania sol from titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as an inorganic component and mixture of two or three types of silane coupling agents, such as methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APS), glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) as an organic component. The hard coating films were obtained by spin-coating on the polycarbonate sheets and curing the inorganic-organic hybrid coating solutions. The coating films made from the mixture of two types of silane coupling agents showed poor pencil hardness and adhesion, while those from the mixture of three types of silane coupling agents exhibited an improved pencil hardness of 2H~4H and adhesion of 5B. The refractive indexes of coating films were increased from 1.56 to 1.63 at 550 nm by increasing the content of titania sols from 20 to 30 g.
An Analysis of Characteristics for the Non-catalytic Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)
Hong, Seok Won ; Cho, Hyun Jun ; Yeo, Yeong-Koo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 395~401
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.395
In this work, the reaction characteristics for the non-catalytic esterification of palm fatty acid distillate were analyzed. The esterification reaction was assumed as the pseudo homogeneous
order reversible reaction and 'reaction effectiveness factor (
)' was used to take accounts into evaporation and reaction of water and methanol, which take place simultaneously in the liquid phase. The nonlinear programming was used to derive appropriate kinetic parameters, the reaction rate constant and mass transfer coefficient, minimizing the error between experimental data and the numerical values. Based on these parameters, the apparent activation energy was calculated to be 43.98 kJ/mol.
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger NRRL 567 Grown on Agricultural by Products
Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 3, 2014, Pages 402~406
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.3.402
The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of lignocellulosic byproducts for the production of citric acid through solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger NRRL 567. A sequential optimization based on one-factor-at-a-time method was applied to optimize fermentation conditions and media constituents. The results obtained from the optimization indicated that
, 70% moisture content, 0.5~1.0 mm particle size, pH 5.5 and 4% methanol were found to be the optimum condition at 72 hr fermentation. The application the optimization resulted in an improvement of maximum citric acid production from 74.5 to 206.0 g/kg dry material (DM) from wheat straw. The optimal condition was used to produce citric acid from A. niger grown on different lignocellulosic byproducts, including wheat straw, corn stover and peat moss. A. niger produced the highest citric acid levels of 231.8, 213.8 and 240.2 g/kg DM at 120 hr fermentation, respectively.