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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Chemical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
Editor in Chief :
KIM JAE JEONG
Volume & Issues
Volume 52, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 52, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 52, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 52, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 52, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 52, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Research Trend of Lactulose Production from Lactose
Lee, Ja Hyun ; Yoo, Hah Young ; Jung, Da Un ; Park, Charnho ; Song, Yoon Seok ; Park, Chulhwan ; Kim, Seung Wook ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 407~412
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.407
Lactulose is well known for functional component in the food and pharmaceutical field and utilized in a wide variety of foods as a bifidus factor or functional ingredient for intestinal regulation. Lactulose synthesis can be classified into chemical and biological methods. In chemical methods, lactulose is synthesized by alkaline isomerization, but it has many disadvantages such as including product purification, lactulose degradation, side reactions and waste management. Therefore, the enzymatic synthesis methods were recently studied to solve these problems.
-galactosidase is a important enzyme in the dairy industry, because of the production of lactose-hydrolyzed products. Also,
-galactosidases can be utilized to synthesize lactulose from lactose by a trans-galactosylation reaction, using fructose as a galactosyl acceptor. However, the synthesis of lactulose from lactose is economically not suitable due to high levels of lactose price. This review summarizes the current state of lactulose production by chemical and biological processes.
Technology Trend on the Increase of Biogas Production and Sludge Reduction in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Sludge Pre-treatment Techniques
Cho, Il Hyoung ; Ko, In Beom ; Kim, Ji Tae ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 413~424
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.413
The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade the technical quality and to enhance energy efficiency. The objective of this paper is to present efficient and effective pre-treatment methods of increasing the amount of produced biogas in anaerobic digestion of activated sludge treatment process. The paper also presents a review of the effect on biogas production between pre-treated and raw sludge, and also put forward the advantages and disadvantages of each pre-treatment method.
Measurement of Hydrogen Crossover by Gas Chromatograph in PEMFC
Jeong, Jaejin ; Jeong, Jaehyeun ; Kim, Saehoon ; Ahn, Byungki ; Ko, Jaijoon ; Park, Kwonpil ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 425~429
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.425
Until a recent day, degradation of PEMFC MEA(membrane and electrode assembly) has been studied, separated with membrane degradation and electrode degradation, respectively. But membrane and electrode were degraded coincidentally at real PEMFC operation condition. During simultaneous degradation, there was interaction between membrane degradation and electrode degradation. Hydrogen permeability was used often to measure degradation of electrolyte membrane in PEMFC. In case of hydrogen permeability measured by LSV(Linear Sweep Voltammetry) method, the degradation of electrode decrease the value of hydrogen crossover current due to LSV methode`s dependence on electrode active area. In this study hydrogen permeability was measured by gas chromatograph(GC) when membrane and electrode degraded at the same time. It was showed that degradation of electrode did not affect the hydrogen permeability measured by GC because of GC methode`s independence on electrode active area.
Effect of SAA Pretreatment on SSF at Low Temperature to Bioethanol Production from Rice Straw
Jang, Suh Yoon ; Kim, Jun Seok ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 430~435
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.430
Physical and chemical barriers, caused by the close association of the main components of cellulosic biomass, hinder the hydrolysis of cellulose to fermentable sugars. Since the main goal of pretreatment is to increase the enzyme accessibility improving digestibility of cellulose, development of an effective pretreatment process has been considered to be important. In this study, SAA (Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia) was chosen as pretreatment because this is the simple and low-cost method. Rice straw of which the production is outstandingly high in domestic agriculture residues in Korea was chosen as raw material. SSA pretreatment with various reaction time of 3 h to 72 h was tested. The enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) were performed at three different temperature (30, 40 and
) to investigate performance of SSF upon various pretreatment conditions. As a result, this SAA treated-rice straw was found to have great potential for effective enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF with lower enzyme dosage at lower temperature (
) than its conventional SSF. In SAA addition, SAA reduced fermentation time to 24 h owing to increase the initial hydrolysis rate substantially.
Studies on Optical-fiber Sensor to Monitor Temperature using Reversible Thermochromic Gel Type Cobalt (II) Chloride/Polyvinyl Butyral
Hwang, KiSeob ; Park, JeaHee ; Ha, KiRyong ; Lee, JunYoung ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 436~442
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.436
In this study, we developed an optical-fiber sensor using cobalt chloride solution to monitor temperature in real-time between long distance points unaffected by the electro-magnetic wave and the vibration. Cobalt chloride solutions were made using 10% water and 90% ethanol (v/v) solution. The transmittance of these solutions was analyzed on 655 nm using UV-Visible spectrometer regarding temperature change. Also 30.8 mM cobalt chloride solution was gelled by dissolving polyvinyl butyral and the transmittance of this was analyzed on 655 nm regarding temperature change. The results of transmittance and optical power measurement showed decrease of both transmittance and optical power with increase of temperature from 66.8% and 149.5 nW at
to 7.1% and 48 nW at
, respectively. These results support the possibility of gelled cobalt chloride/polyvinyl butyral as an optical-fiber sensor to monitor temperature change.
Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by H
Kim, Juyoung ; Ha, Kwang ; Seo, Gon ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 443~450
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.443
Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen monoxide by hydrogen (
-SCR of NO) over platinum catalysts impregnated on zirconia-incorporated silica (
) and manganese oxide (
) was investigated.
catalyst showed low conversions and low yields of
. On the other hand, NO conversions over
were very high, but
was predominantly produced at
and the yield of
increased with temperature at
, resulting in poor
exhibited a small enhancement in
due to the synergy of
. The surface composition and oxidation state of the catalyst components and the acidity of the catalysts were examined. IR spectra of the adsorption of NO and their subsequent reactions with hydrogen on these catalysts were also recorded. The variations of conversion and product yield according to the catalyst components in the
-SCR of NO were discussed in relation to their catalytic roles.
Effect of Types of Acrylic Monomers on Properties of Anti-static Waterborne Acrylic Polyurethane Dispersion
Huh, Woo Young ; Yun, Dong Gu ; Song, Ki Chang ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 451~458
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.451
Waterborne polyurethane dispersion (WPUD) was prepared from polycarbonate diol (PCD), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) as starting materials. Then, waterborne acrylic polyurethane dispersion (AUD) was synthesized by reacting the WPUD with different types of acrylate monomers, such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and butyl acrylate (BA). Subsequently, the AUD was mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) to yield a conductive coating solution, and the mixture was coated on the polycarbonate substrate. The pencil hardness, abrasion resistance and chemical resistance of the coating films from AUD were improved than those from WPUD, while the electrical conductivity of the coating films from AUD was decreased than that of WPUD. Also, the effect of acrylate types on the properties of coating films was investigated. The AUD obtained from HEMA showed the strongest pencil hardness, while the AUD obtained from MMA exhibited the strongest abrasion resistance, chemical resistance and electrical conductivity among several types of acrylate monomers.
A Simulation Study of Inter Heat Exchanger Process in SI Cycle Process for Hydrogen Production
Shin, Jae Sun ; Cho, Sung Jin ; Choi, Suk Hoon ; Qasim, Faraz ; Lee, Heung N. ; Park, Jae Ho ; Lee, Won Jae ; Lee, Euy Soo ; Park, Sang Jin ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 459~466
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.459
SI Cyclic process is one of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes using iodine and sulfur for producing hydrogen molecules from water. VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) can be used to supply heat to hydrogen production process, which is a high temperature nuclear reactor. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is necessary to transfer heat to hydrogen production process safely without radioactivity. In this study, the strategy for the optimum design of IHX between SI hydrogen process and VHTR is proposed for various operating pressures of the reactor, and the different cooling fluids. Most economical efficiency of IHX is also proposed along with process conditions.
Optimization of Single-stage Mixed Refrigerant LNG Process Considering Inherent Explosion Risks
Kim, Ik Hyun ; Dan, Seungkyu ; Cho, Seonghyun ; Lee, Gibaek ; Yoon, En Sup ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 467~474
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.467
Preliminary design in chemical process furnishes economic feasibility through calculation of both mass balance and energy balance and makes it possible to produce a desired product under the given conditions. Through this design stage, the process possesses unchangeable characteristics, since the materials, reactions, unit configuration, and operating conditions were determined. Unique characteristics could be very economic, but it also implies various potential risk factors as well. Therefore, it becomes extremely important to design process considering both economics and safety by integrating process simulation and quantitative risk analysis during preliminary design stage. The target of this study is LNG liquefaction process. By the simulation using Aspen HYSYS and quantitative risk analysis, the design variables of the process were determined in the way to minimize the inherent explosion risks and operating cost. Instead of the optimization tool of Aspen HYSYS, the optimization was performed by using stochastic optimization algorithm (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy, CMA-ES) which was implemented through automation between Aspen HYSYS and Matlab. The research obtained that the important variable to enhance inherent safety was the operation pressure of mixed refrigerant. The inherent risk was able to be reduced about 4~18% by increasing the operating cost about 0.5~10%. As the operating cost increases, the absolute value of risk was decreased as expected, but cost-effectiveness of risk reduction had decreased. Integration of process simulation and quantitative risk analysis made it possible to design inherently safe process, and it is expected to be useful in designing the less risky process since risk factors in the process can be numerically monitored during preliminary process design stage.
Study of Multi Floor Plant Layout Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization
Park, Pyung Jae ; Lee, Chang Jun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 475~480
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.475
In the fields of researches associated with plant layout optimization, the main goal is to minimize the costs of pipelines for connecting equipment. However, what is the lacking of considerations in previous researches is to handle the multi floor processes considering the safety distances for domino impacts on a complex plant. The mathematical programming formulation can be transformed into MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) problems as considering safety distances, maintenance spaces, and economic benefits for solving the multi-floor plant layout problem. The objective function of this problem is to minimize piping costs connecting facilities in the process. However, it is really hard to solve this problem due to complex unequality or equality constraints such as sufficient spaces for the maintenance and passages, meaning that there are many conditional statements in the objective function. Thus, it is impossible to solve this problem with conventional optimization solvers using the derivatives of objective function. In this study, the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) technique, which is one of the representative sampling approaches, is employed to find the optimal solution considering various constraints. The EO (Ethylene Oxide) plant is illustrated to verify the efficacy of the proposed method.
Extraction of Caffeic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid from Zostera marina Based on Ionic Liquids and Deep Eutectic Solvent
Lee, Yu Ri ; Lee, Yu Jin ; Row, Kyung Ho ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 481~485
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.481
The applicability of the dipping, ultrasonic-assisted, heating methods to the extraction of useful components from Zostera marina was investigated. For the increase of the extraction yield of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid from Zostera marina, ionic liquids and DES were used as additives in the extraction solvent. The optimum extraction conditions were found: dipping extraction, methanol as extraction solvent, 0.005 g of freeze-dried material powder, 5 mL methanol, 30 min and 0.5 g of DES-3 (
and phenol) as additive. As a result, 0.19 mg/g of caffeic acid and 8.48 mg/g of rosmarinic acid were obtained. This method is simple and sensitive, and has been applied successfully to determine the component of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in Zostera marina and these results indicate that DES were used as additives is more suitable than traditional extraction for the extraction of useful components from Zostera marina.
Adsorption Behavior and Kinetic Characteristic of Cibacron Brilliant Red 3B-A by Granular Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong Jib ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 486~491
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.486
In this paper, the adsorption behavior and kinetic characteristics of cibacron brilliant red 3B-A from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon were investigated. The effect of various parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption system were studied. Base on the estimated Langmuir constant (
) and Freundlich constant (1/n), This process could be employed as effective treatment method. From the Temkin constant (B) and Dubinin-Radushkevich constant (E), This adsorption process is physical adsorption. From kinetic experiments, the adsorption process followed the pseudo second order model with good correlation. Base on the Gibbs free energy and enthalpy, the adsorption of cibacron brilliant red 3B-A onto granular activated carbon was physisorption and endothermic in nature.
Production of Chemical Intermediate Furfural from Renewable Biomass Miscanthus Straw
Jeong, Gwi-Taek ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 492~496
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.492
In this work, the possibility of Miscanthus as renewable lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated for production of furfural. Also, to find the reaction conditions of furfural production from Miscanthus straw, the effects of solid-to-liquid ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and reaction time were investigated. Finally, 5.1 g/L furfural was produced from Miscanthus straw in the condition of solid-to-liquid ratio at 1:10, reaction temperature at
, sulfuric acid at 3%, and reaction time of 60 minutes. This result will provide basic knowledge for converting renewable resources into valuable chemicals substituted for fossil fuels.
Optimization of Adsorbent Treatment Process for the Purification of Paclitaxel from Plant Cell Cultures of Taxus chinensis
Lee, Chung-Gi ; Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 497~502
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.497
Biomass-derived tar and waxy compounds have a highly negative effect on the separation and purification of paclitaxel and should be removed prior to final purification. Adsorbent treatment is a simple, efficient method for removal of tar and waxy compounds from plant cell cultures. In this study, we optimized the important process parameters (adsorption temperature, time, solvent type and adsorbent amount) of adsorbent treatment with Sylopute to remove the tar and waxy compounds in a pre-purification step. The optimal adsorption temperature, adsorption time, solvent type, and crude extract/Sylopute ratio were
, 15 min, methylene chloride, and 1:1(w/w), respectively. This result could be confirmed by HPLC analysis of the absorbent after treatment and TGA of the organic substances that were bound to the adsorbent. In adsorbent treatment step, the purity seemed to show a small improvement but this treatment had a significant effect on convenience and feasibility of following steps by the removal of tar and waxy compounds.
Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants with Life Cycle Assessment
Pyo, SeHee ; Kim, MinJeong ; Lee, SeungChul ; Yoo, ChangKyoo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 503~515
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.503
A lot of existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are rebuilt or retrofitted for advanced wastewater treatment processes to cope with reinforced effluent criteria of nitrogen and phosphorous. Moreover, how to treat the wasted sludge from WWTPs has been also issued since the discharge of the wasted sludge into ocean is impossible from 2011 due to the London Convention 97 protocol. These trend changes of WWTPs get a motivation to assess environmental and economic impacts from the construction stage to the waste stage in WWTPs. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluation of environmental and economic impacts of the advanced wastewater treatment processes and waste sludge treatment process by using life cycle assessment. Four advanced wastewater treatment processes of Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (
), 5 stages-Bamard Denitrification Phosphate (Bardenpho), Virginia Initiative Plant (VIP), and Modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) are chosen to compare the conventional activated sludge (CAS) and three waste sludge treatment methods of land fill, incineration, and composting are used. To evaluate environmental and economic impacts of each advanced wastewater treatment processes, life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) are conducted based on International organization for standardization (ISO) guidelines. The results clearly represent that the
process with composting shows 52% reduction in the environmental impact than the CAS process with landfill. On the other hand, the MUCT process with composting is able to save 62% of the life cycle cost comparing with the CAS process with landfill. This result suggested the qualitative and quantitative criteria for evaluating eco-environmental and economic technologies of advanced treatment processes and also sludge treatment method, where their main influence factors on environmental and economic impacts are analyzed, respectively. The proposed method could be useful for selecting the most efficient and eco-friendly wastewater treatment process and sludge treatment method when retrofitting the existing WWTPs to advanced treatments.
Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media
Kim, Wan Tae ; Lim, Dae Ho ; Kang, Yong ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 516~521
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.516
Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02~0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (
) and surface tension (
) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; $$h
Comparison of Solid Circulation Characteristics with Change of Lower Loop Seal Geometry in a Circulating Fluidized Bed
Lee, Dong-Ho ; Jo, Sung-Ho ; Jin, Gyoung-Tae ; Yi, Chang-Keun ; Ryu, Ho-Jung ; Park, Seung Bin ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 522~529
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.522
Circulating fluidized bed system consists of SEWGS reactor - lower loop seal - regeneration reactor - riser - cyclone - upper loop seal has been used for solid circulation between the SEWGS reactor and the regeneration reactor in a SEWGS system for pre-combustion
capture. A vertical type lower loop seal has been used in current system but this lower loop seal requires high gas flow rate through the lower loop seal for fluidization and smooth solid circulation, and consequently, causes slugging behavior sometimes. To overcome these disadvantages, inclined type lower loop seal was proposed by this study. Solid circulation characteristics with change of lower loop seal geometry were measured and compared in a bubbling - bubbling - riser type circulating fluidized bed using
absorbent (P-78) as bed material at ambient temperature and pressure. We could conclude that the inclined lower loop seal is better than the vertical type lower loop seal from the viewpoints of minimum flow rate requirement for stable solid circulation and solid height change during solid circulation.
Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material
Lee, Youn Suk ; Choi, Hong Yeol ; Park, Insik ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 530~537
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.530
Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at
. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.
Surface Properties of Glutathione Layer Formed on Gold Surfaces Interacting with ZrO
Park, Jin-Won ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 538~543
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.538
It is investigated that that the physical properties of Glutathione layer formed on gold surfaces may make an effect on the distribution of either gold particle adsorbed to the
surface or vice versa with the adjustment of the electrostatic interactions. For the investigation, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the surface forces between the surfaces as a function of the salt concentration and pH value. The forces were quantitatively analyzed with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory to estimate the surface potential and charge density of the surfaces for each condition of salt concentration and pH value. The estimated-value dependence on the salt concentration was described with the law of mass action, and the pH dependence was explained with the ionizable groups on the surface. The salt concentration dependence of the surface properties, found from the measurement at pH 4 and 8, was consistent with the prediction from the law. It was found that the Glutathione layer had higher values for the surface charge densities and potentials than the zirconium dioxide surfaces at pH 4 and 8, which may be attributed to the ionized-functional-groups of the Glutathione layer.
Kinetic Study on Char-CO
Catalytic Gasification of an Indonesian lignite
Lee, Do Kyun ; Kim, Sang Kyum ; Hwang, Soon Choel ; Lee, Si Hoon ; Rhee, Young Woo ;
Korean Chemical Engineering Research, volume 52, issue 4, 2014, Pages 544~552
DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2014.52.4.544
In this study, We have investigated the kinetics on the char-
gasification reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments were carried out for char-
catalytic gasification of an Indonesian Roto lignite.
and dolomite were selected as catalyst which was physical mixed with coal. The char-
gasification reaction showed rapid an increase of carbon conversion rate at 60 vol%
and 7 wt%
mixed with coal. At the isothermal conditions range from
, the carbon conversion rates increased as the temperature increased. Three kinetic models for gas-solid reaction including the shrinking core model (SCM), volumetric reaction model (VRM) and modified volumetric reaction model (MVRM) were applied to the experimental data against the measured kinetic data. The gasification kinetics were suitably described by the MVRM model for the Roto lignite. The activation energies for each char mixed with
were found a 67.03~77.09 kJ/mol and 53.14~67.99 kJ/mol.