Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Acupuncture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Society for Meridian and Acupoint
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
A Study on Correlation between Extra Meridians and the nutritive Gi (營衛) & the defensive Gi (衛氣)
Cho, Yong-Ju ; Kim, Jin-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 1~17
Objectives : Extra Meridians are important conception for the proper comprehension of the defensive Gi & the defensive Gi, and the principle of the Gi (氣)‘s flow or diffusion. Methods : Extra Meridians could be explained by an anatomical feature and a functional stage. We should analyze the principle of samhap (三合) to have application to meridians. The study of the relationship between Extra Meridians and regular meridians (12正經) is useful to understand origination of the defensive Gi & the nutritive Gi. Results : The origination of the nutritive Gi & the defensive Gi could be interpreted by the principle of samhap correctly. The energic patterns in the flow of Gi (氣) are changed by cooperation with Extra Meridians and regular meridians (12正經). Conclusions : We could inferred that growth, disease, health, etc are controlled in cooperation with Extra Meridians (寄經脈) and the nutritive Gi & the defensive Gi (營衛). Extra Meridians take many parts in origination of the nutritive Gi & the defensive Gi, in the flow or diffusion of them but various energies are controlled basically by regular meridians (12正經). The defensive Gi is originated by Penetration Vessel (衝脈)) and it seems to be made by the principle of samhap (三合) in the process of the nutritive Gi flow (瀯氣流注).
The Study on
Bang, Jung-Kyun ; Jang, Hyun-Jun ; Lee, Joon-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 19~43
Objectives : The aim of this study was to analyse the symptoms of a disease and to elucidate the meaning and rationale of point selection in YuLongFu. Methods : We translated YuLongFu into Korean and analyzed symptoms based upon a comparison of YuLongFu with YuLongGe. The meaning and rationale of point selection in YuLongFu was then inferred from the analysis above. Results and Conclusions : Total 84 acupoints were used in YuLongFu. Moxibustion and pricking blood therapy were used twice. Generally, threre are a lot of diseases caused by stagnation of Qi and blood in YuLongFu. Point selection, therefore, was usually aimed at promoting flow of Qi and blood.
Study on the Methods of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in the Qi Section (in the Naegyeong Chapter) of the Donguibogam
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Joon-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 45~59
Objectives : The aim of this study was to show the rationale of point-selection on the methods of acupuncture and moxibustion in the Qi section(in the Naegyeong chapter) of the Donguibogam. Methods : First, We summarized the cause of each disease in the Qi section(in the Naegyeong chapter) of the Donguibogam. Then, We explained the rationale of acupuncture point-selection referring to the cause of disease, physiology of the Oriental medicine, other uses of each acupuncture points in the Donguibogam, character of each acupuncture points, flow of meridian pathways and specific acupuncture points etc. Results and Conclusions : Total 37 acupuncture points were used in the Qi section(in the Naegyeong chapter) of the Donguibogam. Most of acupuncture points were specific acupuncture points. but, some rationale of acupuncture point-selection were explained by the cause of disease, physiology of the Oriental medicine, other uses of each acupuncture points in the Donguibogam, flow of meridian pathways etc.
A Study of Accuracy and Usability for Acupuncture Points Locating Devices
Chae, Youn-Byoung ; Kang, O-Seok ; Hahm, Dae-Hyun ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Jai-Soon ; Kim, Kwan-Hyung ; Kim, Hee-Young ; Lee, Hye-Jung ; Park, Hi-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 61~76
Objectives : Accurate and reproducible location of an acupuncture point (AP) have been considered an essential component of meaningful acupuncture research as well as clinical practice. Several kinds of devices have been developed and widely used for the convenience of locating APs. However, the accuracy and convenience of these devices have not been systematically evaluated. The present study was performed to find out the most suitable tools for the location accuracy and location easiness of APs among the devices respectively. Methods : Twenty subjects attempted to locate APs, including PC5 and SP6 in the arm and leg, using four different AP positioning methods: one Conventional Ruler method and three alternative methods including Cunometer, Transparent AP meter, and Elastic Ruler method. The position marked on each AP was plotted onto a thin, flexible, and transparent plastic film, and the dispersion rate of the positions was determined and recorded. The elapsed time for locating each AP was measured. After that each subject was answered to a short questionnaire regarding the degree of convenience and confidence of use of each method for AP location. Results : All of three alternative methods took less time than Conventional Ruler method did. Among these alternative methods, the accuracy of Elastic Ruler method was markedly higher than others. The degree of convenience of the Cunometer and the confidence of Elastic Ruler method were the highest among these alternative methods. Conclusions : The present study indicates that the Elastic Ruler method was the most compatible for the conventional Ruler methods. However, there are many factors need to be reconsidered. Improved devices for locating AP are imperatively needed for clinical practice.
An Overview of Pain Measurements
Shim, Sung-Youn ; Park, Hi-Joon ; Lee, Jun-Mu ; Lee, Hyang-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 77~97
Objectives : The aim of this study is to introduce pain measurement tools that are considered suitable for clinical practice and research for Korean Medicine Doctors. Methods : We analysed some widely used and also useful pain measurement tools in terms of their methods and dimensions. Results : Diagrams, scales and questions are usually used to measure pain intensity, temporal pattern, treatment including exacerbating and/or relieving factors, pain location, pain interference, pain quality, pain affect, pain duration, pain beliefs and pain history. Specific pain measurements are also available for specific conditions such as Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Conclusions : Faces Pain Rating Scale, numeric rating scale, visual analogue scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and Brief Pain Inventory and commonly used pain measurements. Specific measurements should be considered depending on research topics.
Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Korean Language Versions on Neck Pain and Disability Questionnaires and Their Psychometric Testing
Lee, Hae-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 99~112
Objectives : It was to translate three neck and spinal pain disability questionnaires - the Neck Disability Index (NDI), the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), and the Functional Rating Index (FRI) - into Korean language, and evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean versions of questionnaires to achieve a good cross-cultural adaptation. Methods : Forty (23 males, 17 females) subjects aged from 15 to 64 years old, participated to examine test-retest reliability. One hundred and eighty (76 males, 104 females) subjects with a primary diagnosis of non-specific neck pain and 81 healthy volunteers were undertaken to examine internal consistemcy, discriminative validity and longitudinal construct validity. Versions of each questionnaire in idiomatic modern Korean were developed using a procedure proposed by Beaton et al. (2000). To assess reliability, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC
) was calculated. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Discriminative validity was examined with independent-group t-tests. Responsiveness was tested by calculating the effect size and standardized response mean for each questionnaire and using Pearson' s r and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results : Test-retest reliability ofthe translated versions of the three disability questionnaires was excellent (ICC
= 0.86-0.90). High internal consistency was found in the three disability questionnaires (Cronbach's alpha ranged from
for the FRI to
for the NPDS and 0.82 for the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire(SFMPQ)). the VAS subscale of the SFMPQ was found to be the most responsive of the subscales (ES=1.44, SRM=1.37). The VAS was also the most responsive pain and disability index in internal responsiveness analysis, although disability indices showed marginally better responsiveness when compared with external standards. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Conclusions : It is concluded that the questionnaires were successfully translated and exhibit acceptable measurement properties, and may suggest that they are suitable for use in clinical and research application.
Report on the 5th WHO Informal Consultation on Development of International Standard Acupuncture Points Locations
Kim, Yong-Suk ; Kang, Sung-Keel ; Sohn, In-Chul ; Hwang, Hye-Suk ; Choi, Sun-Mi ; Koo, Sung-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 113~127
Objectives : To inform the 5th WHO Informal Consultation meeting on Development of International Standard Acupuncture Point Locations, held in Osaka, Japan, on September
, 2005. Results and Conclusions : Nine experts from Korea, China and Japan discussed the principles of acupuncture points locations and the point locations of 33 controversial acupoints that were not agreed at the previous meeting, as well as 328 non-controversial points that all 3 nations agreed on the locations to confirm the expression of every single point. Through this meeting, the locations of ST30, SP12, LR7 and expressions of LU6, LI8, LI9, LI10, LI 13, SP13, BL60, KI3, GB38, LR11, LR12 were agreed. Furthermore, locations of BL39, GB27, GB28 were confirmed out of 6 non-discussed points. However, several points were still required to held additional meeting to discuss. That includes LI19, LI20, ST36, ST37, ST38, ST39, SI6, KI9, PC8, PC9, TE9, TE17, TE23, GB7, GB30, GV26. In addition, foundation for the international society for the acupuncture point location was proposed to make a regular revision of standard acupuncture point location.
Microarray profile of hypothalamic gene expression with acupuncture at acupoint ST36 in carrageenan induced inflammation in Stat 6 knockout mice
Park, Hi-Joon ; Um, Yoon-Kyung ; Jung, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Soo-Cheol ; Han, Mi-Young ; Hong, Mee-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 129~139
A Study on the Effect of Electroacupuncture at Hyunjong (GB39) on Anti-Oxidation
Song, Jong-Keun ; Lee, Hyun ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 141~161
Objectives & Methods : The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of electroacupuncture at Hyunjong (GB39) in rats. The author performed several experimental items including change of body weight, relative liver weight, level of albumin, total bilirubin, LDL-Cholesterol, LDH, GOT and GPT in blood serum, level of SOD, glutathione, catalase, NO and MDA in liver, histological change of liver. Results : 1. In the GB39-EA group, body weights were decreased in the early stages, but increased later on gradually. 2. In the GB39-EA group, the level of LDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased in comparison with that of the holder group, sham-EA group and GB39-NR group. 3. In the GB39-EAgroup, liver SOD, glutathione, catalase activity were increased, and NO density was decreased in comparison with those of the holder group, sham-EA group and GB39-NR group. MDA activity was significantly decreased in comparison with that of the holder group. 4. In the GB39-EA group, the density of liver tissue was more similarly maintained to the normal group in comparison with that of the holder group and sham-EA group. 5. The results of the GB39-EA group showed similar tendency with those of the GB39-EA group, but the effects were lower than those of the GB39-EA group. Conclusions : These results suppose that electroacupuncture at GB39 has an anti oxidative effect in human.
A Study on the Effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Phellodendri Cortex Solution on Collagen-induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice
Kim, Jae-Young ; Lee, Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 163~184
Objectives & Methods : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Phellodendri Cortex Herbal-acupuncture solution (PC-HAS) at Joksamni (ST36) on collagen II induced arthritis in DBA-1J mice. The author performed several experimental items to analyze arthritis evaluation, change of weight, spleen size and adhesion rate, change of cytokine level, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II, chang of immunocyte count, histological change of CIA mouse joint. Results : 1. In the PC-HA group, arthritis index, the incidence of arthritis and joint edema were significantly decreased. 2. In the PC-HA group, the change of spleen size, spleen adhesion rate and the knee joint were significantly decreased. 3. The levels of
, IL-6 and INF- in serum of the CIA mouse were significantly decreased by PC-HA. 4. The levels of IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum of the CIA mouse were significantly decreased by PC-HA. 5. In the CIA mouse spleen cell culture, the levels of IFN- , IFN- / IL-4, IL-10 were significantly decreased by PC-HA, but the level of IL-4 was significantly increased by PC-HA. 6. In the PC-HA group, the ratios of
cell were similarly maintained as normal group in the CIA mouse spleen cell. 7. In the PC-HA group,
cell were significantly decreased in the lymph nodes. 8. In the PC-HA group,
cell were significantly decreased in knee joint. 9. In histology, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation in the PC-HA group were similar with that of the normal group and the collagen fiber expressions in the PC-HA group were similar with that of the normal group. Conclusions : Form the result above, the results suggest that the PC-HA at ST36 has significant effect on collagen-induced arthritis, and can be put to practical use in the future rheumatoid arthritis clinic.
Change of heart rate variability by electro-acupuncture stimulus in rats
Kim, Jung-Dae ; Soh, Kwang-Sup ; Kim, Yun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 185~191
The effect of Electroacupuncture at Nogung (PC8) on the Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Hong, Seung-Won ; Yoon, Dae-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 193~216
Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at the PC8 on normal human beings by using power spectral analysis. Methods : EEG (Electroencephalogram) power spectrum exhibits site-specific and state-related differences in specific frequency bands. In this study, power spectrum was used as a measure of complexity. 32 channels EEG study was carried out in 20 subjects (20 males; age=26.8 years old). Results : In
band, the power values at F7, F8, P3 channels(p<0.05) during the
treatment significantly decreased. In
band, the power values at F4, F8, P3 channels(P<0.05) during the PC8-acupoint treatment significantly decreased. In
band, the power values at F7, F8, P3 Po2 channels(p<0.05) during the
treatment significantly decreased. In
band, the power values at F7, Fz, F4 F8, FTC1, FTC2, CP2, TT2, P3, Pz, Po2 channels(p<0.05) during the PC8-acupoint treatment significantly decreased. Conclusions : This results suggest that Electroacupuncture at the PC8 mostly affect the change on theta(11 channels) bands.
Effects of Moxi-tar Herbal Acupuncture at LI4 (HapGok) on TNBS-induced Colitis in Rats
Song, Jae-Soo ; Yang, Beum-Sik ; Kim, Sun-Young ; Hong, Jeong-A ; Song, Jeong-Bang ; Kim, Kyung-Sik ; Kim, Jae-Hyo ; Kwon, Oh-Sang ; Sohn, In-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 24, issue 2, 2007, Pages 217~230
Objectives : Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease has been recognized as Ha-ri (下痢) or Jang-Byok in Korean oriental medicine. A purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of moxi-tar herbal acupuncture at LI4 (HapGok) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats and further elucidate the possibility of herbal acupuncture on ulcerative colitis which is chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing
g, were subjected to intrarectal injection of either saline (300
) for a control or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) (300
) for a colitis, Moxi-tar (20 mg/ml) were subcutaneously injected to the LI4 just after the secondary injection time of TNBS in rats. To study the effects of Moxi-tar acupuncture in LI4, body weight, RBC count, WBC count, total protein, Paw edema rate, rate of protein leakage into CMC-pouch fluid, IgG levels and IgM levels were observed. Results: Moxi-tar acupuncture in LI4 on TNBS-induced colitis inhibited the body weight lose rate but not effect RBC, WBC count. In addition, it inhibited the reduction of total protein concentration, paw edema, rate of protein leakage into CMC-pouch fluid, IgG levels and IgM levels. Conclusions : It is suggested that moxi-tar herbal acupuncture at LI4 helps to recover TNBS-induced colitis and plays an important role for an treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).