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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Acupuncture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Society for Meridian and Acupoint
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
A Study on Muscular System of Foot Three Yang Meridian-Muscle
Lee, Myung-Sun ; Hong, Seung-Won ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 1~32
Objectives : This study was performed to understand the interrelation between 'Foot three yang meridian-muscle' and 'muscular system'. Methods : We have researched some of the literatures on Meridian-muscle theory, anatomical muscular system, myofascial pain syndrome and anatomy trains. And especially we have compared myofascial pain syndrome to anatomy trains and researched what kind of relationship is exist between them. Results : It is considered that Foot taeyang meridian-muscle includes Abductor digiti minimi m., Gastrocnemius m., Biceps femoris m., Longissimus m., Omohyoid m., Occipital m., Frontal m., Orbicularis oculi m., Trapezius m., Sternocleidomastoid m., Sternohyoid m., Zygomaticus m. Foot soyang meridian-muscle includes Dorsal interosseus m., Tendon of extensor digitorum longus m., Extensor digitorum longus m., Iliotibial band, Vastus lateralis m., Piriformis m., Tensor fasciae latae m., Internal abdominal oblique m., External abdominal oblique m,, Internal intercostal m., External intercostal m., Pectoralis major m., Sternocleidomastoid m., Posterior auricular m., Temporal m., Masseter m., Orbicularis oculi m. Foot yangmyung meridian-muscle includes Extensor digitorum longus m., Vastus lateralis m., Iliotibial band, Iliopsoas m., Anterior tibial m., Rectus femoris m., Sartorius m., Rectus abdominis m., Pectoralis major m., Internal intercostal m., External intercostal m., Sternocleidomastoid m., Masseter m., Levator labii superioris m., Zygomatic major m., Zygomatic minor m., Orbicularis oculi m., Buccinator m. and the symptoms of Foot three yang meridian-muscle are similar to the myofascial pain syndrome. Superficial back line in anatomy trains is similar to the pathway of Foot taeyang meridian-muscle. Lateral Line in anatomy trains is similar to the pathway of Foot soyang meridian-muscle. Superficial Front Arm Line in anatomy trains is similar to the pathway of Foot yangmyung meridian-muscle. Conclusions : There is some difference between myofascial pain syndrome and meridian-muscle theory in that the former explains each muscle individually, while the latter classifies muscular system in the view of integrated organism. More studies are needed in anatomy and physiology to support the integration of muscular system of Foot three yang meridian-muscle in aspect of anatomy trains.
A new opinion about the electrical peculiarity of meridian and acupoint
Ahn, Seong-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 33~41
Objectives : The aim of this study was to understand electro-physiological peculiarity in meridian and acupoints, and understand acupuncture therapy mechanism as an electro-physiological viewpoints. Methods : I reviewed the articles on the electro-physiological peculiarity of the meridian and acupoints Results and Conclusions : It has been reported that meridian and acupoints have high-electrical conductivity and row-electrical resistance. On this scientific basis, to understand the mechanism of acupuncture therapy, I made some hypotheses. At first, there is electro-property in meridian and acupoint. The second, energy flowing in meridian is related with electro-property. The third, there is electronic interaction between practitioner of acupuncture therapy and patient receiving acupuncture therapy. The forth, acupuncture effects which may be expressed by the electro-charge capacity is transfered between practitioner and patient via acupuncture. Electro-charge induced via acupuncture in practitioner may be an important factor that initiate the electro-charge changes in meridian and acupoint of patient.
Current concept for anti-inflammatory mechanism of acupuncture;based on the latest studies
Jo, Jong-Hyun ; Ahn, Seong-Hun ; Sohn, In-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 43~55
Objectives : The acupuncture has been in the classic arsenal of Oriental medicine over inflammatory diseases. Its physiological mechanism is not fully understood but being known better everyday. We reviewed several papers to describe current concepts over anti-inflammatory mechanism of acupuncture. Methods : Some computerized literature searches were done using the key words of 'acupuncture' AND 'Anti-inflammatory' in Medline via Pubmed between March 2007 and December 2007. Only rationally-designed studies were picked among practically associated materials. A well-known hypothesis on acupunctural physiology was adapted for integration. Result : 18 studies were selected. 17 studies were laboratory experiment and 1 was a clinical study. Data was classified into some comprehensive categories. Author's opinion was added at the end of each category. Study results supported the hypotheses on acupunctural physiology; Acupuncture has some influences on autonomic nerve system(ANS). And it stimulates several receptors from target cells like macrophage, and finally inhbits cytokines like TNF-
andIL-10 which are inflammation-mediated. Acupuncture increases the opioid releasing therefore relieves inflammation. And acupuncture inhibits cyclooxgenase(COX) but its mechanism is controversial until now. Conclusion : Current concepts over anti-inflammatory mechanism of acupuncture are as follows. Acupucture suppresses inflammation by stimulation of ANS, increasing of opioid releasing and inhibition of COX. But more studies are needed to fully describe the anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture.
A literature review on controlling methods used in clinical trials of auricular acupuncture
Lee, Ji-Young ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 57~69
Objectives : To review the controlling methods used in RCTs (randomized controlled trials) of auricular acupuncture. Methods : To investigate the controlling methods used in clinical trials of auricular acupuncture, 46 articles were retrieved from PUBMED (from August 1976 to August 2007, with limits: english, clinical trial) using the key words of "ear acupuncture", "auricular acupuncture", "auriculo-medicine", and sorted out according to the types of control treatments. Among them, 10 articles were selected based on STRICTA (Standards for Reporting Intervention in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture), and the controlling methods used in those articles were reviewed. Results : In clinical trials of auricular acupuncture, 'sham acupoints (non-acupoints and non-treatment acupoints included)', 'minimal acupuncture', 'pseudo-intervention', and 'placebo devices' have been used as controlling methods, but their 'inactivity' have been in question. To compensate the disadvantages of 'minimal acupuncture', and 'pseudo-intervention' control, placebo auricular acupuncture needles have been developed, although these needles didn't satisfy the conditions of 'blinding' and 'physical inactivity' simultaneously. Conclusions : Further researches on 'sham acupoints' and new development of 'placebo auricular acupuncture needles' are needed.
Is Minimal Acupuncture an Adequate Control in Clinical Trials?
Chae, Youn-Byoung ; Kim, Song-Yi ; Lee, Hye-Jung ; Park, Hi-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 71~85
Objective : Acupuncture, one of the Oriental medical treatment techniques in East Asia, is growing in popularity all over the world. Based on bibliographical and clinical data, the depth of needling, i.e. superficial or deep needling, has been considered to be a variable as potential modifiers of needling effects, such as localization, manipulation of the needle, or elicitation of DeQi. The purpose of this review is to summarize clinical trials using minimal acupuncture and to evaluate its appropriateness as a control. Methods : A survey of computerized literature searches for randomized controlled trials using minimal acupuncture revealed that a total of 10 studies were published until April 2008. Results : Results obtained from clinical trials showed that acupuncture were more effective than minimal acupuncture in 3 out of 10 trials, while others were no more effective than control. However, minimal acupuncture might neither be a inert placebo nor be indiscriminable. Conclusion : Minimal acupuncture as 'placebo' controls seems misleading and scientifically unacceptable.
Hominis Placental Pharmacoacupuncture, a Promising Asthma Therapy
Choi, Jun-Yong ; Oh, Dal-Seok ; Jung, Hee-Jae ; Choi, Sun-Mi ; Jung, Sung-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 87~94
Objectives : The aim of this study was to find out some rationales for using Hominis placental extract(HPE) pharmaco-acupuncture on asthmatic patients, and to suggest an appropriate clinical research of HPE pharmaco-acupuncture on asthma. Methods : Articles regarding immunologic experiments about HPE and clinical reports about HPE-contained pharmaco-acupuncture on asthmatic patients were reviewed by on-line and off-line searching. Results and Conclusions : HPE is suggested to have several pharmacological effects on allergic diseases including asthma as well as autoimmune diseases. There are some observational studies of HPE-contained pharmaco-acupuncture on asthmatic patients. However, the designs of these studies are not sufficient to investigate the exact effect of HPE pharmaco-acupuncture on asthma. To investigate HPE pharmaco- acupuncture as a novel asthma therapy, it will be needed to perform further experiments about HPE's pharmacological mechanism on asthma and to try further advanced clinical researches such as well-designed randomized controlled trial of HPE pharmaco-acupuncture.
Causality Assessment of Adverse Events on Acupuncture
Jung, Hee-Jung ; Choi, Jun-Yong ; Park, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Kun-Hyung ; Choi, Sun-Mi ; Oh, Dal-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 95~105
Objectives : This study is to establish the appropriate assessment of causalities from adverse events (AEs) which are related to acupuncture treatment. Methods : We assessed thirty AEs which were caused in the early phase trial on concomitant use of acupuncture and herbal medicines. We scored each AE on the questionnaire in Naranjo and SNU algorithm scale which are for drug causality assessment in pharmacoepidemiology. Results : In Naranjo scale, there were consistencies among the evaluators qualitatively with "Probable", "Possible" degree. In reliability test, parameters, such as, gamma and kendall's tau-b revealed the degrees of 73%, and 32%, respectively. There were disaccordant tendency in SNU algorithm scale. Conclusion : A new algorithm which reflects acupuncture properties should be developed and elucidated.
An experimental study on locating acupoints using an elastic ruler;an experience from a meridianology practice class
Lee, Joon-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 107~114
Objectives : Accurate location of acupoints is a prerequisite for both practice and research into acupoint specificity. Given that accurate location of acupoints is one of the most important issues in meridianology education, this study aimed at evaluating if the elastic ruler method for locating acupoints is suitable for meridianology practice class. Methods : Fifty-six students who took meridianology practice class participated in the experiment. Firstly, they were asked to locate PC6, CV12 and ST36 without any assisting tools and the distance between standard acupoint and their acupoint location was measured. Secondly, they were again asked to locate the same points this time with an elastic ruler. Then the first and second measurements were compared using a paired t-test. Results : Analysis of the results found using an elastic ruler significantly improved the difference between the student's acupoint location and the standard acupoint: there was a significant difference between 1st and 2nd measurements for PC6 (1.87
0.29mm vs. 1.28
0.19mm, P=0.037) and for ST36 (2.70
0.22mm vs. 1.38
0.15mm, P<0.0001). Conclusions : Using an elastic ruler as an assisting tool for locating acupoints in meridianology practice class should be considered for improving accuracy in acupoint location.
The effects of
acupuncture on the muscle fatigue
Kwon, Ho-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 115~123
Objectives : The aim of this stuty is to investigate the effect of acupuncture at
(G34) on the muscle fatigue. Methods : Subjects were asked to perform the elbow flexion and extension to induce the muscle fatigue. Sample group of 16 healthy subjects had acupuncture on
(G34) during the resting time, while control group of 13 healthy subjects did not. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured after exercise and rest to record muscle fatigue. Results : Acupuncture at
(G34) is effective for decreasing the muscle fatigue.
The Effects of Bee Venom Acupunture Therapy on Shoulder Pain Patients in Stroke Sequelae
Lee, Yun-Kyu ; Lee, Yoon-Kyoung ; Kim, Jae-Su ; Lee, Kyung-Min ; Lee, Bong-Hyo ; Jung, Tae-Young ; Lim, Seong-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 125~141
Objective : The aim of this study is to investigate the curative effect of Bee Venom Acupuncture Therapy for pain and limited R.O.M (range of motion) of shoulder in stroke patients. Methods : The subjects of this study were 6 patients with shoulder pain in stroke sequelae. Routine Oriental Medical programs (Acupunture, moxibustion, herbal medicine and physical therapy) were maintained for each subject throughout this study. Single subject ABABAB design was adopted. Each period was 4 days as a rule. Only during the treatment period, Bee Venom Acupuncture Therapy was provided as intervention at the acupoints of LI15(Gyeonu), TE14(Gyeollyo), GB21(Gyeonjeong), LI14(Bino). The change of pain was measured with a Visual Analogue Scale(VAS). The pain threshold was measured using pressure algometer at the same acupoints where Bee Venom Acupuncture Therapy was provided. And the R.O.M of shoulder joint (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, external rotation, internal rotation) was measured as well. Analysis was performed by Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS for the comparison of treatment(Bee Venom Acupuncture Therapy) and non-treatment. Results : The median overall improvement for difference in VAS was -2.219(-3.213, -1.175), for difference in external rotation of shoulder R.O.M was 9.992(-2.298, 18.49), for difference in tenderness score of LI14(Bino) by pressure algometer was 5.05(0.6283, 7.762). 95% credibility intervals being shown in brackets. However, the median overall improvement for difference in the other measurements was not significant. Conclusion : This study suggests that Bee Venom Therapy may be applicable to decrease pain and improve R.O.M of shoulder in hemiplegia patients with stroke. Further elaborated single subject designs need to be accumulated to confirm the effects of Bee Venom Acupunture Therapy on shoulder pain in patients with stroke sequelae.
A Study on the Anti-oxidative Effect of Electroacupuncture at Yangreungcheon(GB34) in rats
Choi, Joon-Soo ; Lee, Hyun ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 143~158
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to observe the anti-oxidative effects of electroacupuncture at GB34(Yangreungcheon) in rats. Methods : The authors performed several experimental items including measurements of body weight, relative liver weight, levels of albumin, total bilirubin, LDL-cholesterol, LDH, GOT and GPT in blood serum, levels of SOD, glutathione, catalase, NO and MDA in liver, and histological analysis of liver. The conclusions are as follows. Results : 1. In the GB34-EA group, liver index was lower than those of the control group and the holder group. 2. In the GB34-EA group, the levels of albumin and total bilirubin in serum were increased significantly compared to those of the control and the holder group. LDL-cholesterol level was decreased significantly compared to those of the control group and the holder group. 3. In the GB34-EA group, liver SOD, glutathione, catalase activity were increased, and NO concentration in liver was decreased significantly compared to those of control and the holder group. 4. In the GB34-EA group, the density of liver tissue was more similarly maintained to that of the normal group compared to those of the control group, holder group and sham-EA group. Conclusions : These results suggest that electroacupuncture at GB34 may have an antioxidant effect in rat.
Effects of Moxi-tar Herbal Acupuncture at Cheonchu (ST25) on Crohn's Disease Induced by TNBS in Mices
Kim, Yong-Tae ; Ahn, Seong-Hun ; Kim, Jae-Hyo ; Sohn, In-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 159~177
Objectives : Crohn's disease is a severe chronic inflammation that is treated mainly by immunosuppression, which often has serious side effects. There is need to develop new therapeutic methods or drugs that have few side effects in order to treat this disease. Acupuncture with Moxi-tar at Cheonchu (ST25) has anti-inflammatory properties, but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory actions is unclear. We investigated the protective effects and speculated the mechanisms of acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25 on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in mice which is a well known Crohn's disease animal model. Methods : 5 % TNBS was treated at day 1 and day 7 into rectum of mice. To investigate therapeutic effects of acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25, acupuncture was carried out on day 3, and day 6. For the data analysis, we observed macroscopic and microscopic findings of the colon. Weight and width of the colon, degree of damage, changes of body weight, and myeloperoxygenase (MPO) activity were checked. For analysing protein expression, we carried out immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. For analysing mRNA expression, RT-PCR was carried out. Results : TNBS induced damages on the colon of mice, while acupuncture of Moxi-tar at ST25 suppressed TNBS mediated damages similar to those on the colons of mice in the control (not treated with TNBS) group. The average body weight of TNBS treated mice (77.4%) was decreased compared with that of the control mice (105%), and acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25 suppressed the loss of body weight caused by TNBS (from 77.4% to 95.3%). TNBS induced infiltration of immune cells in all layers of the colon while acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25 suppressed infiltration of immune cells caused by TNBS. Furthermore, acupunctured with Moxi-tar at ST25 suppressed macro-, micro- colonic damages caused by TNBS. Acupunctured with Moxi-tar at ST25 dramatically improved the clinical and histopathological symptoms such as the increase in weight of the distal colon and the MPO activity in TNBS-induced colitis. Acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25 down-regulated the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (
) activity and suppressed tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-
), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions caused by TNBS. Conclusions : Acupuncture with Moxi-tar at ST25 helps recovery from the TNBS-induced colonic damage by down-regulation of
activity and suppressing of TNF-
, and ICAM-1 expressions. This may be an important method for the treatment of Crohn's disease.
Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at PC6 on Intestinal Motility in Rats
Hur, Boo ; Lee, Byung-Ryul ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 179~197
Objectives and Methods : The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) at PC6 on intestinal motility in rats. We made over-activated state of intestinal motility with carbachol and suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rat, and carried out acupuncture with needle retained (NR), low frequency (2 Hz) EA and high frequency (100 Hz) EA at PC6 before or after the administration of carbachol or loperamide. The charcoal travel rate was measured to evaluate the intestinal motility. Results : 1. NR showed no significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. While, 2 Hz EA and 100 Hz EA at PC6 significantly increased the intestinal motility of rat in normal state. 2. All of the pre-treatment and post-treatment of NR, 2 Hz EA and 100 Hz EA at PC6 showed no significant effects on intestinal motility of rat which was over-activated with carbachol. 3. Both pre-treatment and post-treatment of NR significantly increased intestinal motility in rat which was suppressed with loperamide. 4. Pre-treatment of 2 Hz EA and post-treatment of 100 Hz EA significantly increased intestinal motility in rat which was suppressed with loperamide. Conclusions : These results suggest that acupuncture (NR) and EA on PC6 have preventive and therapeutic effect on suppressed intestinal motility, and NR may be more effective than EA in that condition.
The effects of traditional acupuncture techniques and green laser acupuncture on the blood pressure in hypertensive rat induced by two kidney one clip
Na, Chang-Su ; Youn, Dae-Hwan ; Choi, Chan-Hun ; Lee, Suk-Hee ; Oh, Kwang-Hwan ; Jeong, Sung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 199~210
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the effect of invasive laser acupuncture therapy with green light (LAT-G) at HT7(Sinmun), SP3(Taebaek) on the blood pressure in hypertensive rat induced by two kidney one clip. Methods : The experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rats. 2K1C hypertension model was prepared by constricting the left renal artery with a sliver clip. Animals were divided into four groups, which were simple acupuncture treatment group with straight needle insertion on the square(AT-SS), acupuncture treatment group with reducing manipulation in the opposite channel direction(AT-RD), laser acupuncture treatment group with green light 532 nm, 10mW power in the opposite channel direction(LAT-G10) and laser acupuncture treatment group with green light 532 nm, 20mW power in the opposite channel direction(LAT-G20). The treatments were performed once per two days for 10 days. Results : Body weight was increased significantly in LAT-G20 group compared with AT-RD group. The blood pressure was significantly decreased in LAT-G20 and LAT-G10 groups compared with AT-SS group. Conclusions : These results suggest that green laser acupuncture therapy at SP3
HT7 is more effective than straight needle insertion on the square for controlling hypertension. It is possible that invasive green laser acupuncture therapy (532 nm) can be used as a reducing method of the traditional acupuncture techniques.
Hepatoprotective effect of electroacupuncture at GB34 (Yangreungcheon) in
Chae, Choong-Heon ; An, Taek-Won ; Yim, Yun-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 211~224
Objectives : To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) at GB34 on hepatotoxicity in
-intoxicated rats. Methods : Rats were injected with
and treated with acupuncture or 2 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA) at left GB34 three times a week for 10 weeks. A non-acupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a sham point. To estimate the effects of EA on hepatotoxicity in rats, body weight, liver weight and liver index were measured, and biochemical assays for serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol, and hematological analysis for RBC, WBC, PLT, hemoglobin, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes, and histology analysis of liver tissue were performed. Results : 1. Lymphocyte level in blood was significantly decreased by
-intoxication and significantly increased by acupuncture and 2 Hz EA at left GB34. 2. Neutrophill and monocyte level in blood was increased by
-intoxication and significantly reduced by acupuncture and 2 Hz EA at left GB34. 3. Acupuncture and 2 Hz EA at left GB34 significantly reduced serum ALT and AST which were increased by
-intoxication. 4. EA at GB34 significantly reduced serum ALT and AST as compared with EA at sham point in
-intoxicated rat. 5. No significant difference was found between the effects of acupuncture and that of 2 Hz EA on
-induced liver damage in rats. Conclusions : 2 Hz EA at GB34 has hepatoprotective effects on
-induced liver damage in rats and the point-specificity of GB34 may be involved in these effects.
Report on 1 Case of Thyroglossal Cyst Patient Treated with Acupuncture
Lee, Bong-Hyo ; Lim, Seong-Chul ; Jung, Tae-Young ; Lee, Kyung-Min ; Kim, Jae-Su ; Lee, Yoon-Gyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 2, 2008, Pages 225~232
Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of acupuncture to influence thyroglossal cyst. Methods : Acupuncture treatment was applied on several acupoints in the afternoon three to four times a week for 12 weeks. The effect of acupuncture treatment was evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) and THYROID USG manipulated by a specialist in radiology. Results : VAS was decreased from 10 to 2, and this effect occurred in the first half of the treatment period. THYROID USG scan has shown that acupuncture treatment reduced the depth of the cyst approximately 6 ㎜ in the first half of the period, but not in the latter half. Conclusions : From this study, we suggest that acupuncture may take part in the treatment of thyroglossal cyst.