Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Acupuncture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Society for Meridian and Acupoint
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Association of Samcho-gyeong(Triple Energizer Meridian) and the Lower Branch of Meridian system
Kim, Do-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 1~15
Objectives : This study is designed to investigate the association between Samcho-gyeong(TE) and the lower branch of Meridian system. Methods : The base of the study was established by searching for the historic conception of Samcho. Thereafter the meaning of lower correlation was considered and the property of lower part of Samcho Meridian system studied. Results : Samcho is a kind of Yug-Bu(Six hollow viscera, 六腑). It is a functional internal organ, which has been continuously controversial in history. It covers wide range of the internal organs and plays various kinds of roles. Samcho and Simpo lack in interrelation of obverse and reverse. The conception of Sanghap(Upper correlation, 上合) in Naegyeong supplements the deficiency. To establish the conception of Sanghap between Yug-Bu and Hand meridians, there should be established the conception of Hahap(Lower correlation, 下合) between Yug-Bu and foot meridians for treating lower parts. The existence of Hahaphyeol(Lower confluent points, 下合穴) reveals that there were a lot of limits in treating JungHa-cho(Middle and Lower energizers, 中下焦) diseases only with the acupoints of the Hand meridians. Jogsamcho(Triple energizer of foot, 足三焦) meridian written in Taeso(太素), corresponds to the lower leg, and it is believed that it engages in treating diseases in the trunk of the body and Hacho(Lower energizer, 下焦). Conclusions : Therefore, it is believed that the lower part of meridian of Samcho can deal with the symptoms of lower back pain, leg pain, bladder disease, and so on. This study is meaningful in that it expands the range of treatment in acupoints of the regular meridians.
Assignment of muscles in lower limb to meridians based on the location of acupoints and muscular function
Park, Byong-Mun ; Yang, Ki-Young ; Lee, Byung-Ryul ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 17~29
Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the correlation of meridian system in oriental medicine and muscular system in western medicine. Methods : Muscles were assigned to meridians by their main functions and the acupoints on them. New mutual relationships between meridians in lower limb were studied based on the muscular function. Results : In gluteal & femoral region, iliopsoas & quadratus femoris are assigned to spleen & stomach meridians, gluteus maximus & hamstrings to urinary bladder & kidney meridians, adductor muscle groups to liver meridian, gluteus medius & minimus & iliotibial tract to gall bladder meridian. In crural region, anterior crural muscles are assigned to stomach meridian, lateral crural muscles to gall bladder meridian, suferficial posterior crural muscles to urinary bladder (& kidney) meridian, deep posterior crural muscles to liver, spleen, kidney meridians. In lower limb, urinary bladder meridian and stomach meridian lead the muscular functions and correspond to each other, while spleen meridian assists stomach meridian, and kidney meridian assists urinary bladder meridian. Conclusions : Muscles may be assigned to meridians by their functions and the acupoints on them. From the view of muscular function, Yang meridians lead Yin meridians in lower limb.
An analytic study of acupoint locations described in "WaHyul" of "ChimGuKyungHumBang" and their modern application
Lee, Yun-Hee ; Cha, Wung-Seok ; Kim, Nam-Il ; Park, Hi-Joon ; Ahn, Sang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 31~47
Objectives : The objective of this study is to apply the contents of "WaHyul(訛穴 : The errors of acupoint locations"of "ChimGuKyungHumBang" to modern acupoint locations. Methods : The text of "WaHyul" was closely examined and analyzed. "WHO standard acupuncture point locations in the western pacific region" was reviewed based on its contents. Results : According to the analysis, the correct 少商(LU11) was mentioned as a spot appropriately distanced from the corner of the nail root under the skin. This is the most accurate and reasonable synthesis of other related texts. Furthermore, the necessity of defining the locations of all the well points was also emphasized and their locations were mentioned that could be located by the same method. There is no further discussion of other acupoints apart from descriptions of their locations from other texts. Some parts that were pointed out as common errors included not only commonly made mistakes, but errors made in acupuncture texts as were true for 神門(HT7) and 肩井(GB21). The standards of 少商(LU11), 合谷(LI4) and 足三里(ST36) presented in the WHO Standardization are not only similar to what 「WaHyul」 indicated as errors in acupoint locations, but also deviate other acupuncture texts; appropriate corrections must be made. The standard of 肩井(GB21) presents a new acupoint locating method never mentioned before in received classic acupuncture texts and so a rediscussion is in need. Other standards, such as the 絶骨(GB39), had some points of controversy, yet somewhat incomplete while HT7 did not go beyond the bounds of "WaHyul". Conclusions : "WaHyul" can be used to revise WHO standards, and has practical value in modern acupoint locating.
Review on the change of acupuncture point location of gallbladder meridian in head
An, Young-Sang ; Yang, Ki-Young ; Lee, Byung-Ryul ; Yim, Yun-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 49~58
Objectives and Methods : The present study was to investigate the change of acupuncture point location of gallbladder meridian in head by way of reviewing classical literatures. Result and Conclusions : 1. The locations of acupuncture points closed-by anatomical marks such as GB1, GB2, GB3, GB11, GB12, GB19, GB20 are clear and accurate. 2. The expression of acupuncture points' locations of GB4, GB5, GB6, GB8 and GB10 are obscure in classical literature, but their locations became clear and objective in recent literatures. 3. The locations of GB9 and GB13 are open to dispute but WHO standard acupuncture point seems to be resonable. 4. In classical literature, the length from the midpoint of the anterior hairline to the midpoint of the posterior hairline is 12 B-cun, and the length from the midpoint of the anterior hairline to the GB19 is 5 cun, 5.5 cun or 6.5 cun. We presume that the length from GB15 to GB19 might have been measured by F-cun.
A literature study of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in the the uterine section (in the Naegyeong Chapter) of Dong-Ui-Bo-Gam
Kim, Kyung-Min ; Yang, Gi-Young ; Lee, Byung-Ryul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 59~71
Objectives : The aim of this study was to show the rationale of point-selection for acupuncture and moxibustion in the Uterine section(in the Naegyeong Chapter) of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Methods : We reviewed the causes of each disease in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam, and then explained the rationale of acupoint-selection for the treatment of those diseases referring to etiology and physiology of Oriental medicine, other applications of each acupoints in the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam, characteristic of each acupoints, flow of Gi (Qi) through meridian pathways and specific acupoints etc. Results : There are comments on acupuncture and moxibustion for abnormal menstruation, amenorrhea, metrorrhagia, leukorrhea, bleeding from uterus after menopause in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Conclusions : Acupoints of conception vessel, and three foot Yin meridians are preferably used for acupuncture and moxibustion in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Out of them, CV3 is most frequently used and SP6, CV6, BL23, LR2 are also used often.
Effects of five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) using needle manipulation to sedate Six Fu-Organ on serum lipid and liver function of hyperlipidemic rats induced by high fat diet
Youn, Dae-Hwan ; Na, Chang-Su ; Choi, Tae-Jin ; Yun, Jeong-Young ; Ryu, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Chan-Hun ; Choi, Sun-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 73~88
Objective : The aim of this research was to investigate the effect on five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) at 4 acupoints by needle manipulation to sedate Six Fu-Organ on hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet in rats. Method : We recorded data of weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, weight of liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT in serum of rats fed high fat diet for 5 weeks. Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups(normal; normal diet and non-acupuncture group, control; non-acupuncture group, Acu-LI; acupuncture at
group, Acu-ST; acupuncture at
, Acu-SI; acupuncture at
, Acu-BL; acupuncture therapy at
, Acu-TE; acupuncture at
, Acu-GB; acupuncture at
. After needles inserted, it was rotated clockwise and anticlockwise 12 times on rats fed high fat diet. Results : The body weight was decreased in Acu-SI, Acu-TE, Acu-GB group, /the food intake was decreased in Acu-TE, / the food efficiency was decreased in Acu-SI, /serum triglyceride was decreased in Acu-LI, Acu-ST, Acu-BL, Acu-GB, /serum total cholesterol was decreased in Acu-LI, Acu-BL, serum ALP was decreased in Acu-LI, Acu-ST, Acu-BL, Acu-TE, Acu-GB. While the relative weight of heart was increased in Acu-LI, Acu-SI, the relative weight of kidney was increased in Acu-SI, Acu-GB. Conclusion : These results suggest that five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) may be having an therapeutic influence on hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet. Further researches of acupuncture manipulation are needed in the future based on our study.
Effect of Chilgitang Extract for Herb-Acupuncture on ROS, RNS, Lipid Peroxidation and LDL oxidation
Shin, Jung-Soo ; Moon, Jin-Young ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 89~104
Objectives : This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract of Chilgitang herb-acupuncture solution (CHAS). Methods : The radical scavenging capacity was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system, DCFH-DA assay, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite generating system. In addition, antioxidant activity on copper and AAPH mediated human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was measured by using TBARS assay and relative electrophoretic mobility assay. The amount of total phenolic compounds was assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results : CHAS revealed a potent scavenging activity on DPPH radical(82%), superoxide anions(73%), hydroxyl radical(63%), nitric oxide (99%) and peroxynitrite (99%). Moreover, CHAS showed a strong inhibitory effect (59%) on
-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate. CHAS also markedly inhibited copper(81%) and AAPH(56%)-mediated LDL oxidation, and effectively suppressed the electrophoretic mobility during exposure of human LDL to copper ions. CHAS (82 mg/g) contained higher concentration of total phenolic compounds than that of water extract (45 mg/g) obtained from Chilgitang. Conclusions : These results indicate that CHAS may protect against ROS- or RNS involved diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
The effect of five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) therapy on the six yin meridians on the high fat diet-induced obese rats
Na, Chang-Su ; Kim, Sang-Hoon ; Ryu, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Sun-Mi ; Choi, Chan-Hun ; Youn, Dae-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 105~117
Objectives : This research was performed to investigate the effect of five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) therapy at acupoints on the Yin meridians on obese rats(Sprague Dawley strain, male) induced by high fat diet. Methods : The control and acupuncture groups were provided with high fat diet, and the acupuncture groups were treated with five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) every other day for five weeks. We observed the body weight gain, food intake, riglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Result : The acupuncture group treated with five element acupuncture on the meridians of spleen, heart, pericardium showed significant decrease of body weight, the groups treated on the meridians of lung, heart, pericardium showed signigicant decrease of food intake. Concentration of HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased in the groups treated on the meridians of spleen, heart, pericardium, liver. Conclusion : Reviewing these experimental results, it appears that the five element constitutional acupuncture(Sa-am acupuncture) therapy at acupoints on the meridians of spleen, heart and pericardium have an efficacy on obesity induced by high fat diet.
Comparative study on the effects of 2 Hz electroacupuncture stimulation at left and right GB34's in
Yi, Ji-Young ; Yang, Gi-Young ; Lee, Byung-Ryul ; Yim, Yun-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 119~132
Objectives : To compare the effects of low-frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at left and right GB34s on hepatotoxicity in
-intoxicated rats. Methods : Rats were injected with
and treated with 2 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA) at left and right GB34s for 15 minutes 3 times per week, for 10 weeks. Holder group, injected with
and strained in a cylinder for same period as the EA group, was established to compare the hepatotoxicity against the two electroacupuncture groups. To estimate the effects of EA on hepatotoxicity in rats, body weight, liver weight and liver index were measured. Biochemical assays for serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol ; hematological analysis for RBC, WBC, PLT, hemoglobin, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes ; and histology analysis of liver tissue were also performed. Results : Lymphocyte level in blood was significantly decreased by
-intoxication, and increased by low-frequency electroacupuncture applied on both left and right GB34s. Low-frequency EA applied on right and left GB34s significantly reduced serum ALT and AST, both of which had been increased by
-intoxication. Conclusion : Low-frequency electroacupunctures at both left and right GB34s have hepatoprotective effects on
-induced liver damage in rats. However, no significant differences were found between the effects of EAs at left and right GB34s.
The effect of acupuncture using tonification and sedation manipulation at LI4(Hegu) and KI7(Fuliu) on the control of sweating
Song, Min-Sun ; Choi, Chan-Hun ; Youn, Dae-Hwan ; Kim, Jee-Hyun ; Na, Chang-Su ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 133~145
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to exam the effectiveness of acupuncture using the tonification & sedation manipulation for LI4(Hegu) and KI7(Fuliu) which was known to promote sweating for lack sweating and inhibit for excessive sweating. Methods : The subject of this study was 60 people who agreed with participating. The participants were divided into 6 groups as control group without acupuncture, acupuncture group with needle inserted perpendicularly at LI4, KI7 without manipulation(AT-A), acupuncture group with needle inserted and twisted at LI4 using sedation technique and KI7 using tonificaton technique(AT-B), acupuncture group with needle inserted and twisted at LI4 using tonificaton technique and KI7 using sedation technique(AT-C), acupuncture group with needle inserted and twisted at LI4 and KI7 using tonificaton technique(AT-D) and acupuncture group with needle inserted and twisted at LI4 and KI7 using sedation technique(AT-E). We obtained baseline data at a stable condition with the temperature of
. After having the participant stay at
for 10 minute and treated with acupuncture for 10 minute, we measured the parameters such as sweating rate, water content in subcutaneous, water content in skin surface, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. Results : After the tonification & sedation manipulation at LI4 and KI7, the sweating rate was significantly decreased in AT-B, AT-D and AT-E groups. The water contents in skin surface was significantly decreased in AT-B and AT-E groups. The water contents in subcutaneous was significantly decreased in AT-B, AT-C, AT-D and AT-E groups. However, there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. Conclusions : Acupuncture at LI4 and KI7 is effective in controling sweating, and the effect varies according to the tonification & sedation manipulation technique.
The study of metabolomics for the scientific research of Korean medicine: Review
Jung, Jee-Youn ; Hwang, Geum-Sook ; Sohn, In-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 147~166
Objective : This study is achieved to know the way that we can use metabolomics for the scientific research of Korean medicine. Results : We elucidate that metabolomics can be contributed to four ways for objectification of Korean medicine 1. Diagnosis of BeunJungLonChi(辯證論治). 2. Application toward Personalized medicine. 3. Quantification of Herbal medicine. 4. Evaluation of efficacy/safety for Korean medicine formulation Conclusion : Metabolomics opens up a new opportunity to reinvestigate Korean medicine from holistic perspective. Furthermore, Metabolomics is expected to provide effective method in research of acupuncture and meridian.
Development of three-dimensional image modelling of meridian and acupoint
Yin, Chang-Shik ; Park, Hi-Joon ; Lee, Hye-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 167~174
Objectives : Acupuncture points and meridians have been usually depicted as a two dimensional drawing and verbal description. Recently, imaging and three-dimensional image processing technologies have been introduced into medical fields such as anatomy and virtual operation, for the purpose of enhanced efficiency in research and education. This study attempted an image modelling of the meridian and acupoint in the upper limb region. Methods : A vector image model of an arm was produced and medical information on the meridian and acupoint of the arm region was incorporated. Results : A 3D modelling of the acupuncture meridian and acupoint in the upper limb region was produced along with a user console to control the presentation of related information and to facilitate visualization of the 3D model images. Conclusions : A 3D modelling of the acupuncture meridian and acupoint will be an efficient platform for an education and research.
A Visual Factor of Blinding of the Non-Penetrating Placebo Needle
Park, Jae-Hyun ; Chae, Youn-Byoung ; Park, Hi-Joon ; Lee, Hye-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 175~185
Objective : Acupuncture (from the Latin acus, "needle," and pungere, "to prick") is a technique of inserting and manipulating fine needles at specific points on the body. As a placebo acupuncture needle device was developed based on the visual impact of needling, it has been raised that it is useful only when acupuncture points and needling are visible to subjects. To examine the visual factor of the placebo acupuncture, the present study was aimed to compare the blinding index of the verum and placebo acupuncture between masked and unmasked situation. Methods : Thirty-six patients were randomly alloted to be stimulated with a verum or placebo acupuncture in a cross-over design. They were asked to guess a right answer whether they were stimulated with the verum or placebo acupuncture at LI4 in an unmasked or masked situation. The penetrating, pain, and deqi sensations were also measured after the stimulation using modified visual analogue scale. Results : The correct answer rate of the placebo acupuncture was 22.2% and 16.7% in an unmasked and masked situation, respectively (P>0.767). The blinding index of the placebo acupuncture was -0.56 (95%CI -0.84 to -0.27) and -0.67 (95%CI -0.91 to -0.42) in an unmasked and masked situation, respectively. The penetrating and deqi sensation of the verum acupuncture were significantly higher than those of the placebo acupuncture in both unmasked and masked situation. The pain sensation of the verum acupuncture was significantly higher than that of the placebo acupuncture in masked situation, but not in unmasked situation. Conclusion : Blinding of the placebo acupuncture was successful both in the unmasked and masked situation. These finding indicate that visual factor might not play a critical role in blinding of the placebo needle. We suggest that placebo needle would be also useful in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan even when the subject could not see the placebo needle.
A Survey on Practitioners' and Patients' Understanding of Acupuncture Treatment during Pregnancy
Chang, Li ; Sohn, Young-Joo ; Lee, Joon-Moo ; Lee, Hyang-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 187~204
Objectives : To investigate how Korean Medicine Doctors (KMDs) and pregnant women understand acupuncture treatment during pregnancy with a focus on safety. Methods : A survey was conducted in 163 KMDs and 157 women who were hospitalised in postnatal care clinics after childbirth. KMDs were asked regarding experience in acupuncture treatment for pregnant women and condition/disease for acupuncture treatment, intention to give acupuncture treatment to pregnant women and reason for yes/no, and consideration for acupuncture treatment for pregnant women. Patients were asked regarding their experience in acupuncture treatment before and during pregnancy and willingness to receive acupuncture treatment if necessary during future pregnancy. Results : 78% of KMDs have given acupuncture treatment to pregnant women if necessary, and it was mainly for pain. 63% of KMDs were willing to give acupuncture treatment for pregnant women with consideration of patient’s condition, specific acupuncture points, and stimulation methods. Pregnant women, however, were reluctant to receive acupuncture treatment during pregnancy (58%) in fear of miscarriage or needling itself. KMDs’ clinical experience, patients’ income level and level of education were not associated with greater use of acupuncture treatment during pregnancy (P>0.05). Conclusion : While many KMDs are willing to give acupuncture treatment to pregnant women if necessary, little evidence on its safety and effectiveness prevents patients from seeking acupuncture treatment during pregnancy. Further research on this issue is urgently needed.
Study protocol for clinical trial to Compare the Effectiveness of 'Individualized Acupuncture' with 'Standardized Acupuncture' in Korean patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Lee, Seung-Deok ; Seo, Jung-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Yong-Suk ; Jang, Jun-Hyouk ; Park, Hi-Joon ; Choi, Sun-Mi ; Park, Ji-Eun ; Shin, Leem-Hee ; Hahn, Seo-kyung ; Norihito, Takahashi ; Eiichi, Sumiya ; Itoh, Kazunori ; Toshiyuki, Shichidou ; Kenji, Kawakita ;
Korean Journal of Acupuncture, volume 25, issue 4, 2008, Pages 205~217
Background : One of the characteristics of acupuncture, a popular modality for treating musculoskeletal pain, is a plurality in diagnosis and treatment that can profoundly influence the treatment outcome. This multiplicity in treatment modality has to be considered in any research on the effectiveness of acupuncture. Many practitioners stress the necessity for individualized patient treatment, including acupuncture point selection and manipulation technique. However, the importance of individualization in acupuncture treatment, compared with standardization, has received little attention in clinical trials. The aim of the future study described here is therefore to compare the effectiveness of individualized acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis with standardized acupuncture and no acupuncture in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods : A total of 195 patients aged 50 years and over with knee pain, will be randomly divided into three treatment groups: individualized acupuncture, standardized acupuncture, and waiting list. Outcome data will be collected through patient.completed questionnaires before randomization, and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after randomization. The questionnaires will be investigated demographic details as well as information on pain, movement and function of the affected knee, general health and quality of life. Discussion : This paper presents details on the rationale, design, and methods of the trial.