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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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Journal DOI :
Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
Cosmetic Regulation in Main Countries and Its Development Strategy in Korea
Kim, Young-Chan ; Hwang, Soon-Wook ; Kim, Dae-Joong ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~11
The changes of cosmetic industry regulation in the leading countries, such as E.C., America, Japan, initiated our research to suggest the direction of our cosmetics regulation. These countries are strengthening the post-monitoring system for the safety and cosmetic industry development. We propose the agenda for the development of the industry; the extension of cosmetics range, deregulation of the advertisement, implementation of the ingredient labelling, introduction of the product expiring date. Ultimately. it is necessary to introduce and extend current CGMP to enhance the company responsibility and to reinforce the post-monitoring.
Developing a Protein-chip for Depigmenting Agents Screening
Kim, Eun-Ki ; Kwak, Eun-Young ; Han, Jung-Sun ; Lee, Hyang-Bok ; Shin, Jung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 13~16
For the high-throughput-screening system (HTS) of depigmenting agents using a protein chip, effects of oligonucleotide-inhibitor sequence on the binding of Mitf protein to E box of MC1R was investigated. The sequence of oligonucletide-inhibitor affected the binding of the target DNA to Mitf, depending on the location of the sequence variation in the inhibitor nucleotide. The oligonucletide-inhibitor that changed the CATGTG sequence didn't show enough inhibition of the target DNA to Mitf, whereas significant inhibition was observed when the sequence outside the CATGTG was changed. This result indicated that CATCTG is crucial sequence for the binding of Mitf to I-box which initiates the transcription of pigmenting genes.
New Whitening Agent : Selina-4(14), 7(11)-dien-8-one
Kim, Cheong-Taek ; Chang, Yun-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Hwa ; Kang, Sang-Jin ; Cho, Wan-Goo ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 17~23
We had previously reported that Selina (selina-4(14), 7(11)-dien-8-one) was isolated from methanol extract of Afractylodes rhizome and has strong whitening activity in B16 melanoma cells. In this report, we demonstrated its action mechanism in melan-a cells, non-tumorigenic melanocytes. We also investigated the clinical efficacy of cosmetic preparation containing Selina. Selina reduced the melanin synthesis of Melan-a cells by
at a concentration of
without any apparent cytotoxicity. We also found that the treatment of cells with Selina decreased tyrosinase activity by
at a concentration of
but Selina was not a direct inhibitor of tyrosinase activities. To elucidate the action mechanism of Selina, we investigated the changes in mRNA and protein level of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. As a result, the mRNA and protein level of tyrosinase were markedly reduced at
of Selina without any effect on TRP-1 and TRP-2. These results suggest that Selina exerts its whitening effect mainly through regulating expression of tyrosinase. A 7 week-clinical trial using formulation containing
selina-4(14), 7(11)-dien-8-one with 20 volunteers resulted in statistically significant whitening effect (p < 0.05), without any adverse effect. Based on these results, Selina (selina-4(14), 7(11)-dien-8-one) can be s useful and safe ingredient for the cleanness and brightness of skin.
Inhibition of Melanoma Differentiation by Melanogenesis Inhibitor Isolated from Yeast
Choe Taeboo ; Lee Seungsun ; Jung Hokwon ; Chul Oh ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 25~33
Melanocytes synthesize melanin within discrete organelle termed melanosomes which are transferred to the surrounding keratinocytes and can be produced in varying sizes, numbers and densities. Skin whitening products have become increasingly popular in the past few years. The most successful natural skin whitening agents are: arbutin, vitamin C, kojic acid, and mulberry, which are all tyrosinase inhibitors. In this work, melanoston, a melanogenesis inhibitor isolated from yeast was studied to understand its mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition. It was found that melanoston was not a tyrosinase inhibitor, while when melanoston was applied to the B16 melanoma cell culture media, the intracellular tyrosinase activity was decreased by more than
. When B16 melanoma was stimulated with
-MSH, cell morphololgy was dramatically changed to have lots of dendrites on the cell membrane surface. On the other hand, B16 was treated with
-MSH and melanoston, simultaneously, the change of cell morphologv was not so great. This inhibitory effect of melanoston was found to be related to the inhibition of intracellar activation and transportation of tyrosinase, which was observed by irmmunostaining of B16 melanoma using anti-tyrosinase antibody. From these results, melanoston was regarded as an inhibitor to the differentiation of melanoma cells.
Anti-irritation and Moisturizing Effects of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Grifola frondosa
Lee, Bum-Chun ; Kim, Jin-Hwa ; Bae, Jun-Tae ; Lee, Dong-Hwan ; Sim, Gwan-Sub ; Pyo, Heong-Bae ; Choe, Tae-Boo ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 35~41
We investigated the effects of skin hydration and anti-irritation of exopolysaceharide (GF-glucan) produced from submerged culture of Grifola frondosa. The moisturizing effects and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of GF-glucan in cosmetic products (O/W emulsion) were clinically studied. GF-glucan showed good skin hydration effects when compared with sodium hyaluronate which is a commonly using moisturizer. The skin protective effects of GF-glucan against sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were also found. Twice a day application of the CF-glucan to skin reduced local inflammation remarkably. Irritant reactions were assessed by various aspects of skin function, erythema (skin color reflectance), hydration (electrical capacitance) and TEWL. In the human skin test, 5-day treatment of the GF-glucan was found to reduce SLS-induced skin erythema and Improve bier regeneration. Taken all together, GF-glucan should be a very useful cosmetic ingredient, as a moisturizer, and a protecting agent for various skin irritations.
The Studies on the Development of Low Irritable Preservative System with Phenoxyethanol in Cosmetics
Ahn, Gi-Woong ; Lee, Chn-Mong ; Kim, Hyeong-Bae ; Jeong, Ji-Hen ; Jo, Byoung-Kee ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 43~49
Recently, according as people who have sensitive skin increase, we've been giving more importance to the safety of cosmetics. Especially, preservative is known to be one of the main stimuli which cause side-effects of cosmetics. However, there have been few reports describing cell cytotoxicity, skin penetration, oil-aqueous phase partition, anti-microbial activity of preservatives and their correlation with skin irritation. The study is aimed to develop low irritable preservative system with phenoxyethanol, one of the most commonly used preservatives in cosmetics, considering various factors mentioned above. According to our results of cell cytotoxicity against human normal fibroblasts by means of MTT assay, phenoxyethanol showed the lowest cytotoxicity when compared to other preservatives tested (cytotoxicity: pro-pylparaben > butylparaben > ethylparaben > methylparaben > triclosan > phenoxyethanol), but human patch test for assessing shin primary irritation revealed that phenoxyethanol has higher skin irritation than methylparaben and triclosan. We performed in vitro skin penetration test using horizontal Franz diffusion cells with skin membrane prepared from hairless mouse (5
8 weeks, male) to evaluate the rate of skin penetration of preservatives. From the results, we found that the higher irritable property of phenoxyethanol in human skin correlates with its predominant permeability (skin penetration: phenoxyethanol > methylparaben > ethylparaben > propylparaben > butylfaraben > triclosan). Therefore, we made an effort to reduce skin permeability of phenoxyethanol and found that not only the rate of skin penetration of phenoxyethanol but also its skin irritation is dramatically reduced in formulas containing oils with low polarity. In the experiments to investigate the effect of oil polarity on the oil-aqueous phase partition of phenoxyethanol, more than
of phenoxyethanol was partitioned in aqueous phase in formulas containing oils with low polarity, while about
of phenoxyethanol was partitioned in oil phase in formulas containing oils with high polarity. Also, in aqueous phase phenoxyethanol showed greater anti-microbial activity. Conclusively, it appears that we can develop less toxic preservative system with reduced use dosage of phenox-yethanol and its skin penetration by changing oil composition in formulas.
A Low Irritant Liquid Cleanser Composition Developed by Multi-Screening Methods
Kim Peter ; Hyeon Ki-An ; Chung Ji-Youn ; Yoon Sam-Sook ; Kang Han Chyul ; Park Sun Hee ; Ko King Il ; Kim Ki Ho ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 51~58
Alkyl ethoxy sulfate type surfactants, widely used in commercial cleansers, are easily adsorbed to skin to often cause skin irritation and inflammation if not thoroughly rinsed nut. In order to replace or complement existing surfactants, we screened the existing surfactants through protein denaturation method, cell cytotoxicity assay and human IL-1
assay, etc. Fourteen surfactants have been chosen from among too irritant anionic, cationic and/or zwitter-ionic ones and investigated for cell cytotoxicity in human fibroblast cell lines using monolayer culture with the thirteen commercially available cleansers for sensitive skin. From these results, we selected 5 surfactants and 2 commercial cleansers (names not shown), such as sodium laureth sulfate (anionic), sodium cocoyl isethionate (anionic), sodium lauroamphoacetate (zwitter-ionic), and cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitter-ionic), alkyl polyglycoside (non-ionic). 20 formulations were made out of 5 surfactants and five of them were chosen through a protein denaturation method (lower than 3 M sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (
)), cell cytotoxicity and human patch test. These five selected formulations containing preservatives were compared to two selected commercial cleansers by cell cytotoxicity and human IL-1
ELISA assay using dermal equivalent. Finally, we selected the best formulation. To this formulation, fructan (
) or/and portulaca extract (
) well known for its anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects were added and investigated for cell cytotoxicity using dermal equivalent. In cytotoxicity assay using dermal equivalent, two formulations containing
portulaca extract were less toxic than the others. In cytotoxicity assay and human IL-1
ELISA using 3D culture, the selected formulation containing
portulaca extract showed better efficiency than those of the others and 2 commercial cleansers. As a result, we could develop a low irritant and safe liquid cleanser.
A Study on the Sensory Tests Correlated Objective Measurements for the Gloss and Gloss-lasting Capability of Lipstick
Kim, Kyung-Nam ; Kim, Yoon-Jeong ; Lee, Hwa-Young ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Cheon, Ji-Min ; Kang, Hak-Hee ; Lee, Ok-Sub ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 59~64
In case of lipsticks, observer's subjective sensitivity has been the main index to estimate gloss and gloss-lasting capability. The glossmeter has been applied to measure the gloss of make-up cosmetics like nail enamel, however is not effective for lipstick because of uneven sampling. Also gloss-lasting capability couldn't have been measured. In this study, we optimized measurement methods of gloss and gloss-lasting capability of lipsticks, which are highly correlated to subjective sensory tests. We set up the standard methods of gloss measurement by changing application conditions, for example, materials, sizes and application number of times and so on. And we introduced optimizing measurement system, in which shaking speed and temperature were controlled to measure gloss-lasting capability. Applying our methods, the gloss values were very close to the results of sensory tests, and we could express the gloss and gloss-lasting capability of lipsticks numerically Repeatability and reproducibility of our methods were certified by six-sigma statistical tool.
Development of UV-screening Polysilsesquioxane Spheres
Yoon, Kyung-Sup ; Lim, Mi-Sun ; Kim, Young-Baek ; Jung, Teak-Kyu ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 65~71
A silsesquioxane precursor that contains p-methoxycinnamoyl group was synthesized to produce UV absorbing spherical polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) spheres with diameters of 10nm to a few
under different conditions. A dispersion of
in Vaseline of these PSQ spheres with diameters of approximately
showed SPF values of 5.7 and the identical dispersion did not turn white when applied to human hands. These UV absorbing PSQ spheres showed higher boosting effect of sun protection factor (SPF) than the well known UV blocking octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC). The results indicated that the PSQ spheres with p-methoxycinnamoyl group should be useful as the ingredients in UV screening functional cosmetics without causing allergies and whitening.
The Study for Antioxidative Effects of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Extract as a New Cosmetics Ingredients Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
Choi, Shin-Wook ; Kim, Chang-Su ; Choi, Myoung-Soo ; Kim, Bo-Hyeon ; Kim, Hack-Soo ; Choi, Dae-Sung ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 73~78
This work was carried out to investigate the antioxidative effects of Acanthopnax sessiliflorus from Jeongseon County for the purpose of development of a novel antioxidant from natural products. The antioxidant activity was determined by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), not measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) which have bun used for antioxidant activity of natural sources. Although DPPH radical scavenging activity assay have been generally used for antioxidant activity, this assay is nut appropriated for determinating which radical is scavenged by extracts from natural products. Using EPR, we determinated whether A. sessiliflorus extracts from Jeongseon County scavenge specific radicals or not. On experiment of scavenging superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitrogen dioxide and peroxinitrite. Extracts from A. sessiliflorus showed high antioxidant activities to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These result suggest that extracts from A. sessiliflorus act as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and used as new cosmetic ingredients for anti-oxidative stress in skin.
A Study on the Important Features about Loose Powder Puff through New Mechanical Test Methods
Choi, Kyung-Ho ; Ko, Seung-Yong ; Jung, Hae-Won ; Kang, Hak-Hee ; Lee, Ok-Sub ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 79~83
The important elements influencing on the quality of make-up cosmetics are not only the ingredients themselves but also the cosmetic tool that delivers the ingredients. But sensory analysis by a has been used on a number of occasion. Therefore it is not reliable to apply the data to other products and not easy to identify the elements influencing the qualities of cosmetics. So we Intend to understand the elements influencing the quality of cosmetics and prepare the foundation by introducing objective measurement method. In this study, we fix the loose powder and make new loose powder puff. So we can accomplish objective measurement.
Effect of Rheological Properties on the Sedimentation of Capsules in an Aqueous Polymer Solution
Kim, Dong-Joo ; Kim, Jung-Ah ; Kyong, Kee-Yeol ; Yoon, Moung-Suk ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 85~89
An aim of this study is to study the correlation between rheological properties and sedimentation of capsules in aqueous polymer solution with low viscosity. Rheological properties of aqueous polymer solutions were controlled by carbomer (C), acylate/C10-30 alkyl acylate crosspolymer (AC), and ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer (AV). Small amount of polymer C solution had the highest viscosity and yield stress of polymer AV solution was higher than that of polymer C solution in the same viscosity when the concentration of polymer AV exceeded
. Each aqueous polymer solution was tested and the results showed that as viscosity and yield stress increased, the sedimentation ratio of capsules decreased. The viscoelasticity data also showed the same tendency in a shear stress range of 0.1 to 2.0 Pa. These results demonstrated that the rheological properties of polymer solutions had a strong correlation with the sedimentation of capsules. When polymer I and AV were used, there was a synergistic effect and the correlation between rheological properties and sedimentation of capsules was very complicated. It was assumed that the characteristics of polymer structure and interaction between polymers caused this phenomena.
Holographic Quantitative Structure-Toxicity Relationships on the Skin Sensitization of Alkyl-3,4- dihydroxybenzoate and N-Alkyl -3,4- dihydroxybenzamide Derivatives
Kim Sang-Jin ; Sung Nack-Do ; Jung Hoon-Sung ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 91~96
Holographic quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (HQSTR) of alkyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (A) and N-alkyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzamide (B) derivatives were analyzed and discussed. The HQSTR model X for the skin sensitivity showed the best predictability based on the cross-validated
), non cross-validated, and conventional coefficient (
=0.978). The relationships between melanogenesis inhibitory activities and skin sensitization of compounds have a tendency to a reciprocal proportion. Therefore, the more higher melanogenesis inhibitory activities of compounds were, the more lower skin sensitization of compounds became. The side chain, C1
C3 part of R1-substituents in (A) and (B) did not exhibit any contribution to skin sensitization. Particularly, it is reveals that the skin sensitization of ester (A) were slightly lower (A < B) than that of amide (B) and melanogenesis Inhibitory activities of (A) were slightly higher (A > B) than that of (B). It is founded that the alkyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate derivatives (A) were an ideal compound as an ingredient of whitening agents.
The Effect of Kaempferol, guercetin on Hyaluronan-Synthesis Stimulation in Human Keratinocytes (HaCaT)
Kim, Seung-Hun ; Nam, Gae-Won ; Kang, Byung-Young ; Lee, Hae-Kwang ; Moon, Seong-Joon ; Chang, Ih-Seop ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 97~102
One of the key molecules involved in skin moisture is hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) with its associated water of hydration. The predominant component of the ECM (extracellular matrix) of skin is HA. It Is the primordial and the simplest of the GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), a water-sorbed macromolecule In extracellular matrix, Included between the vital cells of epidermis. In the skin, HA was previously thought to derive extlusively from dermis. But, recent studies revealed that HA could be synthesized in epidermis. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that is found mainly in foods of plant origin. Kaempferol was known to increase glutathione synthesis in human keratinocyte. And quercetin blocked PPAR-meidated keratinocyte differentiation as lipoxygenase inhibitors. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of flavonid, kaempferol and quercetin on production HA in keratinocyte. We examined the changes of three human hyaluronan synthase genes (HASI, HAS2, HAS3) expression by semi-quantitative RT-PCR when kaempferol or quercetin was added to cultured human keratinocytes. We found that these flavonoids slightly upregulated HAS2, HAS3 mRNA after 24 h. And we investigated the effect on HA production by ELISA. When we evaluated the level of HA in culture medium after 24 h incubation. We found enhanced accumulation of HA in the culture medium. Although the effects of above flavonoids are less than retinoic acid, the data indicate that kaempferol, quercetin can dose-dependently increase the level of HA in epidermis cell line. It suggested that flavonoid, kaempferol, and quercetin increased production of HA in skin and it helped to elevate skin moisture and improve facial wrinkle.
Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Melothria Heterophylla on Antioxidant Activity and Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in Ultraviolet A-irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Cho, Young-Ho ; ; Sim, Gwan-Sub ; Lee, Dong-Hwan ; Lee, Bum-Chun ; Pyo, Heong-Bae ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 103~109
UV irradiation leads to distinct changes in skin connective tissue, which is degradation of collagen. Many of these alterations in the extracellular matrix are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. In this study, to develop a new anti-aging agent, we screened the antioxidant activity of solvent fractions from ethanolic extract of Melothria Heterophylla. Among the four solvent fractions tested, the EtOAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. It was investigated the inhibitory effect of the EtOAc fraction on the expression and activity of MMP-1 in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. The EtOAc fraction inhibited the activity of MMP-1 in a dose dependent manner with the
. Also, UVA-induced MMP-1 expression was reduced about
of the EtOAc fraction but MMP-1 mRNA expression was not inhibited. Therefore, we conclude that the EtOAc fraction significantly inhibits MMP-1 expression at the protein level. From these results, we suggest that the EtOAc fraction from M. heterophylla could be used as a new anti-aging agent for the photo-damaged skin.
Development of Cosmeceutical Cosmetics Using Enzyme Bio-Conversion System
Lee Ghang Tai ; Kwon Ji Youn ; Bae Dong Jun ; Yu Chang Seon ; Lee Myoung Hee ; Oh Sei Ryang ; Jang Dong Il ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 111~114
This study is about the cosmeceutical products using enzyme induced bio-conversion system. In general, ascorbic acid (AA) has the higher reducing activity and can be used for various purpose in the cosmetics. But it is very unstable in the aqueous system and difficult to maintain its stability in the cosmetics product. 2-O-
-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA2G) is the stabilized form of AA and showed the less whitening activity than AA. In this study, we developed bio-conversion system improving the stability and efficacy of AA2G and AA, respectively. In this system, AA2G (over
) can be converted to AA and glucose within 30 min. The converted product showed higher anti-tyrosinase activity like AA (AA2G showed no anti tyrosinase activity) and depigmenting activity in the artificial tanning test. From these results, we could conclude this system is a brand new method to increase the activity of AA and maintain its stability.
Screening of Plants in Jeju for Whitening Materials in Cosmeceutical
Lee, Sun-Joo ; Bu, Hee-Jung ; Lee, Jung-A ; Jung, Duk-Sang ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 115~119
Methanol extract of plants in Jeju were investigated for biological properties related to whitening cosmeceuticals such as melanin contents on melanoma cell, mushroom tyrosinase activity inhibition. We found that extracts of leaves of Hypochoeris radicata, Solanum nigrum, Solidago serotica Gynostenmma pentaphyllum and Taxus cuspidata inhibit melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. However they have no tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
Evaluation of Biological Activities on the Extractives of Pinaceae
Ahn, Jeung-Youb ; Bae, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 121~125
Most of the cells, specially in the skin, free radicals and reactive oxygen species induced aging, accompanying with diseases. The pinaceae family is very familiar plant with Korean spirit. However, those plants were not estimated for natural products in manufactural process. We employed 4 different plants, Pinus koraienis S et Z. Pinus banksiana LAMBERT. Pinus rigida MILL. Pinus densiflora S. et Z. in pinceae family. The ethanol extracts were prepared for three different parts of plant, wood, bark and leaf, respectively. In this study, we carried out free radical and superoxide radical scavenging assay to investigate the anti-oxidative activity The bark and leaf part of plants showed similar anti-oxidant effect. L-ascorbic acid and
. Also we tried to investigate inhibitory effects of elastase activity in in vitro experiments on pinaceae plant extract as a matters for functional cosmetics. Among those plants, the bark of Pinus rigida MILL. and Pinus densiflora S. et Z. showed inhibitory effect. The cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay. The potential relationship was shown between the cell viability and anti-oxidant effect because the anti-oxidant effects were positively correlated wvith the cell growth in MTT assay. As the results in our experiments, we expect the potential activities of pinaceae as a material of functional cosmetics.
A Study for Psychological Effects which Make-up Behavior Has on Women
Kim Myung-lee ; Kim Ju-duck ;
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2005, Pages 127~134
This study is to identify the psychological effect of make-up, to examine women's tendency toward make-up and to figure out relationships between their psychological properties and its functions. This study has verified that makeup has a positive effect on their interpersonal relationships, psychological reaction and self- confidence as well as it meets their fundamental aesthetic needs. And further studies about psychological reason why they wear makeup need to be made. Makeup has an effect on their looks and it has a psychological effect of being able to decorate and move their mind. finally, it is anticipated that the study for psychological approach to makeup could contribute on the study for positive makeup treatment.