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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Dec 1998
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Nov 1998
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Aug 1998
Volume 14, Issue 2 - May 1998
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Fermentative Characteristics of Kimchi Prepared by Addition of Different Kinds of Minor Ingredients
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~8
The characteristics of Kimchi, associated with proceeding velocity of fermentation, and microbial changes, were investigated during fermentation where kimchi were prepared by the addition of different kinds of minor ingredients. In all samples, total acidity increased, and the pH and total reducing sugar content decreased as the fermentation proceeded. Redox potentials decreased from early to middle fermentation period but thereafter increased and had the lowest value at optimum ripening stage. The counts of total viable and lactic acid bacteria increased rapidly at the begining and decreased slowly. These bacterial counts of kimchi samples containing ginger, red pepper powder, and mixture of all minor ingredients were higher than those of other samples. The number of Leuconostoc mensenteroides reached the maximum at the optimum fermenting stage, Lactobacillus plantarum appeared at the time when Leu. mesenteroides reduced. All these phenomena were observed earlier in the samples containing raw red pepper and later in the samples added garlic than in other samples. It is suggested that garlic is the ingredient which improved storage capacity by prolonging fermentation period by lactic acid bacteria beneficial to less acidification, and ginger and red pepper powder are materials which gave better taste to kimchi by stimulating the growth of Leu. mesenteroids. And redox potential was an useful indicator in choosing optimum ripening time during fermentation.
Inhibition of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 by Clove (Eugenia Caryophyllata Thumb)
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 9~15
The inhibitory effect of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb) on the growth of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 was determined. Tryptic soy broth (TSB) containing 0∼0.5% (w/v) of clove was inoculated with 10/sup/5∼10/sup/7 CFU/ml of E. coli and incubated at 5 different temperature (35, 5, -20, 50 and
). The growth of E. coli was not inhibited at 0.1% clove and growth occured at 0.3% after a prolonged lag period while viable cells of E. coli decreased at 0.5% clove during storage at
. During 32 days of refrigerated storage at
, survivors of E. coli were decreased with the progress of time and increasing clove concentration. At the presence of 0.3 or 0.4% clove, bacterial cells were dead at the end of refrigerated storage. During frozen storage at -
, survivors of E. coli at the presence of 0∼0.4% clove were decreased 2.9∼4.07 log cycles for 4 days of early period and then decreased 1.0∼2.1 log cycles through the frozen storage. There were small changes in populations of E. coli in TSB between different concentrations of clove during frozen storage. The D-values for E. coli at
were 105.26, 22.47, 13.76, 11.14 and 10.17 min at clove 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4%, respectively. The D-values for E. coli at
were 10.75, 8.95, 7.40, 5.96 and 4.96 min at clove 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4%, respectively. Antibacterial activity of clove against E. coli was more effective at
Antioxidant Effect of Onion Skin Extract
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 16~20
The antioxidant and synergistic effect of methanol extracts of onion skin were investigated by measuring peroxide value. The inhibitory effects of the extracts against metal catalyzed oxidation were also studied. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract (0.02%) of onion skin was stronger than that of mixed tocopherol or ascorbic acid (0.02%), but weaker than that of BHT (0.02%). However, the methanol extract at the concentration of 0.04% exhibited strong antioxidant effect, comparable to that of BHT (0.02%). The methanol extract showed very strong synergistic effect with the mixed tocopherol. The methanol extracts at the concentration of 0.03% and 0.04% acted as metal deactivator in the presence of FeC1
. As a metal deactivator, methanol extract of onion skin appeared to be more effective than citric acid.
The Microbiological Assessment of Plastic Container and Kitchen Utensils Used in Employee Feeding Foodservice Operation in Seoul
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 21~24
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of kitchen utensils in institutional foodservices in Seoul. Total plate count of plastic container, knife, wiping clothes and cutting board are 1
). There were many coliforms in plastic container (2
), knife (2-3
), wiping clothes (4-6
) and cutting board (4-9
). The results of microbiological test of kitchen utensils indicated that the sanitary conditions of plastic container, knife, wiping clothes and cutting board should be improved promptly. Electron microscopic observation showed that there were too many bacteria in plastic containers.
A Study of Heavy Metals Contents of the Seaweeds at Various Area in Korea
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 25~32
To measure the contents of several heavy metal elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb) in Korean seaweeds which are closely related to food resources, various seaweed samples were collected from thirteen to seventeen seaweed-producing districts. The results obtained from the experiment are summarized as follows: 1. The content of heavy metal elements in seaweeds of individual sample ranged from 0.0005 to 25.0373 ppm. Their mean levels were as follows: laver, 0.0024∼3.9297 ppm; sea lettuce, 0.0011∼25.0373 ppm; sea mustard, 0.0005∼23.5071 ppm; sea tangle, 0.0006∼4.8550 ppm. The mean levels of Cd and Pb were specially low in the samples collected from the area II in Kangwon and area Ⅸ in Kyungbook. 2. The mean levels of heavy metal elements of collected samples ranged from 0.0117 to 4.4944 ppm. Laver showed the lowest level of Hg and sea lettuce showed the highest level of Mn. Their mean levels of elements were as follows: laver, 0.0117∼2.3339 ppm; sea lettuce,0.0232∼4.4944 ppm; sea mustard, 0.0129∼1.5139 ppm and sea tangle, 0.0182∼1.7410 ppm. 3. The mean levels of heavy metal elements from several locations ranged from 0.0085 ppm to 8.4148 ppm. The mean levels of heavy metal elements in sea mustard from area V of Kyungbook were the lowest, but the mean levels of heavy metal elements in sea lettuce from area Ⅷ of Kyungnam were the highest. The mean level of heavy metal elements were as follows: laver, 0.3613∼1.1124 ppm; sea lettuce, 0.1415∼8.4148 ppm; sea mustard, 0.0729-3.1182 ppm; sea tangle, 0.0085∼0.7587 ppm. 4. Generally the heavy metal elements were detected in the seaweed samples from all locations. The mean levels of heavy metal elements varied with locations and kinds of samples. The levels of heavy metals of the samples taken from all locations from the East Sea, the South Sea, and the West Sea areas showed 99% safety range.
A Study on the Preference for Calcium Source Foods, Recognition and Calcium Intake of a Middle-Aged People
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 33~43
This study was peformed by questionnaire to investigate the recognition, preference and intake of calcium and related food behaviors of middle-aged people (males 600, females 550) in Daegu area. The daily intake was determined by 24-hr dietary recall method. The results were summarized as follows: The meal skipping, diet and nutrition consideration ratio of the subjects were 40.6, 11.1, 34.6% respectively. The recognition scores of calcium of the subjects were 14.3 for male and 15.1 for female, respectively. Also the preference scores of calcium source foods of the subjects were 3.6 for male and 3.5 for female. They preferred laver, cabbage, bean curd and lettuce, in that order, but they disliked cheese and ice cream. The variety of calcium source foods was remarkably low. Milk products were the lowest preferred and eaten calcium source foods. A day's calcium intake was 68.4% (478.6 mg) of the RDA for Koreans. There were significant positive correlations among the recognition, preference and intake scores of calcium.
Microwave Cooking of Rice - The Optimum Condition of Power Level and Heating Time -
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 44~49
The microwave cooking of rice was studied for the purpose of establishing optimum conditions of power level and heating time. Optimum volume of adding water was 290 ml per 173 g rice. The longer the rice was soaked, the better the cooked rice. However, we chose one hour as soaking time so that we might observe well the effects of power levels. The mode of microwave cooking consisted of 5 steps of power level; step 1: temperature ascendance, step 2: water absorption 1, step 3: water absorption 2, step 4: heat penetration, step 5: gelatinization completion. The quality of cooked rice was evaluated subjectively. As a result of the study, 3 optimum conditions were chosen as follows. 1)
Effects of the Kinds of Starch and Sweetener on the Quality Characteristics of Kamgyulpyon
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 50~56
This study was performed to find out the quality characteristics of Kamgyulpyon in which the kinds of starch and sweetener were varied. The quality characteristics of the samples were estimated in terms of sweetness, color difference, instrumental texture and sensory evaluation. The results from this study were as follows.
Sweetness of the samples prepared with oligosaccharide was lower than those with sugar or honey. When Kamgyulpy n was prepared with sugar, the sweetness of the samples containing mung bean starch was higher than that with other starch sources.
Lightness, redness and yellowness of the samples prepared with oligosaccharide were higher than those with sugar or honey. When the same sweeteners were used, the lightness of the samples containing corn starch and the rednness of the samples containing potato starch were higher than those with other starch sources, but there were no significant differences in yellowness.
Hardness and chewiness of the samples prepared with sugar were higher than those with oligosaccharide or honey, but there were no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness. When Kamgyulpyon was prepared with honey, the hardness and chewiness of the samples containing potato starch were lower than those with other starch sources.
In the results of sensory evaluation, the sweetness, clarity, springiness and overall acceptability of the samples containing potato starch or com starch were higher than those with mung bean starch. Kamgyulpyon containing potato starch and oligosaccharide showed the highest overall acceptability.
The Assessment of Cost-Analysis and Centralization Needs in Elementary School Foodservices in Kyungki-do
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 57~67
The main purpose of this study was to provide a basic information for the efficient foodservice management in elementary schools. A survey was conducted to get the information on the cost management and centralization needs of dietitians working for school foodservice in Kyungki-do. Detail information was collected from 85 dietitians. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS/PC/sup/＋ package for descriptive analysis, t-test,
test and ANOVA. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Meal costs per one person evaluated on the standards of monthly budget basis in May and June, 1996 did not show any significant differance between commisary foodservice schools and conventional ones. Labor costs of island type and rural type were significantly higher than those of urban type. The schools with less than 1,000 feeding numbers spent more labor costs than those with over 1,001-feeding numbers did. 2. In island type and rural type, total meal costs increased according as the scale of the schools decreased. 3. Results of the survey on dietitians' centralization noeds showed that the aspects of common-purchasing and common solid waste management marked the highest ratings, whereas the aspects of commissary foodserice system got the lowest rating.
A Study on the Foodservice Worker's Job Satisfaction in Elementary School Foodservice Systems Located in Seoul and KangNung
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 68~75
The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of job satisfaction of school food service employees in Seoul and Kangnung areas and to compare their job satisfaction with 3 types of school foodservice systems. Questionnaires to measure job satisfaction were mailed to 13 elementary schools in Seoul and 15 elementary schools in Kangnung and detailed informations were collected from 28 dieticians and 140 employees. Foodservice employees' job satisfaction was evaluated by measuring employee's job attitudes towards five aspects of their. job using the modified Job Description Index (JDI). Statistical methods used in this study were
-test, 1-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The foodservice workers surveyed in this research were found to be more satisfied with their interpersonal relations with co-workers than with work content, pay and promotional opportunities. The average overall scores for dieticians and foodservice employee were 113.17
44.48 and 111.5
37.22, respectively. Dieticians were found to be more satisfied with their job than the foodservice employee. The foodservice employee's demographic variables including age, work experience and education were significantly related to the job satisfaction.
Assessment of Productivity and Foodservice Management Practices in Elementary School Foodservices Located in Seoul and KangNung
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 76~83
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the foodservice management practices and productivity in elementary schools in order to provide basic information for an efficient food service management. This approach was achieved using a variety quantitative and qualitative information including general foodservice management, managerial and operational factors, and the productivity in elementary school foodservice systems. The labor productivity in 28 school foodservice system was assessed and related to a number of influencing variables within the system. The productivity measurement was based upon the total meal equivalents as a ratio of the total direct and non-direct labor hours required to prepare these meals. Twenty-eight elementary schools located in Seoul and Kangnung were surveyed to get data for the variables. Questionnaire and a survey form were mailed. Statistical methods used in this study were descriptive analysis,
-test, 1-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. Elementary schools in Seoul were all located in urban areas, whereas elementary schools in Kangnung were in urban areas (40.0%), provincial areas (40.0%) and in isolated areas (20.0%). Total average number of meals including children and staff was 928.2
650.0 with a yery significant difference (p<0.001) between Seoul and Kangnung. The average cost of school meal in Seoul and Kangnung were 1191.0 won and 1526.2 won, respectively. The result of Pearson Correlation analysis indicated that labor cost per meal, 1-week meal equivalents and meal equivalents per labor were significantly correlated with the productivity.
A Study on the Formation, Contents of Foods, and Antioxidative Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 84~90
A research was carried out to determine the formation, contents in foods, and antioxidative effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA was known as a mixture of positional isomer of linoleic acid (LA), that was included in milk, meat, and fish. The formation of CLA from methyl linoleate and soybean oil (SBO) storecd at 20
was higher than at 40
, and CLA formation from methyl linoleate stored at 20
was over 13 times higher than early amounts(188 ppm) and was higher than that from SBO. In edible vegetable oils, the content of CLA were the highest in canola oil (CAO, 348 ppm) but were decreased during storage at 40
, while the content of CLA in cotton seed oil (CSO) were 292 ppm, which increased dramatically (1322 ppm) during 28 days of storage at 40
. Because the peroxide value (POV) of CSO at that time was very low (10.05 meq/kg
oil), CLA occurrence of CSO was shown to be very available during storage at temperature. CLA content of milk from a market ranged 293∼2148 ppm, which depended on the manufacturing, companies. In meat, the CLA content was very high in pork (2379 ppm), and among fishes, that of spanish mackerel was the highest (1040 ppm, almost same as beef, which increased greatly (2039 ppm) during boiling with seasoning. Antioxidative effect of CLA on SBO was almost same as that of BHT until 7 days of storage at 40
, but decreased greatly after that period. In case of com oil (CNO), antioxidative effects of CLA were higher than those or BHN and tocopherol, suggesting that the effect was different depending on the kinds of oils used as substrates. During heating at 180
, antioxidative effect of CLA on SBO appeared almost same as those or BHT and tocopherol, and it was also shown greater effects in heating at high temperature (180
) than at low temperature(40
Morphological Changes of Cooked Rice Kernel During Saccharification for Sikhe
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 91~96
Growth of acrospire length from germinated covered barley with 1.5∼2.0 times length of buds had the highest amylase activity for 9 days at 15
. When the extraction of malt was carried out at 50
for 3.5 hr., total sugar, reducing sugar, sweetness determined by refractometer and amylase activity were the highest, and 2.33%, 1.61%, 3.4 brix(%), 28,332 units, respectively. The sikhe saccharificated at 60
for 8 hr. showed total sugar content increased to 3.90∼9.27% in nonwaxy rice, 4.19∼11.91% in waxy rice, and reducing sugar-content increased 3.30∼7.61% in nonwaxy rice, 3.31∼9.11% in waxy rice. Also, brix was increased to 3.6∼10.8 brix (%) in nonwaxy rice, 3.6∼12.8 brix(%) in waxy .ice, as saccharification time increased. The amylase activity was decreased as saccharification time was increased. And pH was gradually decreased according to time increase, however, it changed little after 4 hr. Morphology of cooked rice kernel during saccharification for sikhe gradually enlarged the oval for hydrolyzed starch granule by increasing saccharification time.
Standardization and Cooking Properties of Spiced Soy Sauce
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 97~105
This study was carried out in order to standardize the processing method of spiced soy sauce, to get the sensory scores for organoleptic properties in different cooking of each food items, and to analyze the microbiological and chemical properties during storage periods. In determining the optimum conditions for standardizing of spiced soy sauce, the best sensory score was found in the ratio of soy sauce to sugar of 1:0.7. In the result of microbial experiment on standardized spiced soy sauce, the stability of storage at 40
up to 6 weeks was proved. The standardized spiced soy sauce which was composed of about 45.5% water, 6% crude protein, 11.7% reducing sugar and 32.1% invert sugar has not shown any significant difference during storage for 6 weeks at 40
compared with the state immediately after processing. In the test of saltiness, specific gravity, viscosity and Hunter's color value, there was no notable change during storage at 40
. In the experiment of free amino acid and total amino acid, main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which were not significantly changed during storage compared with processing state. In the analysis of mineral contents, sodium accounts for 95% of the total minerals, followed by phosphorus, magnesium, etc., in order, and there was no change during storage.
Effect of Mugwort on the Extention of Shelf-Life of Bread and Rice Cake
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 106~113
The purpose of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial effect of mugwort (Artemisia asiatica Nakai) on the rice cake and bread preservation, and to identify their antimicrobial compounds. The mugwort extracts showed complete inhibition on the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at 250
/ml level. Antimicrobial activi쇼 of mugwort extract were stronger than that of commercial antimicrobial agent. Five % of sodium propionate solution showed complete inhibition on the growth of B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus, but L. plantarum was inhibited 50.87% at the same concentration. When various amounts of freeze-dried mugwort powder were added in sulgis (steamed rice cake), 3% ssooksulgi (mugwort powder added sulgi) had quite lower level of total bacterial count (5.5
/5 CFU/g) compared with the control group (1.4
/7 CFU/g) at ambient temp. (30
) after 72 hr. Three % addition of mugwort showed 2 days extention of shelf-life of rice cake. The sensory qualities of ssooksulgi has no significant difference in moistness, consistency, cohesiveness, afterswallowing and overall quality compared with control group. Ssooksulgi with 3% of mugwort powder had the best overall quality in sensory test. The methanol extract of 500
/ml of mugwort could lead the successful retardation of the growth of putrefactive microorganism during the incubation of rice cake at 37
for 24 hr. On the other hand, coumarin (Sigma) had 54% inhibitory effect at 500
/ml level, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal completely inhibited the growth of putrefactive microorganism of whitesulgi at 100
/ml level during the incubation at 37
for 48 hr.48 hr.
Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of the Dandelion (Taraxacum platycarpum) Extract
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 114~118
In ordo. to develop the natural food preservative agent, freeze dried dandelion (Taraxcum platycarpum) was extracted with several solvents, and antimicrobial activity was investigated. The methanol extract obtained from the dandelion exhibited antimicrobial properties against five strains such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The methanol extract at the concentration of 2000
/ml completely inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and V. parahaemolyticus. Antimicrobial activity of the ethylacetate fraction from the methanol extract of dandelion was the strongest fraction compare to those the other solvent fractions such as n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The ethylacetate fraction showed the inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.5 mg/disc on the growth of the food spoilage microorganisms.
Effect of Green Laver on the Extention of Shelf-life of Muk (Starch Jelly)
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 119~123
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of green laver (Enteromorpha linza) on the muk (starch jelly) preservation. The methanol extract of green laver completely inhibited the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 500
/ml level, and inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at 100
/ml level. The Listeria monocytogenes was inhibited by 98.89% at the same concentration. When various amounts of green laver powder were added in muk (starch jelly), 5% of green laver powder-added muk showed very low level of total bacterial count compared with the control group. Also, green laver did not give negative sensory qualities such as color, flavor and overall quality. Five % green laver muk was selected as the most preferable sample among the green laver muks in overall quality test.
The Assessment of Dietitian's Role Performance and Importance
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 14, issue 1, 1998, Pages 124~132
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance and importance of dietitians' role in order to provide basic information for an efficient foodservice management. This approach was achieved using a variety of quantitative and qualitative informations including general foodservice management, dietitian's role performance and importance. A survey of 453 office and factory foodservices was undertaken and detailed information was collected. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SAS package program for descriptive analysis, 1-test,
test, and analysis of variance. The general characteristics of the dietitians were that 80.20% were aged between 20∼29 and 66.49 had work experience with less than 5 years. And 61.68% were graduated from college. The Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) technique was used for obtaining information of dietitian's foodservice management practices. By the results of the IPA technique, foodservice attributes with fair to poor performance and high impotance was service management for customer satisfaction. The average scores of dietitian's role performance and importance were 3.33 and 4.03 out of 5, respectively. Dietitians with work experience more than 10 years and aged more than 30 years old had more work performance than those.