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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Effects of the Addition of Vegetables on Oxidized Frying oil
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 557~561
The changes in some chemical and physical properties of fresh or rancid soybean oil by the treatment with sweet potato, potato, burdock, and carrot were investigated. The results of the study were as follows: The specific gravity of the soybean oil increased by heating and decreased by the addition of sweet potato, burdock and carrot into the oil. The chromaticity of soybean oil increased by heating and treatment with above vegetables having antioxidant activity. To investigate the antioxidant effects of above vegetables during heating, anisidine value (AV) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) electron donating ability were measured. The AV of oil decreased by heating with sweet potato in fresh or rancid oil. The DPPH value decreased by heating with sweet potato and carrot, of which the antioxidant activity were similar to that of 0.02 ∼ 0.05 mg of dl-
Effects of Adding Silkworm Powder on the Quality of Seolgiddeok
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 562~566
Seolgiddeok a representative rice cake was prepared by the addition of silkworm powder(SP) at various concentrations, and their physical characteristics were monitored by sensory evaluation, chromaticity, and rheometric measurement. In the proximate composition of SP cake, the contents of crude protein and ash were increased as the ratio of SP increased, but the moisture content was decreased. In the sensory evaluation, 3%-SP cake showed the highest preference, old showed the highest values in color, flavor, taste. texture, and overall duality. Lightness(L) value of SP cake was decreased as the ratio of SP increased. In the rheometer test, 15%-SP cake showed the highest value in the hardness, but 3%-SP cake showed the highest value in cohesiveness, gumminess and brittleness.
Quality Characteristics of Mung bean Starch Gels added with mulberry leaves powder, yellow soybean powder and mugwort powder
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 567~572
The effects of adding mulberry leaves powder, yellow soybean powder(YSP), and mugwor powder(MP) for the preparation of mungbean starch gels(MSG) were studied. MSG with above additives were analysed for proximate composition. sensory evaluation, chromaticity, and rheometric properties. In the proximate composition test, the moisture content was the highest in the MSG with 0.5% MP, and the crude protein content war the highest in MSG with 1.0% YSP. In the sensory evaluation, MSG with various additives showed higher values than control. Whereas MSG with 0.5% additives showed a high value in hardness, control gels showed high values in the gumminess and brittleness in the measurement with a rheometer.
Effects of Lotus Root Powder on the Quality of Dough
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 573~578
The quality characteristics of dough with lotus root powder were investigated. As the content of lotus root powder increased, doughs showed higher water absorption, lower stability and longer development time than control as measured with a farinograph. Extensibility decreased with the increase of lotus root powder. As the addition of lotus root powder increased, the doughs has higher gelatinization temperatures and maximum viscosities than control as measured by amylograph. And the pH of the dough also increased by the increase of lotus root powder.
Degree of Satisfaction on the School Foodservice among the Middle School Students in Gwangju and Chonnam Area.
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 579~585
A survey on the school foodservice was conducted from 693 middle school students to examine their degree of satisfaction on foodservice with the object to enhance the quality of school foodservice in Gwangiu and Chonnam area. The degree of satisfaction with school foodservice ranked high in taste, temperature and service categories. There were notable differences in the satisfaction level by the gender of the students. Male students ranked higher than female students in taste, temperature and the sanitary condition of food containers. According to grades, first grade students ranked the highest in satisfaction of food selection, temperature, services and cafeteria. Regarding the amount of left-overs, soup and pot-stew were the greatest followed by side dishes. Reasons for leftover food were listed as being tasteless, having no appetite, or large serving size. The items of priorities on school foodservice were revealed as sanitary conditions, taste and variety in menu selection by the students.
A Study on the Quality Characteristics of Jeung-Pyun by the Addition of Chitosan-oligosaccharide
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 586~592
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Jeung-Pyhn by the addition of chitosan-oligosaccharide (COS, Chitoligo-L). Jeung-Pyun is a traditional Korean fermented rice cake leavened by yeast. To develop a functional Jeung-Pyun, COS was added to the rice at the levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6% of the 2-hour-soaked rice. Physicochemical, sensory, rheological and inner structure characteristics of Jeung-Pyun were examined. The pH values of COS Jeung-Pyun batters were decreased with fermentation time. In sensory evaluation, the uniformity of the grain and overall quality of Jeung-Pyun added with 2% COS had the highest score among the samples. In He rheological properties measured with rheometer, the hardness of Jeung-Pyun with COS was higher than control. Cohesiveness of Jeung-Pyun added with 4% COS and gumminess, brittleness and springiness of Jeung-Pyun added with 2% COS were the highest among the samples. The inner structure observed by scanning electron microscope showed that Jeung-Pyun added with 2% COS had the largest and the most uniform air cells. In conclusion, Jeung-Pyun with 2% COS had positive effects on the qualify of Jeung-Pyun.
Sensory and textural characteristics of Gamjeobyung using varied levels of heated potato flour and potato starch and different types of sweeteners
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 593~602
The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory and quality characteristics of Gamjeobyung containing different ratios of ingredients such as heated potato flour(30%, 40%, 50%), potato starch(30%, 40%), sugar, honey, and water by sensory evaluation and mechanical examination. The results of sensory evaluation showed that Gamjeobyung containing 30% heated potato flour, and potato starch had higher scores in overall acceptability, color, flavor, grain, moistness, chewiness and sweetness preferance. In the textural analysis of Gamjeobyung, the cohesivenss, springiness, adhesiveness were the highest in the samples with 30% potato starch, and the chewiness, gumminess, and hardness were the highest in the 40% added samples. The hunter's color L value and b-value of Gamjeobyung was decreased and a-value was increased of potato starch. The moisture content of Gamjeobyung was higher in the samples with heated potato flour than the samples with potato starch.
A study on the relations between the color intensity and the antioxidant activity of caramelization products
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 603~612
The study was carried out to compare the relation between the color intensity and antioxidant activity of caramelization products using xylose(XY), glucose(GL). sucrose(SU), glucose＋citric acid(GLCA), glucose＋sodium citrate(GLSC), heated at 80, 120 and 140
for 24hrs, respectively. The color intensity(absorbance at 490nm) of the browning mixtures increased as the browning temperature and time increased. But the degrees of color intensity of SU and GLCA changed very little. The hydrogen donating ability(HDA) of browning reaction products was generally enhanced as the browning temperature and time increased. When browning mixtures were heated at 80
, the HDA of GLGC was the highest, but the HDA of GLSC was the highest when heated at 120 and 140
. The antioxidant activities for the corn oil substrate containing the anhydrous ethanol extracts from the browning mixtures was inferior to that of SU, but was superior to that of GLCA. The relations among the color intensity, the antioxidant activity, and the hydrogen donating ability(HDA, reducing power) of the browning reaction mixtures were as follows: As the color intensity increased, the antioxidant activity decreased. The correlation coefficient of the color intensity and the antioxidant activity by regression equation was -0.73 ∼ -0.82. As the reducing power increased, the antioxidant activity decreased. The correlation coefficient between the reducing power and the antioxidant activity by regression equation was -0.98 ∼ -0.99. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of browning reaction mixtures seemed not correlated with the color intensity and the reducing power.
The Quality Characteristics of Yackwa Prepared with Egg
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 613~618
Yackwa was prepared with various amounts of egg and the texture profile analysis, Hunter's color measurement and sensory evaluation were performed during storage for 7 days. In the texture profile analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness of Yackwa were increased in all samples during storage and the textural parameters were increased by increasing egg level. No significant difference was observed in the lightness, redness and yellowness (p＞0.05). During storage, L and a values in all samples were increased while b value was decreased. In the results of sensory evaluation, Yackwa prepared with 10g of egg had an acceptable sensory quality.
Soboru bread enriched with dietary fibers extracted from Kombu
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 619~624
To enhance the nutritional quality of the Soboru bread, a dietary fibers extracted from Kombu was added into wheat flour in the amounts of 0, 1, 3, and 5% and the quality of the baked products was characterized. The inherent water holding capacity of the added dietary fibers raised weight of the bread while specific volume and density values were decreased at the same time. Increasing the amount of dietary fiber resulted in the decreased setback time of the raw materials in amylogram. The lower textural hardness of the dietary fiber-enriched bread after one-day storage at room temperature could be attributed to the retarded retrogradation of the starch. Darkened surface of the bread as indicated by the Hunter colorimetric values and the accompanied change in flavor did not significantly influence the sensory evaluation of the products. Judging from texture, taste and overall acceptability of the product, recommended substitution level for the dietary fiber in Soboru bread was 3% or less. Increased intake of the dietary fibers, accompained with more use of seaweed, was expected through the suggested functional bread.
A Study on the Job and Need Satisfactions of Elementary School Foodservice Employees in Seoul Area
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 625~631
The objectives of this study were to determine the degree of job satisfaction and need satisfaction of school foodservice employees, and the relationship between Job in General(JIG) and need satisfaction. The six demographic items, the Job Descriptive Index(JDI) and JIG scale, and Need Satisfaction Questionnaire(NSQ) were used to evaluate job satisfaction and need satisfaction of school foodservice employees. The results of this study showed that the employees were satisfied with co-workers(2.52), then supervision(2.48), work(1.86), promotion(0.72) and pay(0.51) in decreasing order. Older employees(Age
40) tended to be more satisfied in JIG(p＝0.0620) than younger employees(20
39). Employees were satisfied in social needs, then autonomy needs, self-actualization needs, esteem needs, security heeds in decreasing order. There were no significant differences between demographic factors and five need categories. When the employees were classified by their scores on JIG, Group I having the lowest score tended to be less satisfied(p＝0.0627) in security needs than Group II and Group III. The information of study could be useful for foodservice managers in job design to increase the productivity.
Effects of Mulberry Leaves Powder on the Cooking Characteristics of Noodle
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 632~636
Mulberry leaves noodles were prepared with composite flour by the addition of various levels of mulberry leaves powder of 100 mesh particle site. The characteristics of cooked noodle including color, texture, cooking properties were measured, and sensory evaluation was performed. The L and a values of cooked noodle decreased as more wheat flour was substiruted with mulberry leaves powder. And the b value of noodle containing mulberry leaves powder was higher than control, but b value did not increase as the ratio of powder increased. The increase in cooking weight and volume was greater with cooked noodles of higher content of mulberry leaves powder. The turbidity of soup and eluted solid content increased as the content of powder increased, indicating higher cooking loss. There was not much difference in hardness among cooked noodles, but cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the ratio of mulberry leaves powder increased, while adhesiveness increased. The results of sensory evaluation showed that cooked noodles containing 4% and 6% mulberry leaves powder were acceptable as much as wheat four noodle in terms of color, texture, taste and flavor. But the overall acceptability of mulberry leaves noodle was lower than wheat now noodle.
Sensory and Mechanical Characteristics of Brown Sauce by Different Ratio of Ingredients
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 637~643
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wine and different meat bones added in brown sauce. Sensory evaluation of brown sauce showed that brown stock and brown sauce made by adding wine and replacing some of veal bones with chicken bones were preferred most, and the brown sauce made by brown stock and burre manie in the ratio of 12:1 was preferred most. Sensory properties of palatability. flavor and gloss were positively correlated with the overall preference. The brown sauce made with wine and some of chicken bones had 77.60% of water content and 1.79% of lipid content, which was the lowest, but its protein content was similar to the others. Whereas the brown sauce made with wine and some of chicken bones gave the darkest color, the one made with some of pork bones and without wine showed the lightest color. The viscosity was the highest in the sauce made with some of chicken bones and without wine. The sauce made with wine showed lower viscosity than the one without wine.
Brown Color Characteristics and Antioxidizing Activity of Doenjang Extracts
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 644~654
Brown color characteristics and antioxidizing activities were investigated for Doenjang under different processing conditions. Doenjang A was prepared directly from Meju and saline solution whereas Doenjang B was Prepared after separating soy sauce by soaking for 45 days. Both Doenjangs were aged for up to 180 days. Antioxidizing activity was studied in relation to the brown color characteristics using fat-soluble extract and water-soluble extract of Doenjang. The intensity of brown color was higher in the water-soluble Doenjang extract than the fat-soluble Doenjang extract. In the UV-VIS scanning spectra, water-soluble Doenjang extracts showed significant changes as the aging proceeded, but fat-soluble Doenjang extract did not. Antioxidizing activity of fat-soluble Doenjang extract increased as the aging period extended; however, no significant difference was detected in the water-soluble extract. Overall, Doenjang A showed higher contents of amino acids, reducing sugar, brown color, and antioxidizing activity, and the antioxidizing ability was higher in water-soluble Doenjang extract rather than in the fat-soluble Doenjang extract.
Sensory Characteristics of Jokpyuns with Chicken and Codfish
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 655~660
We examined the quality characteristics and texture of Jokpyuns with chicken and codfish. In proportion to the increase of water addition, the color became lighter and the texture characteristics decreased in So-Jokpyuns, which were prepared with cow feet. The texture and taste had an influence on overall preference of So-Jokpyun. Yongbon-Jokpyun which was prepared with cow feet and chicken was much preferred to So-Jokpyun in the appearance and texture, and showed a similar preference with So-Jokpyun. However, Sodaegu-Jokpyun which was prepared with cow feet and codfish was not preferred to So-Jokpyun in all items including appearance and texture, and the overall preference was remarkably low. Overall preference of Yongbong-Jokpyun and Sodaegu-Jokpyun was greatly related with the preference of taste and flavor. The lightness and the degree of yellow color of Yongbong-Jokpyun were higher and the degree of red color was lower than So-Jokpyun. On the other hand, the results of lightness, degree of red and yellow color in Sodaegu-Jokpyun were opposite to those of Yonsbong-Jokpyun. In case of the hardness, Yongbong-Jokpyun was the lowest and Sodaegu-Jokpyun was similar with So-Jokpyun. Adhesiveness of Yongbong-Jokpyun and Sodaesu-Jokryun was lower than that of So-Jokpyun. There was no difference in the springiness and cohesiveness among 3 kinds of Jokpyun.
Sensory and textural characteristics of Solsulgi using varied levels of pine leaves powder and different types of sweeteners
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 661~669
The objectives of this study was to investigate the sensory and quality characteristics of Solsulgi made from rice flour and glutinous rice flour containing 1, 2, or 3% of pine leaves powder. The results of sensory evaluation showed that Solsulgi containing 1% pine leaves powder had high overall acceptability, chewiness and sweetness preference. In the results of textural analysis, the hardness was decreased by adding pine leaves powder. Hunter color L-value of Solsulgi decreased by increasing the level of pine leaves powder. The more pine leaves powder was added, the a-value and b-value of Solsulei were decreased. The moisture content was higher in Solsulgi with sugar than honey and oligo-saccharide.
Quality Characteristics and Food and Nutrition Specialists′ Opinion on Jujube Teas
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 670~676
Four different brands of commercial and a home-made jujube tea were analyzed for physicochemical properties (sugar content, acidity, color, viscosity, transparency, texture) and sensory characteristics by using 7-point scoring test from 18 experienced panel members. Also, the opinion of food and nutrition specialists on the commercial jujube teas were assessed using a questionnaire, which were hand-delivered to 530 subjects consisting of university students and faculties of Department of Food and Nutrition at 8 cities(Seoul, Incheon, Youngin. Taejon, Chungju, Taegu, Kwangiu, Pusan) in Korea and the complete data of 328 subjects were statistically analyzed using SPSS Program for Window. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographics, frequency and occasion of purchasing, opinion of quality and improvement points, and sensory characteristics. Commercial jujube teas (3 different brand) were lower in sugar content, pH, transparency, color (Hunter L, a and b value), and viscosity than the home-made one, whereas only one brand was higher in viscosity and lower in transparency than home-made one. Also, overall preference for commercial jujube teas was significantly love. than that for home-made one (p＜0.05). Especially, the scores of overall preference for 3 commercial jujube teas (2.1-3.3) were much lower than that of home-made one (6.1). Points to be improved for commercial jujube teas were indicated as the amount of jujube (30.0%), taste (23.8%), sweetness (22.0%), and flavor (14.4%) in order. Sensory attributes showing positive correlations with overall preference of jujube tea were the taste(0.566), amount of jujube(0.449), and flavor(0.335).
Quality Characteristics of Daechupyun by the Addition of Jujube Paste
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 677~683
This study was aimed to find an optimum amount of jujube paste to ice flour for the preparation of Daechupyun(jujube rice cake). The moisture content of Daechupyun added with jujube paste was 40∼42%. The more jujube paste was added, the L-value and b-value were decreased, and a-value of Daechupyun was increased. In the mechanical evaluation of Dachupyun, the hardness was the lowest in the samples with 12% jujube paste after 12-hour storage. The adhesiveness and springiness were not significantly different by adding jujube paste after 24-hour storage. The cohesiveness was increased with the increase of added jujube paste at 12, 36 and 48 hours of storage. The gumminess was the lowest in the samples with 12% jujube paste during storage. In the sensory evaluation of Daechupyun, the acceptance for the softness and chewiness war the best in the samples with 12% jujube paste. Daechupyun with 12-16% of jujube paste to rice flour was found to be the best recipe based on the sensory qualities of softness, chewiness and overall acceptability.
Consumption Pattern of Kimchi in Seoul Area
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 684~691
The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption pattern and importance of Kimchi in our meals, and the preference of Kimchi. The 77.0% of the housewife respondents were preparing Kimchi at home. The reasons for not making Kimchi were ‘don't have time’(39.4%), ‘don't know how to make Kimchi’(18.2%) and ‘don't eat much’(18.2%). The amounts of daily Kimchi intake of the respondents were ‘less than 50g’(42.3%) or ‘50-100g’(29.8%). They are Kimchi because it was ‘delicious’(48.4%) or ‘habitual’(39.5%). The 70.0% of the respondents answered that Kimchi was important in each meal. The most respondents favored ‘moderate’ in the degree of fermentation(48.1%), hot taste(65.0%) and salty taste(72.4%). As the age of the respondents increased, they favored less sour, less hot and less salty taste. Baechu Kimchi(4.15), Chonggak Kimchi(3.89), Dongchimi(3.85), Kkaktugi(3.74), water Kimchi(3.67) were preferred by the respondents. The 73.97% of the respondents preferred Kimchi Jjigye. The 10- to 19-years old respondents preferred Kimchi Jjigye(52.8%), Kimchi pan cake(24.5%) and fried rice with Kimchi(17.0%).
A study on the noodle quality made from pea starch-wheat composite flour
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 692~697
The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the doughs and noodles cooked with the pea starch-wheat composite flour which was substituted with 20% and 30% of pea starch for the flour by the mechanical and sensory evaluation. Wheat dough had the most cohesive property among various composite non.(p＜0.05) There was no significant differences in weight gain after cooking among various noodles. The more the pea starch was subsituted, the lighter the color was shown by increasing L value. It was also noted that the b value was decreased significantly. While pea starch noodle were more transparent in appearance and less smooth in the texture, corn starch-wheat composite flour noodle was sorter in the texture significantly. There was no significant difference on the hardness between wheat and pea stach composite flour noodles. There were also no significant differences in stickiness, chewiness and overall acceptability among various noodles. Considering mechanical and sensory results, the composite flour with 20% substitution of pea starch for flour was more suitable for the production of the noodle than those of 30% substitution of pea starch.
Changes in Quality Characteristics of Different Combination of Brown Sauce during Storage
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 698~703
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wine and different meat bones added in brown sauce. Four kinds of brown sauce were prepared to find the changes of physiochemical characteristics, such as pH,
-amylase activity, color, viscosity and microorganisms in brown sauce during storage at 4
. The pH of 4 kinds of brown sauce ranged from 5.0 to 5.6, and these pH ranges were stable during storage period. The activity of
-amylase was the highest in the brown sauce made with wine and some of chicken bones and the sauces stored for 2 ∼ 6 days. The brown sauce made with wine and some of chicken bones had 35.5% of reducing sugar, which was the highest among 4 kinds of brown sauce, and had the darkest color. Also the brown sauce with wine and some of chicken bones shooed low values of L, a, b after storage and the lowest viscosity among 4 kinds of brown sauce. But they all tended to have higher viscosity during storage, especially two days after. The sauce made with wine and some of chicken bones showed the least change of viscosity and the addition of wine in the sauce appeared to inhibit the microbial growth.
A study on the intake of foods causing dental caries and the effect of nutrition education for primary students
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 704~715
This study intended to compare dietary and snack habits of primary students in the schools providing and non-providing lunch to clarify the correlation between those conditions and the occurrence of dental caries. Furthermore, this study also focused on evaluating educational effects by providing children with nutritional education program. 1. As a result of dietary habit analysis, it was found that children from the school providing lunch were better in terms of breakfast regularity, eating speed. optimum amount of intake, and meal time regularity than those from the school non-providing lunch. In particular, it was noted that children from the school providing lunch took a little more meat, fish, seaweed and milk or dairy products than those from school non-providing lunch. Thus, it could be assumed hat children provided with lunch have more reasonable dietary habit than those without lunch program. In general, it was found that there was a slight positive change in children's dietary habit after nutritional instruction than before, suggesting that the nutritional education had effects on improving their dietary habit. 2. It was found that primary students often took snacks causing dental caries such as caramel, chocolate, sweets and biscuits, and children from the school providing lunch were more willing to reduce those snacks upon recognizing the causes of dental caries than those from the school non-providing lunch. For the children who chewed gum with physical cleansing effects, it was shown that the highest frequency wat twice or three times a week. Moreover, the ratio of children who took snacks following dinner which might affect their dental caries and the ratio of children who selected snacks because of TV commercial were both reduced after nutritional education. Also the consumption of detergent foods like vegetable, fruit, protein. seaweed. milk or dietary products after nutritional education was increased. 3. It was found that children from the school providing lunch took more often all food groups except for food group IV affecting dental caries than those from the school non-providing lunch. The average number of consuming foods which cause dental caries was 5.04 times per person a day, and most of those were rather taken by liquid than solid food. The average eating times of rinsing foods which kill the bacteria on the surface of teeth and prevent from dental caries, was 9.33 for a person a day, which was a little higher than recommended time. Exposed time for dental caries for a person a day was 100.9 min, of which liquid dental caries was 56.2 min and solid dental caries was 44.6 min, suggesting that liquid food had a high potential to cause dental caries.
The screening of the mutagenicity and desmutagenicity for cooked pork meats according to cooking conditions
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 18, issue 6, 2002, Pages 716~722
Meat(beef, pork, chicken, duck) were cooked by three kinds of instruments (gas grill. electric grill, microwave oven) and extracted with 80% methanol. These methanol extracts were performed the Ames test, employing S. typhimurium tester strain TA100 (in vitro) and micronucleus test (in vivo). The methanol extract of cooked pork showed high mutagenicity in 5.0mg/plate without S9 mix and induced a higher mutagenicity with S9 mix than without S9 mix at 5 mg/plate. In all kinds of cookery methods, pork extracts showed high mutagenicity according to increase of cookery temperature (200
). The methanol extract of cooked pork by electric grill (at 260
, for 5 min) showed high mutagenicity in all kinds of cookery instruments on the Ames test and micronucleus test. In all kinds of meat, the methanol extract of cooked pork showed a higher mutagenicity than the others and chicken showed a lower. The extract after pork soaked in ginger juice showed lower mutagenicity and micronucleus formation than the other vegetable juice.