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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
A Study for Eating Behavior of University Students(I)
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 127~135
The aim of this study was to determine what kinds of foods university students have, how often they eat out and the regularity and quantity of food they consume. A questionnaire surrey was conducted on 597 university students. The main results are as follows : The average weight of the participants was 68.24kg(male) and 53.12kg(female) with average height 174.50cm(male) and 162.48cm(female). Many students ate irregularly (breakfast 73.5%, lunch 54.4%. dinner 57.1%). The percentage students who had a meal with the average amounts of food were 32.2%(breakfast), 61.1%(lunch), 39.2%(dinner). Male students ate out than female (lunch＞dinner＞breakfast). Male students usually ate rice, meat, fish, soybean and seaweeds, Female students ate bread, fruits and milk products. Male students consumed carbonated beverages drinks and alcohol more often than females-who consumed many types of-snack More female students preferred fast food than males.
Quality Characteristics of Bread Made with Brown Rice Flours of Different Preparations
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 136~143
This study was carried out to investigate the quality of bread made with different types of brown rice flours. 20% of the wheat flour from the bread recipe was substituted with the different types of brown rice flours, such as, raw brown rice flour (RBRF), soaked brown rice flour (SOBRF), and sprouted brown rice flour (SPBRF). The loaf volume of the bread: decreased by 3.2%∼7.4% with the addition of the brown rice flours. The "L" value of these breads decreased, while the "a" and "b" values increased. In terms of the texture, the SPBRF bread was the hardest on the 1st day of storage, but it was the least hard on the 5th day of storage. The RBRF bread was the least springy. The SPBRF bread was the most cohesive. The adhesiveness was not significantly different among the breads. In terms of the degree of retrogradation using the
-amylase method, the SOBRF and SPBRF breads showed a little lesser degree of retrogradation than the control and the RBRF bread. In the sensory evaluation, the control bread obtained high score for crumb color and grain, while the brown rice flours breads obtained high scores for mouthfeel and taste. Overall acceptability, defined by a higher score, was higher for the SOBRF and SPBRF breads than the control bread, which was not significant. Thus, this study showed that processing rice flour was more effective than raw rice flour in substituting wheat flour.
Meal Preference on the School Food Service of Middle School Students in Gwangju and Chollanamdo Area
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 144~154
A survey on meal preferences from 693 middle school students was conducted with the objective to enhance the quality of the school food service in Gwangju and the Chollanamdo area. Data were collected by questionnaires and analysed with the SAS program. The most preferred rice was cooked rice; the most unusual meal preference was laver rice; and the most-liked bread was sweet red bean jam bun. The noodle of choice was Tchajangmyon, and the most-liked rice cake was reasoned bar rice cake. The highest ranted korean soups were boiled fish paste soup, kimchi stew, and short rib sour. The most preferred fried meal included fried beef with sweet and sour sauce, and favorite side-dishes were seasoning vinegar squid and kimchi. Yogurt and strawberry were the preferred desserts. A gender difference in preferred foods was seen. The males tended to favor rice with blackish bean sauce, dumpling soup, beef bean curd soup, beef soup, short rib soup, beef bone and tripe soup, hot shredded beef soup, chopped roast chicken, pork roast, roast meat, steamed pork short-ribs, fried port, fried ham, sausage, milk, and yogurt. Males were partial to staple foods and side dishes, The, females favored laver rice, seasoned bar rice cake, bean sprouts soup, fried squid ring, seasoned cucumber, seasoned bean sprouts, fried kimchi, fruits salad, corn salad and citrus fruits. Females tended to choose lighter meals. Meal preference according to residential area showed that, students in Gwangju had more preferences than students in the Chollanamdo area. Classified according to grades, third graders had the greatest meal preference.
Evaluating the Causal Relationships among Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Service Quality in the Hotel F & B Department
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 155~164
The purpose of this study was to examine, in a service context, construct validity and generalizability of widely used and accepted measures of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and service duality, and to test each measures' predictive utility in this context with path analysis. Of 350 subjects, 309 subjects participated in the analysis. Descriptive statistics (frequencies), exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, zero-order partial correlation analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used for this study. The findings from this study are as follows. First, perceived organizational support significantly influenced job satisfaction, organizational commitment. and service quality. Second, Job satisfaction had a directional impact upon organizational commitment and service quality. Third, organizational commitment showed to have a predictive impart on service quality. Finally, the results of the study provide some insight into the types of internal marketing strategies that can be applied successfully by operators of hotel F & B departments.
Quality Characteristics of Fruits Dressing
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 165~173
This study was carried out to develop a better fruit-dressing than previous mayonnaise in terms of calories, salt content and color, using kiwis, oranges, strawberries, and apples. This study was aimed to identify the perception, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the 4-kinds of fruits dressing. The results were as follows: The perception of the fruit dressings received the highest score (3.90) for 'It's convenience foods'. The misture in the dressings ranged from 49.3 to 59.4%, and was highest in apple dressing, followed by the kiwi, strawberry, and orange dressings, in that order. The crude ash for the dressings ranged from 0.8 to 1.4%, and was highest in the orange dressing. The L value was highest in the apple dressing, the a(-) value in the kiwi dressing, the a(＋) value in the strawberry dressing and the b value in the orange dressing. The Ca/ P ratio was about 1.17 : 1. The results of mineral contents analyses were also examined. The calcium, magnesium and potassium levels were highest in the orange dressing. The mineral contents of fruit dressings were 6.7 to 20.4mg/100g for calcium, 6.5 to 20.5mg/100g for magnesium and 67.2 to 182.6mg/100g for potassium. The sodium content of the fruit dressings were lower than in the previous mayonnaise, especially for the kiwi-dressing, which was 30% that in the mayonnaise. As a result of the sensory evaluations of the 4-kinds of fruits dressing, the kiwi dressing received the highest scores (3.50) of all the fruit-dressings in relation to the taste and palatability. Fruit are good for producing dressings that are low in calories and salt, with kiwi dressing proving to be the best of those fruits tested.
Changes in Vitamin C and Minerals Content of Perilla Leaves by Different Cooking Methods
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 174~180
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in vitamin C and mineral contents in perilla leaves as a result of different cooking methods. The results are summarized as follows. In cutting up the perilla leaves, the vitamin C content decreased by 40% with no significant difference made to the mineral content. Steaming was more effective in retaining vitamin C compared to blanching. With increasing treatment times. decreasing amounts of vitamin C remained. There was no significant change in mineral contents except for potassium. In the case of treating with vinegar or lemon juice, more vitamin C remained than when not treated, and there was little influence on the mineral contents. In the solubilization effect of calcium seasoned with acid, rice vinegar was most effective followed by lemon juice, apple juice, brown rice vinegar, then persimmon vinegar. There was a little or almost no vitamin C remaining in kkaennip kimchi. In terms of storing time, raw seasoned kkaennip kimchi had higher mineral contents than blanched or steamed kkaennip kimchis.
Sensory and textural characteristics of wageobyung using varied levels of lettuce and different amount of sugars and water
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 181~187
The objective of this study was to investigate by a sensory evaluation and mechanical examination the sensory and quality characteristics of wageobyune containing different ratios of ingredients such as lettuce (50%, 60% and 70%), sugar and water. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that wageobyung containing 50% lettuce had higher scores in the overall acceptability, color, flavor and chewiness preference. In the textural analysis of wageobyung, the springiness, cohesiveness and hardness were the highest and the chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness were the highest in the 70% added samples. Increasing the lettuce content decreased the hunter's color L-value of wageobyung. The redness and yellowness of wageobyung were increased as more lettuce was added. The moisture content of wageobyung was higher in the samples containing 70% lettuce than those containing 50%.
Effects of Beef Bone Extracts on Quality of Baeck Kimchi
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 188~194
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beef bone extracts on the organoleptic quality and fermentation of Baeck Kimchi. For this study, the organoleptic characteristics of Baeck Kimchi, with addition beef bone extracts were tested, and the changes in the fermentation factors, such as pH, acidity, reducing sugar and total microbial count, were observed during fermentation at 10
. Greater amounts of lipids and soluble nitrogen were extracted to increasing the boiling time for the preparation of the beef bone extracts. However, 1% of the mixed beef bone extracts, prepared by boiling for 5, 7 and 9 hours, was the most acceptable for the Baeck Kimchi fermentation, as assessed from the results of sensory consumer tests. The beef bone extracts enhanced the umami taste of the unfermented Baeck Kimchi. The carbonated taste, sourness and fresh flavor of the fermented Baeck Kimchi were also enhanced. The fermentation rate was increased by the addition of beef bone extracts to Baeck Kimchi.
Evaluation of hazardous factors for the application of HACCP on production and transportation flow in home-delivered meals for the elderly
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 195~209
The purpose of this study was to identify the hazard analysis critical control point on food production and transportation flow, applied to home-delivered meals for the elderly. To carry out this study, 1) pan-fried oak mushroom and meat, soy sauce glazed hair tail, and roasted dodok were selected as high nutrient and preferred foods for the elderly and 2) time, temperature, and microbiological quality(standard plate count, coliform, Salmonella spp, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes) were measured at various phases of the home-delivered meal production and its transportation flows. The results of this experiments are as follows: The temperature measured at cooling phases during the home-delivered meal production flows was 19.2 ∼ 20.0
for the pan- fried oak mushroom and meat and the roasted dodok and was 24.0 ∼ 25.2
for the soy sauce glazed hair tail. These temperature were in the potentially dangerous zone. Microbiological analysis showed that S. spp. was higher in the raw ingredients, including oak mushroom, hair tail, radish, and dodok, than the standard limit. SPC was lower than the standard limit from cooking to transportation phase, but SPC increased significantly during the cooling and packaging phase. The level of coliform detected was far lower than the standard limit and was not detected at all during the transportation phase. Few S. spp. was detected in the pan-fried oak mushroom and meat, but was found in above standards limit during the wrap packaging phase in the soy sauce glazed hair tail and roasted dodok. The level decreased rapidly during the holding and transportation phase. Sal. spp., V. parahaemolyticus, S. spp., E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes were not detected. For the pan-fried oak mushroom and meat, the critical control points were during the purchasing and receiving of raw ingredients, cooling, and packaging phases. For the soy sauce glazed hair tail and roasted dodok, the critical control points were during the purchasing and receiving of raw ingredients, preparation, cooling, and packaging phases.
Characterization cf salted Chinese cabbage in relation to salt content, temperature and time
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 210~215
When Kimchi is cooked, it is very import to find an appropriate level for the salt content of the cabbage to makes the best tasting Kimchi. Therefore, in this article, attempts were made to find the best salted cabbage condition using difference salt solution concentration, temperatures and fermentation periods. In the experiments with the difference of the salt solutions, 10 and 15%, the salted cabbages were packed in polyethylene bags, and incubated at 10, 15, 20 and 25
for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 20 hrs. As a result, the best tasting Kimchi, in terms of texture characteristic, were found with storage times of 10 and 6-8 hrs, with salt solution concentrations of 10 and 15%, respectively, both of these at 25
. The best conditions, in terms of the kimchi taste characteristics, where 6-10 hrs, with the salt solution concentrations of 10 & 15%. With storage conditions of 10 hrs and a salt solution concentraction of 10%, and 6-8 hrs and a salt solution concentration of 15%, both at 25
, the texture characteristics were fresh. clear and coot. Also, the points of the appropriate salt content differ with temperature. Therefore, the appropriate conditions for the salting time, storage temperature and salt solution concentrations will make the best tasting, most nutritious Kimchi, in the least time and most economically.
Quality Characteristics of Soy Ice Creams as Affected by Enzyme Hydrolysis Times and Added Calciums
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 216~222
The effects of hydrolysis times and calcium source additions (calcium lactate, calcium carbonate), on the qualify characteristics of soy ice cream prepared with soy protein isolate(SPI), were studied. Increasing the hydrolysis time decreased the viscosity and overrun of soy ice creams, but increased the melt-down property. The addition of calcium lactate increased the viscosity of the soy ice cream mix, but no changes were observed from the calcium carbonate addition. The overrun of calcium lactate samples was higher than on addition of calcium carbonate. The addition of calcium lactate and calcium carbonate resulted in decreased melt-down properties, although these effects were more evident in the calcium lactate samples. However, calcium carbonate addition resulted in higher scores in the overall quality of the soy ice creams. In conclusion, better soy ice cream could be prepared by treating the SPI with Flavorzyme for 50 min, along with calcium fortification in the form of calcium carbonate.
A Study on the Trace Metals in Potatoes and Root Vegetables
Choi, Soon-Nam ; Chung, Nam-Yong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 223~230
This study was conducted to estimate the contents of 6 trace metals in potatoes and root vegetables purchased in wholesale market in the Seoul region, specifically, Cu. As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. The minimum and maximum results obtained for each metal are summarized as follows for potatoes; Cu : 0.094∼0.344, As : N.D∼0.070, Zn : 0.247∼1.547, Pb : N.D∼0.268, Cd : N.D∼0.005, Hg : 0.001∼0.027, and for root vegetables; Cu : 0.021∼0.510, As : 0.004∼0.045, Zn : 0.143∼3.137, Pb : N.D∼0.372, Cd : N.D∼0.009, Hg : 0.001∼0.195. The daily intakes of trace metals from potatoes and root vegetables were estimated on the basis of the daily intake of these foods by Koreans, which were 0.073∼22.253 and 0.567∼156.219
from potatoes and root vegetables, respectively. The weekly intakes of trace metals were 0.009∼2.596 and 0.066∼18.224
for potatoes and root vegetables, respectively. The weekly intakes of trace metals for potatoes and root vegetables were very much lower than the PTWI(provisional tolerable weekly intake), enough to be within a safe range.
Microbiological Hazard Analysis of Cooking Utensils and Working Areas of Foodservice Establishments and Hygienic Improvement by Implementing HACCP system
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 231~240
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implementing the HACCP system on foodservice establishments. At first, the hygienic conditions were measured by microbiological hazard analyses of the cooking utensils and working areas. In order to solve the detected problems, the HACCP system was implemented, after what was considered a sufficient settlement period following the initial assessment, then microbiological verification was performed again. In relation to the cooking utensils and equipment(kitchen knives, cutting boards, knives for shredding vegetables, refrigerators, baskets, barts, working tables, preparation tables, tungs, dish-clothes and drains) the microbiological inspection on the Total Plate Count, Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, were conducted with regard to the working areas(working tables, preparation tables, seasoning's shelves, serving tables, drinking water tables, refrigerators, storage rooms and dining tables), the Total Plate Count and Fungi were also examined. According to the microbiological hazard analyses there were many problems, especially with cutting boards, baskets, barts, dish-clothes and sinkballs. However, by introducing the HACCP system, the microbiological hazard levels were able to be controlled and lowered, and the total aerial bacteria in the working areas of the foodservice establishments were detected at levels below 6 CFU/plate.
Changes of Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Home-delivered meals for elderly as affected by Packaging methods and Storage conditions 2
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 241~253
Changes in chemical, microbiological quality of pan fried oak mushroom and meat, soy sauce glazed hair tail and roasted dodok in wrap packaging, top sealing, vacuum packaging were evaluated during storage 25
for 5 days. The results were as follows: 1) The cases of chilled and frozen storage, there were small increases in the pH from the first day, with no differences between the different packaging methods, with the exception of the vacuum packaging, which was lower. The pH and Aw of the roasted dodok were lower than those of the other foods. The Aw for all three foods at room temperature significantly decreased in the wrap packaging and top sealing on day one, but the rate of reduction was lower when in chilled storage. The VBN increased with increasing length of storage, and temperatures, but the rate of increase was lower in the top sealing and vacuum packaging. The VBN of roasted dodok was considerably lower than with the other foods. The POV increased significantly on the first day or room temperature storage and the rate or increase was low in chilled End frozen storages, and in the vacuum packaging. 2) SPC of the roasted dodok at room temperature increased significantly within five days of storage. but was inhibited within five days in the vacuum packaging with chilled storage. The SPC of the soy sauce glazed hair tail was low in the top sealing and vacuum packaging when in chilled storage. The coliform of the pan fried oak mushroom and meat. on the fifth day of room temperature storage, was close to hazardous conditions for the wrap packaging. From the third day of chilled storage, few coliform were detected in the pan fried oak mushroom and meat, or the soy sauce glazed hair tail, but not in the vacuum packaging, within five days, for all three foods in frozen storage. The S. spp. had exceeded the standard in the wrap packaging and top sealing with the pan fried oak mushroom and meat on the third day at room temperature, but was not detected in the vacuum packaging within five days, and exceeded the standard in the wrap packaging on the fifth day of chilled storage. S. spp. was not detected in the soy sauce glazed hair tail within five days at all storage temperatures. S. spp. was not detected in the roasted dodok within five days of chilled and frozen storage, but was detected from the third day in the wrap packaging. and the fifth in the top sealing, at room temperature, which exceeded the standard. Sal. spp., V parahaemolyticus, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes were not detected. 3) The Aw was found to be influenced by storage temperature, period and packaging method, while the VBN was significantly influenced by the storage temperature and period. Regarding the SPC, the pan fried oak mushroom and meat was affected by the storage temperature and period, while the soy sauce glazed hair tail was influenced by the packaging method and storage period. The roasted dodok's microbiological quality was influenced by the method of packaging. The chemical, microbiological quality of home-delivered meals were preserved to be five days in the vacuum packaging, at. chilled and frozen storage.
Effect of Powder-type Dried Alaska Pollack Addition on the Quality of Kimchi
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 254~262
Powder-type dried pollack was added to Kimchi, the groups were stored at 4
, respectively, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of the Kimchi were examined according to the stored durations. The pH appeared to have almost similar values in the early stages of the fermentation. Generally, the groups with the additional powder-type dried Pollack had high pHs in the later stages of the fermentation. For the changes in the acidity, until the optimum edible period was reached, the groups with the additional powder-type dried Pollack required longer than those groups with additional fluid anchovy sauce. With regard to the salinity, there were no significant differences between the respective groups. For changes with regard to the reducing sugar, from the early to late fermentation stages, the greatest content was shown in the no additional protein source group, however, after the optimum edible period, there were no significant differences between the treated groups. In the case of free amino acids, the total quantities of Serine, Glycine, Threonine, Proline and Alanine, which all have a sweet taste, were usually found to have increased too almost twice those in the control groups, on the addition of 0.80% powder-type dried Pollack to the Kimchi. As a result of examining the microbiological properties, the time spent reaching the maximum numbers was longer in the additional powder-type dried Pollack groups. Similarly, the maximum numbers of lactic acid bacteria also appeared at the same time, but the difference between the treated groups was small, compared with the total numbers of microorganisms. As a result of the sensory evaluation, the treated groups generally gained better evaluations for several items. corresponded to the addition of 0.65% powder-type dried Pollack.