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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
An Investigation of the employee Job Satisfaction according to Leadership Style in Family Restaurant
Yun, Ji-Yeon ; Yoo, Yang-Ja ; Hong, Wan-Soo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 259~269
The purposes of this study were to measure the correlation between leadership style and job satisfaction in family restaurants, and to compare the effectiveness of two different styles of leadership: transformational and transactional. The questionnaire used in this study was designed to measure all variables in the research model, and was made two kinds for employees and for managers. It was distributed to 550 employees and 12 managers in 16 stores of 4 family restaurants, from September 10 to October 7, 2004. A total of 303 usable employees' questionnaires were received, giving a 55.0% response rate, and all of managers responded. Statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS Win(11.0) for the following analyses: descriptive, reliability, factor, ANOVA, correlation and cluster. The results were as follows. First, the most influential leader was the senior staff in most of the hierarchies that were studied. Second, transformational leadership had a positive correlation with job satisfaction for family restaurant employees, while transactional leadership had a negative correlation. Third, using cluster analysis, four leadership groups were identified: transformational(44%), transactional(29%), a combination of both styles(4%), and unidentifiable style(23%). Fourth the transformational leadership group produced e highest rates job satisfaction for family restaurant employees. The transactional leadership group produced the lowest job satisfaction. According to the results, the most reasonable leadership style in family restaurants is transformational leadership.
Effect of prefermented culture on bread quality
Moon, Hea-Jin ; Joo, Na-Mi ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 270~281
The study investigated the effect of prefermentation of Bifidobacteria longum and Lactobacillus plantarum on baking quality. Firstly, two kinds of prefermentation were cultured using two lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacteria longum and Lactobacillus plantarum. White pan bread baked with dough that had undergone these two prefermentation methods was compared with that baked with a non-prefermented control. The physicochemical properties of the three breads were analyzed, and then the physicochemical and sensory properties of the dough and baked bread were cross-analyzed. The pH prefermentation of Bifidobacteria longum was lower than that of Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas the titratable acidity was higher. Compared to the results from analyzing the prefermentation of Lactobacillus plantarum, the prefermentation of Bifidobacteria longum was expected to give positive effects on enriching the bread flavor by creating acetic acid at a level three- to eight-fold higher than that of Lactobacillus plantarum. According to the mixogram data, the optimum ending time for both Bifidobacteria longum prefermentation and Lactobacillus plantarum was around 4.5 to 5 minutes. The speed of dough materialization decreased with increasing prefermentation culture time. The baked bread with added Bifidobacteria longum had a higher water content. However, the other contents were not influenced by prefermentation, but were by culture time. The specific loaf volume, oven spring and baking lass rate all peaked at 20 hours after culture for both prefermentation cultures. The sensory test results indicated the highest prefermentation for the bread baked with prefermented Bifidobacteria longum doughwith a culture time ranging from 20 to 26 hours. In addition, the bread baked with prefermented Lactobacillus plantarum dough gave the highest preference when cultured for 20 hours.
Effect of Kneading, Ingredients and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Retrogradation of Injulmi
Cho, Tae-Oc ; Seo, Hyung-Jin ; Kim, Joo-Sook ; Hong, Jin-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 282~290
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of modified starch, sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis with
on extending the self-life of Injulmi, a Korean soft and glutinous rice cake, in terms of maintaining a soft texture. The Injulmi was prepared with or without kneading of waxy rice flour, NaCl and water mixture. The Injulmi was stored at -20, 4 and
and the hardness was measured to calculate the Avrami exponents during storage. The results showed that cold heading and enzymatic hydrolysis with
before steaming of the waxy rice dough significantly extended the self-life on the basis of the Avrami equation. Among the various additives including different kinds of starches, sugars and polymannuronic acid, the addition of 1.5% tapioca starch, 8.0% of glucose or 3.0% of polymannuronic acid was also effective for delaying the retrogradation phenomena during storage. However, despite the effectiveness of these treatments, the Injulmi developed hardness within 2-3 days at
and within 4 days at
while storage at
showed a storage stability that was maintained over x days. Sensory showed the Injulmi prepared with NOVA-0.005, GL-8.0 had a lower hardness than that of the other treatments.
Quality characteristics of chunggugjaug prepared byBacillus subtilis NRLSI IV with different inoculum levels and fermentation temperatures
Kim, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Haeng-Ran ; Yoo, Seon-Mi ; Kim, Jin-Sook ; Choe, Jeong-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 291~298
This study, investigated the effect of changes in inoculum levels and fermentation temperature of chunggugjang prepared with Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis) NRLSI IV on the quality characteristics. In chunggugjang prepared at different inoculum levels, viable cell count, reducing sugar and amino type nitrogen were maximized at
, whereas relative viscosity of viscous substance and hardness peaked at
. In sensory evaluation, chunggugjang made with
showed higher values of appearance, color, taste and viscosity and a lower value of off-flavor than that made at other inoculum levels. Based on the results of ammonia type nitrogen, relative viscosity and sensory evaluation, the optimum inoculum level for chunggugjang prepared by B. subtilis NRLSI IV was
. In the second step, the effect of different fermentation temperatures on the quality changes of chunggugjang incubated with
of B. subtilis NRLSI IV were investigated. The viable cell count was maximized at
, but minimized at
. Reducing sugar was not significantly different from
but was increased at
. Increasing fermentation temperature decreased the content of amino type and ammonia type nitrogen. Chunggugjang prepared at
showed high sensory evaluation result in microorganism growth, appearance, taste and viscosity and particularly had low off-favor.
Application of GC-SAW(Surface Acoustic Wave) Electronic Nose to Classification of Origins and Blended Commercial Brands in Roasted Ground Coffee Beans
Seo, Han-Seok ; Kang, Hee-Jin ; Jung, Eun-Hee ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 299~306
The numerous varieties of coffee beans contain a wide range prices and qualities. While the varieties of green coffee beans can generally be distinguished by their appearance, this visual criterion is impossible after the roasting process. Therefore, we need to develop a classification method or device. In this study, the potential of a new type of electronic nose, fast gas chromatography based on a surface acoustic wave sensor(SAW), was evaluated for the classification of origins and blended commercial brands in roasted coffee beans. Eight blended commercial brands and the origins of four similarly roasted ground coffee beans(with no significant difference of color) were rapidly(90 sec/sample) classified. The reproductive results were easily understandable over the aroma image pattern by
. In conclusion, GC-SAW electronic nose can be applied to the classification of origins and commercial brands in roasted ground coffee beans and to e evaluation of the similarities and differences of volatile pattern between samples.
Studies on Storage Characteristics of Tofu with Herb
Jeon, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Mee-Ra ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 307~313
Tofu was prepared with various herbs (green tea, rosemary, lavender and thyme) and the tofu quality was investigated during storage. In the measurement of tofu color, the L and b values increased during storage period. Especially, the b value was very high at 8 days after storage. The pH value of tofu increased until 6 days of storage, but then decreased. The turbidity gradually increased until 6 days of storage and rapidly increased at 8 days of storage. The microorganism count of herb tofu was lower an that of control tofu during storage. Especially green tea tofu showed the lowest psychrotrophic microorganism count as
. In addition, lavender tofu showed the lowest aerobic mesophilic microorganism count
at 8 days of storage. In texture analysis, hardness and chewiness of herb tofu increased with increasing storage period. Springiness increased to 2 or 4 days of storage but decreased after 6 or 8 days. Therefore, herb tofu is expected to have good quality physiologically as well as microbiologically.
Investigation of Main Dishes on Literatures before the 17th Century
Kim, Eun-Mi ; Cho, Shin-Ho ; Chung, Rak-Won ; Choi, Young-Jin ; Won, Sun-Im ; Cha, Gyung-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Hyo-Gee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 314~336
In this treatise, we investigated the Korean literature of main dishes before the 17th century :
. Main dishes were classified 19 kinds of rice, 64 kinds of gruel, 6 kinds of thin gruel, 1 kind of Moori, 1 kind of rice-cake soup, 37 kinds of noodles and 20 kinds of dumpling. Rice varieties were brown rice, rice, hulled rice, millet rice, foxtail millet rice, barley rice, sesame rice and flax seed rice. Gruel ingredients were cereal, beans, vegetables, nuts or seeds, medical plants or hardy wild plants, poultry, pork's kidney, dog's liver or oyster, clam and/or milk Rice-cake soup was 'Tangbyun' in
. Noodles were divided by main flours: wheat flour, buckwheat flour, mung bean flour and other flours. Noodles were made by pressing or cutting method. Pressing method used a mold with a hole. The husk of dumpling was made by wheat flour, buckwheat flour, mixed flour of wheat and buckwheat, sliced fish or meat, and/or a gray mullet. Another special method was 'Sangwha' made by fermentation. Bun stuffing of dumpling used fishes, meat, vegetables, beans, flours and seasonings. Cooking methods of dumpling were boiling, baking, steaming and pan-frying. From this investigation of the Korean main dishes described in the Korean literature before the 17th century, we expect to develop useful recipes for those who are concerned about health and want longevity, and thereby to advance the Korean food culture.
Manufacturing and Sensory Characteristics of Jupjang Using Grains Fermented by Basidiomycetes
Jung, In-Chang ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 337~345
The properties of various grains used for the solid-state cultivation of basidiomycetes were examined. The hydration time with cold water was 10 hours for malt soybean. The required hydration time for Job's tears, barley and wheat was 4, 6 and 12 hours, respectively, but the final moisture content ranged from 30 to 48 %, which was much less than the optimum moisture content for mycelial growth. For the mass cultivation of mycelia, the hydrated grains with cold water were placed in plastic bottles. The mycelial growth ra in e bottled grains was high in the early stage with inoculation of homogenized mycelium. The mycelium activity was maintained by adding sterilized water in the middle of the cultivation period. Jupjang underwent sensory evaluation to examine the possibility of utilizing basidiomycetes in functional foods. The grains fermented with Ganoderma lucidum was the best for Jupjang. The combination of malt soybean and Job's tears was the best for Jupjang. The acceptability of Jupjang was improved during the period of aging time.
A Comparison of the Importance and Satisfaction for the Popularization and Merchandising of Local Foods in the Ulsan Area
Choi, Su-Keun ; Ha, Mi-Ok ; Lee, Yeon-Jung ; Byun, Gwang-In ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 346~354
The purpose of this study was to gather useful information for establishing an efficient marketing direction by investigating the performance (satisfaction) and importance for the quality, popularization and merchandising of local foods in the Ulsan area. A questionnaire was answered by 500 citizens over 16 years old living in the Ulsan area. The study data were analyzed by Importance-Performance Analysis method(IPA), frequency analysis, T-test, and ANOVA. The analysis of the quality attributes of local foods for tourist merchandising showed that importance was generally higher than performance. 'Sanitation', 'taste', 'freshness', 'healthfulness', 'nutrition' and 'service' were revealed to be significant ones in the quality attributes. The respondents thought that a lot of emphasis needs to be placed on 'generalizing and globalizing local cuisine', 'passing down traditional recipes','hosting various cultural events related with traditional foods', and 'increasing the number of restaurants specializing in local traditional foods'.
The Influences of Tangible Clues on Customer's Perceived Risk and Satisfaction at Family-Restaurants (Focused on University Students in Seoul)
Lee, Jung-Ja ; Yoon, Tae-Hwan ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 355~362
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of tangible clues on university students' perceived risks and satisfaction at family-restaurants in Seoul. The performances of 3 tangible clues(physical evidence, employee, service process) negatively influenced the student's perceived risks. This result indicated that tangible clues can reduce the negative characteristics of service (intangibility, inseparability, perishability and variability) toward student customers at family restaurants. Meanwhile, financial risk, performance risk and social risk negatively influenced their overall satisfaction. Performance risk had the strongest negative influence on student customers' overall satisfaction, indicating that university students were much more interested in performance and utility about menu, food and service quality than in other factors at family restaurants. As a result, food-service corporations need to manage suitably various tangible clues as an important marketing strategy to diminish their customers' perceived risk and raise their satisfaction.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk with Different Amounts of Waxy Sorghum Flour
Chae, Kyung-Yeon ; Hong, Jin-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 363~369
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum addition amount of waxy sorghum flour to rice flour in the preparation of Sulgidduk(waxy sorghum rice cake). The moisture content of Sulgidduk with added wary sorghum flour was
. With increasing waxy sorghum (lour content over the range from 10% to 50%, the L-value decreased, whereas the a-and b-values increased. In the mechanical evaluation of waxy sorghum Sulgidduk, the hardness, gumminess and brittleness increased with increasing waxy sorghum flour content above 20%. The adhesiveness increased with increasing waxy sorghum flour content. The cohesiveness and springiness did not differ significantly with the addition of waxy sorghum flour. In the sensory evaluation of waxy sorghum Sulgidduk, the evaluation of the softness, moistness and chewiness was the best at 20% content. Sulgidduk made with the addition of 20% waxy sorghum flour to rice flour was found to be the best recipe in terms of overall acceptability and the sensory qualities of softness, moistness and chewiness.
Consumer Acceptance and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi Prepared with Different Kinds of Subsidiary Ingredients
Park, So-Hee ; Lee, Jong-Ho ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 370~378
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various subsidiary ingredients added to Kimchi on the acceptance and sensory characteristics. In appearance acceptance, Kimchi without red pepper powder rated the worst, while samples without salt-fermented anchovy extracts, garlic, ginger, radish, green onion and onion showed no significant difference(p<0.05) compared with the control, and were all rated highly in acceptance. In flavor, taste and overall acceptance, the sample without garlic rated the worst, indicating that garlic has the greatest effect on the acceptance of Kimchi. Red pepper powder had an effect only on the pungency of Kimchi's flavor characteristics. Salt-fermented anchovy extracts enhanced umami taste, sweetness and saltiness of Kimchi. Garlic also enhanced the general flavor such as sourness, umami taste, sweetness, carbonated flavor and fresh flavor, but inhibited the moldy flavor. Ginger had effects on pungency, fresh flavor of Kimchi, while radish, green onion and onion only had an effect on the fresh flavor of Kimchi. Garlic had significant effects on the moldy flavor and bitterness of Kimchi's sensory characteristics, and the amount of garlic added to Kimchi influenced the sourness, sweetness and fresh flavor, irrespective of the kinds of Kimchi and fermentation temperature.
Effects of Immersion Period after Tumbling Processing on the Quality Properties of Boiled Pork Loin with Soy Sauce
Choi, Yun-Sang ; Jeong, Jong-Youn ; Choi, Ji-Hun ; Lee, Mi-Ae ; Lee, Eui-Soo ; Kim, Hack-Youn ; Han, Doo-Jeong ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 379~385
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of immersion period after tumbling on the physicochemical properties of boiled pork loin with soy sauce. After the samples were tumbled for 30 min with soy sauce (1.5% salt concentration), they were immersed for 1, 5 or 10 days. Boiled pork loin was cooked at an internal temperature to
. Cooking yields of boiled pork loin were significantly increased with increasing immersion period. The reduction in diameter and thickness for pork loin were significantly decreased with increasing immersion period, but moisture content and water holding capacity were increased. Shear force in the immersed samples after tumbling was significantly lower than in the control. In sensory evaluation color, flavor, texture, and juiciness of boiled pork loin immersed after tumbling should higher ratings than those of control.
Dietitians' Perception on the Development of Korean Seasoned Processed Meats in Business Foodservice Operations - Kyungnam Province -
Lee, Young-Soon ; Lee, Dong-Sun ; Lyu, Eun-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 386~395
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes held by dietitians on seasoned processed meats. The questionnaires were distributed to x (Ed- give the sample size) dietitians at business foodservice operations in Kyungnam province. According to survey, 37.5% of the dietitians answered that it is 'very necessary' to develop seasoned processed meat products. Regarding desired product characteristics, the dietitians were asked about reduced additive use, good hygienic quality, nutritious and healthy quality, low salt content and adequate supply of nutritional information. Over half of the dietitians (59.2%) preferred Korean style seasoned processed meats. The cooking types of Korean seasoned processed meats chosen as new developments were steamed (21.3%), roasted (20.6%) and pilled (18.1%), while the expected frequencies of product usage were in the order of grilled (18.8%), roasted (15.6%), and fried (14.4%). The dietitians wanted no or only little increase in the price compared to current commercial products, units packed in 1 or 3kg sizes and a shelf life under refrigerated or frozen storage of 3-7 days. A minority of the dietitians (40.6%) responded positively to buy the seasoned processed meats if the products meet their needs.
Quality Characteristics of Jeung-Pyun with Tapioca Flour
Yoo, Chang-Hee ; Shim, Young-Hyn ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 396~401
This study was performed to determine the quality characteristics of Jeung-Pyun with added tapioca flour. With increasing tapioca flour content, the moisture content of the product was decreased. The addition of tapioca flour increased the volume and symmetry compared to the control with no tapioca flour. The highest uniformity was shown by the 10% added group, but the differences were not significant. In the Hunter's value, the lightness of the control was higher than that of the group with added tapioca flour. Whereas the reverse was the case for the yellowness. With increasing tapioca flour content, the springiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, and chewiness of Jeung-Pyun were increased, and the hardness increased. In sensory evaluation cell uniformity and chewiness were the highest in the 20% added group. The hardness of the sense examination increasing with increasing tapioca floor content. The overall quality of Jeung-Pyun was the lowest in the 30% added group.
Changes in Phytochemical Stability and Food Functionality during Cooking and Processing
Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Chun, Hyang-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 402~417
Research interest on functional food and phytochemicals has mainly focused on their health effects, mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship for the development of nutraceuticals. Considering the intake of phytochemicals via the normal diet, further information is required on changes in food functionality or individual phytochemicals that occur during the cooking or processing of foods, in order to increase the intake of these bioactive compounds, because many of the unit-operating procedures involved in cooking or food processing may result in physicochemical changes of food constituents. This study reviews the changes of selected phytochemicals, i.e. flavonoids, organosulfur compounds and carotenoids, or food functionality by major cooking or processing procedures such as heating, fermentation, and pH changes. In general, heating has a negative effect on food functionality, although in some cases, mild heating increases bioactive phytochemical contents. Some phytochemicals, including anthocyanins and catechins, are stabilized in lower pH conditions. The structures of phytochemicals, including isoflavones and catechins, are changed by fermentation. The loss of bioactive compounds may be decreased by recently developed cooking or processing methods such as microwave cooking or use of high hydrostatic pressure. However, the effects of cooking and processing procedures on food functionality and phytochemicals are so diverse and dependent on test conditions that further research efforts are needed to form accurate conclusions on the effects of cooking and processing of foods.