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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Survey on the use of pre-processed food materials in school foodservices in the Kyunggi area
Lee, Seung-Mi ; Lee, Seung-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 553~564
This study was conducted to investigate the use and acceptability of pre-processed food materials in school foodservice. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 81 schools in the Kyunggi area. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS v. 10.0 program. Eighty-one school dietitians from 31 elementary, 31 middle, 19 high school participated in the survey. Most of the subjects (over 95%) understood that it is necessary to use pre-processed foods, and they considered food hygiene as the most important factor. The percentages of school foodservices that purchased and used pre-processed foods were: 82.7% for cabbage, 86.4% for onion 72.8% for carrot, 97% for garlic, 82.7% for potato, and over 90% for meats and fishes. Dietitians were most satisfied with the performance of ‘trash reduction’, and ‘saving cooking time’ when using pre-processed food materials. ‘Appearance’, ‘freshness’, ‘hygiene’, ‘nutrition’, and ‘specialty of the food-processing company’ were aspects of the most concern when purchasing and using pre-processed food materials.
The Evaluation of Service Employees' Sanitary Management in Hotels
Yoo, Yang-Ja ; Lee, Joung-Ki ; Choi, Young-Sim ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 565~572
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sanitary management of hotel employees in Seoul. The results were summarized as follows : The total mean of sanitary management perception by factor was 3.91
0.62, in which personal sanitation, property management, environment and facility factors were, in order, 3.99
0.86 and 3.85
0.82, respectively. This study showed that there was a significant difference in the perception of sanitary management among environment, facility and property management by age based on general characteristics. While there were no differences by hiring type, there was a significant difference among environment, facility and property management with personal sanitation factor according to the employee’s career path. There was also a significant difference between property management and personal sanitation factor according to hotel management style. In addition, a significant difference was observed among environment facility and property management with personal sanitation factor according to work place. In conclusion, it is imperative to continue educational programs for sanitary management by career, work place and management style in order to improve sanitary management of hotel employees’.
Dietitians' Perception on the Development of Processed Meats with Seasoning in School Foodservice Operations - Kyungnam Province -
Lee, Dong-Sun ; Lyu, Eun-Soon ; Lee, Young-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 573~582
The perception and attitude of dietitians on processed meats with seasoning were investigated. Questionnaires were distributed to 176 dietitians at school foodservice operations in Kyungnam province. In the survey results, about half (Ed-better to give the exact number of percentage) of the dietitians answered that it is ‘necessary’ to develop processed meats with seasoning. Regarding desired product characteristics, the dietitians were asked about-reduced additive use, good hygienic quality, nutritious and healthy quality, low salt content and adequate supply of nutritional information. Over half of the dietitians-(65.5%) preferred Korean style processed meats with seasoning. The cooking types chosen as new developments for Korean processed meats with seasoning were grilled (36.2%), fried (19.8%), and roasted (18.6%). The dietitians wanted no or only a little increase in the price compared to current commercial products, 1kg (50.6%) size as the package unit and 7 days (45.1%) shelf life under refrigerated or frozen storage.(Ed-confirm the highlighted changes) A majority of the dietitians (64.2%) responded positively to buy the processed meats with seasoning if the products meet their needs
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk with added Soybean Curd Residue Powder
Lim, Sung-Mee ; Lee, Goon-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 583~590
This study was carried out to investigate the acceptable ratio of Sulgidduk with added soybean curd residue powder. The moisture content of Sulgidduk with added soybean curd residue powder (0
10%) ranged from 40.54
41.38%, and there were no significant differences between the addition of soybean curd residue powder and control. There were also no significant differences in swelling power and pore ratio from control to the addition of 4% soybean curd residue powder. However, these decreased with increasing addition of soybean curd residue powder of more than 6%. The L (lightness) value decreased with increasing addition of soybean curd residue powder, but the a (redness) and b (yellowness) values increased significantly. As the amount of soybean curd residue powder increased, the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess decreased, and, the decrease was especially significant with addition of more than 6%. With increases in the storage period, the hardness, springiness and gumminess increased, while cohesiveness decreased for all additions of soybean curd residue powder. In sensory evaluations, Sulgidduk with the addition of 4% soybean curd residue powder was the most preferred with regard to overall quality. These results indicated that the Sulgidduk with 2% and 4% added soybean curd residue powder exhibited the best quality.
The Quality Characteristics of Bacsulgi with Sea Mustard((Undaria pinnatifida) powder
Jun, Na-Young ; Kim, Sung-Ok ; Han, Jin-Suk ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 591~599
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of various concentrations of sea mustard powder on the quality characteristics of Bacsulgi. The sea mustard powder was added to rice powder at ratios of 3, 5, 7, and 9%(w/w). The moisture contents and salinity of Bacsulgi were increased with the addition of sea mustard powder. The incorporation of sea mustard powder in Bacsulgi lowered the lightness values but increased the blueness and yellowness values. Rheology test showed that hardness was significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing sea mustard powder content. The springiness and cohesiveness were decreased, whereas the adhesiveness was increased, with increasing sea mustard powder content. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the size of the air cells increased and the surface of rice powder swelled with increasing sea mustard powder content. The result of sensory evaluation showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the scores of smell and taste sensory characteristics among the samples. The overall eating quality was the highest in the control and decreased with increasing sea mustard powder level. The study results suggested that Bacsulgi prepared with up to 5% addition of sea mustard powder was as acceptable as Bacsulgi prepared without sea mustard powder.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Cabbage Kimchi during Fermentation
Cho, Hee-Sook ; Park, Bock-Hee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 600~608
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of Cabbage Kimchi with different kinds of jeot-kal. The Cabbage Kimchis were stored at 4
for 49 days. The pH of all samples of Cabbage Kimchis decreased during fermentation. The total acidity of Cabbage Kimchis increased gradually during fermentation and that of Cabbage Kimchis with different kinds of jeot-kal was higher than that of control. Redox potentials and reducing sugar content decreased gradually during fermentation. Total vitamin C content of Cabbage Kimchis with different kinds of jeot-kal was much higher than that of control. In color measurement, the lightness value decreased gradually, whereas the redness and yellowness values increased gradually during fermentation. The content of hot water soluble pectin (HWSP) decreased as the fermentation proceeded, but that of hydrochloric acid soluble pectin (HCISP) and sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (NaSP) increased.
Quality Characteristics of Kimchi with Added Purified Licorice(Glycyrrhiza uralensis) Extract
Lee, Su-Hyun ; Ko, Young-Tae ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 609~616
The effects of purified licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) extract (PLE) as a sugar substitute on kimchi quality were evaluated by investigating acid formation, growth of lactic acid bacteria, sensory properties, and volatile odor components of PLE-added kimchi. The pH of kimchi with higher amounts of added PLE increased slightly with two or three days ripening. The acidity of unripened kimchi or kimchi ripened for one day significantly increased with addition of PLE, while that of kimchi ripened for two or three days decreased significantly (p<0.05). Addition of PLE had no significant effect on the lactic acid bacteria count of kimchi compared to that of sugar. Overall acceptability and taste of 0.005 or 0.01% PLE-added kimchi ripened for two to three days were higher than those of other samples, whereas addition of more than 0.01% PLE to kimchi unripened or ripened for one day resulted in lower overall acceptability and taste than the reference sample. Diallyl sulfide and methyl trisulfide were newly produced by ripening of kimchi, and the amounts of some volatile odor components in kimchi were also changed during ripening.
Evaluation of the Quality of Simmered Chicken in Soy Sauce Prepared with the Sous vide Cook-Chill System and Conventional Cook-Chill System
Oh, Kyung-Sook ; Ko, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Heh-Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 617~625
This study was done to provide basic data for the operation of a safer cook-chill system by comparing and evaluating the quality of foods which were prepared using the sous vide cook-chill system and the conventional cook-chill system, according to the preparation methods and storage temperature. Simmered chickens in soy sauce were prepared using the sous vide cook-chill system and the conventional cook-chill system and their quality was evaluated at the time of preparation and storage. Firstly, foods were prepared using the sous vide cook-chill (SVCC) system and the conventional cook-chill (CC) system and the redquired time and temperature during each preparation stage were measured and physicochemical (pH, Aw, and moisture content) and microbial qualities were evaluated. Secondly, in order to evaluate the quality and safety, the moisture content and microbial (standard plate count, coliform count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, and anaerobic bacteria count) qualities were evaluated according to the preparation methods and temperatures after the foods were stored at 3
for 10 days and reheated.
Dietary Behaviors of Middle School Students in Seoul and Yangphyung Area
Jo, Seong-Jeong ; Kim, Na-Young ; Han, Myung-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 626~635
The eating attitudes, opinions related to health and eating habits of 382 middle school students (184 male, 198 female) living in Seoul Gangbuk and Yangphyung areas were studied. The results of this study are summarized as follows. Most middle school students (57.6%) didn’t eat breakfast. The main reasons for skipping the meal were lack of time (51.5%) and of appetite (39.3%). However, students (36.7%) recognized breakfast as being the most important meal. The self perception of health status showed that male students responded ‘good’ (58.7%) while female students responded ‘fair’ (48.5%). Overall, 42.4% of the male students were satisfied with their body shape while 71.2% of the female students wanted to get thinner. More male students (76.4%) used various diet exercises for losing weight than female students (67.0%). Students living in Yangpyeung area (79.1%) used more diet exercises than those in Seoul (61.9%). More than half (57.3%) of middle school students did not consider their food combination. More than half (56.0%) of male students took vegetables almost every meal while 50.1% of female students took them one meal per day. Most of the middle school students took fruits more than 2-3 times per week. Students living in Yangpyeung area (58.0%) consumed more milk and than those in Seoul Gangbuk (43.4%). Male students preferred saltier food than female students. The eating habit scores were 1.90 in males and 1.85 in females and these scores were increased with increasing family monthly food spending.
Characteristics of Quality in Jeolpyun with Different Amounts of Ramie
Jang, Myung-Sook ; Yoon, Sook-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 636~641
Jeolpyun with different amounts of added ramie (Ramie Jeolpyun) was prepared and the quality characteristics were examined. Texture profile analysis, Hunters color and total microbial counts were carried out during storage for 4 days. Sensory evaluation was carried out during storage for 2 days. The L value of Jeolpyun with 0% added ramie was one of the highest in the sample and increased with increasing storage time. In texture profile analysis, hardness, chewiness, gumminess were increased with increasing storage time. The hardness of Ramie Jeolpyun with 80% added ramie was one of the lowest in the samples. The total microbial counts of Ramie Jeolpyun were increased during storage. The results of sensory evaluation showed that Ramie Jeolpyun with 60% and 80% added ramie had a high score in color, flavor and softness.
Chromaticity and Brown Pigment Patterns of Soy Sauce and UHYUKJANG, Korean Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce
Kim, Ji-Sang ; Moon, Gap-Soon ; Lee, Young-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 642~649
The browning of soy sauce is caused by the reaction of amino-carbonyl between amino-compounds and reducing sugar. Only a few studies have investigated the formation of melanoidins in UHYUKJANG. The objectives of this study were to analyze the brown pigment of UHYUKJANG and to investigate the characteristics of UHYUKJANG in comparison with soy sauce and model melanoidins. The samples were ripened for 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days at 4
. The pH, absorbance at 420 nm absorbance ratio of 400 to 500 nm and UV-VIS spectra as an index of color intensity were measured. Additionally, L, a and b values of the samples and the amount of 3-Deoxyglucosone(3DG) in the samples were measured. The pH of both soy sauce (from 6.26 to 5.52) and UHYUKJANG (from 6.13 to 5.11) rapidly decreased during the first 60 days of aging and was also affected by storage temperature. The absorbance of samples at 420 nm increased during the aging process, reaching its maximum after 180 days, regardless of sample and temperature. On the other hand, the intensity of brown color in the samples increased with increasing aging period according to the results of absorbance ratio (soy sauce: 1.37 to 5.29, UHYUKJANG: 1.37 to 5.02). The L value of soy sauce increased during the aging process and was maximized after 240 days at 4
and 180 days at 20
, but decreased thereafter. There was no significant difference in L value of UHYUKJANG, regardless of aging period and temperature. On the other hand, the b value did not reveal any significant change during aging, but the a value increased until 120 days of aging in the other samples except for UHYUKJANG at 20
. The average amount of 3DG separated from soy sauce was 5.65 mg%, and from UHYUKJANG was 3.74 mg%. These results indicated that the browning of UHYUKJANG was also caused by melanoidins produced by the reaction of amino-carbonyl during the fermentation process.
Quality Characteristics of Seolgiddok added with Aloe Powder during Storage
Yoon, Sook-Ja ; Hwang, Su-Jung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 650~658
This study investigated the effects on the quality characteristics of the korean steamed rice cake, Seolgiddok of the addition of aloe powder at 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5% and 6.0% and 4-days storage. The moisture content of the control 0% aloe, steamed rice cake was 47.76%, and steadily decreased with increasing powder addition to the lowest of 37.38% for the cake with 6.0% added. The moisture content was decreased with extending storage time in both the control and powder-added groups. The cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cake tended to decrease with increasing powder content, while the hardness increased with both increasing powder content and extending storage time. The Hunter color value L in the chromaticity of the cake was significantly decreased with increasing powder addition. The a value of the control, 0% aloe steamed cake was -0.86, but became positive with red color with increasing powder content, The b value was significantly increased with increasing powder content. The powder addition inhibited the increase in bacteria number. The sensory characteristics of the cake. such as color, aloe flavor and taste, and bitterness were increased with increasing powder content, while the moist and soft feeling of the cake were more highly evaluated at lower powder content. The overall taste was judged to be best for the sample with 3% added powder. Accordingly, it was expected that a highly functional and healthy product with improved quality might be developed by the addition of aloe powder to the Korean steamed cake, Seolgiddok.
Quality Characteristics of Cookies with Resistant Starches
Kim, Jae-Suk ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 659~665
The effects of resistant starches on the quality characteristics of cookies were investigated by the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties of RS-added flours and cookies. Retrograded RS3 by autoclaving-cooling cycle and cross-linked RS4 after annealing treatment were used. The protein content of RS-added flour decreased, but the ash content of RS4-added flour increased slightly with increasing RS content. The RS levels of wheat flour, RS3- and RS4-added flours were 7.0%, 9.6-13.4% and 11.5-17.9%, respectively. The swelling powers of RS-added flours at 80
decreased, but the solubility of RS3-added flour increased by 2-3 fold compared to that of control flour. Initial pasting temperature increased, but peak, holding, and final viscosities decreased with increasing RS content. The retrogradation degree of RS-added flours was lowered, because of the decreased consistency and breakdown viscosity. The yellowness of RS3-added flour increased with increasing RS3 content which induced browning reaction during baking. On the sensory test, RS-added cookies were significantly different in shape, color and overall quality (p<0.05), and their texture also affected. Overall quality was higher in peanut cookies than in AACC standard cookies and RS addition (up to 30%, w/w), regardless of the RS type, improved the cookie quality
Optimization of Ingredient Mixing Ratio for Preparation of Steamed Foam Cake with Added Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea L.)
Kim, Yu-Suk ; Kwak, Sung-Ho ; Jang, Myung-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 666~680
To obtain basic data for the utilization of saltwort (Salicornia herbacea L.) as a functional ingredient in steamed foam cake, the optimum component ratios for major raw ingredients (saltwort, salt, and wheat flour) as independent variables that affect the product quality were scientifically determined using RSM (response surface methodology) technique. A three-factor and five-level rotational central composite design was used for treatment arrangement. The complete design consisted of 16 experimental points. The three independent variables selected for the RSM experiment were amounts of saltwort (X
25 g), salt (X
10 g), and wheat flour (X
530 g). The optimum responses in specific gravity of the batter and volume, color, texture, and sensory evaluation result of the cake were obtained. The specific gravity and viscosity of the batter at p<0.01 was verified from the regression curve. The characteristic of the batter was influenced by all independent variables, but was extremely dependent on the amount of saltwort ordinary points of the surface responses from the batter formed the minimum points for specific gravities of the batter while viscosities of the batter appeared with the saddle points. Analysis of the response indicated that the amount of saltwort was the most influential factor over the physical properties of the cake, among the dependent variables. Ordinary points of the surface responses from the cake formed the maximum points for loaf volume, hardness gumminess, and chewiness, while Hunter colorimetric parameters appeared with the saddle points. The result indicated that level of the saltwort deviating more or less from the optimal amount decreased the volume and increased the specific gravity with less tender product. Ordinary points of the surface responses of the sensory evaluation scores from the cake formed the maximum points for appearance, flavor, softness, and overall acceptability, while color values appeared with the saddle points. The result also indicated that the level of the saltwort deviating more or less from the optimal amount reduced the preference for the product. Integration of the optimum responses common to all dependent variables that overlapped all the contour maps finally indicated that the combination of 8.3
13.8 g saltwort, 2.5
6.6 g salt, and 486.5
511.5 g wheat flour under the selected preparation recipe optimized the physical and sensory properties in the teamed foam cakes. Practical preparation of the product with median amounts of the ingredients, i.e., 11.0 g saltwort, 4.6 g salt, and 499.0 g wheat flour resulted in similar qualities to the predicted responses. In conclusion, these study results indicated that preparation of steamed foam cake with added saltwort ingredient could potentially produce a more nutritious product with less salt. Further research is required to acquire the optimum levels for sub-ingredients to improve the product quality.
Changes in the Quality Characteristics of Storing Time of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa Kimchi
Han, Gwi-Jeong ; Jang, Myung-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 681~689
This study examined changes in the characteristics of Aralia Kimchi made using different CaCl
treatments and seasonings by documenting changes occurring in the course of preparation and preservation. The result exhibited no visible changes in the degree of pH, acidity or salinity in the various Kimchi sample. The total number of bacterium and lactobacillus increased gradually in the early stage of preservation and then showed an accelerated growth until the 42
day, after which a plateau was maintained to the 56
day followed by a downturn trend to the 70
day. No visible change in color was observed during the preservation period while the sample treated with CaCl
exhibited a higher degree of hardness than its untreated counterpart, although no distinctive difference was noted in the sensory test.
The Kimi theory on Vegetables Focused on
of [Jeongjoji] in
and [Tangaekpyeon] in
Song, Yun-Jin ; Lee, Hyo-Gee ; Cha, Gyung-Hee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 690~701
Classifying vegetables recorded in Sikgamchalyo of Jeongjoji of Limwonsibyukji and Tangaekpyeon of Donguibogam and comparing the types features, efficacy and side effects based on Kimi Theory(氣味), we found forty one leafy vegetables, six root vegetables, nine fruit vegetables, nine mushrooms, seven seaweeds and two other vegetables in Limwonsibyukji and thirty five leafy vegetables, eight root vegetables, eight fruit vegetables, one mushroom, two seaweeds and one another vegetable in Donguibogam. According to the literature, vegetables are classified by five conditions(五氣) and five tastes(五味) and many are cold with sweet and bitter taste or warm with hot taste. They are efficacious in protecting the five viscera, building up energy, controlling heat, calming febrile diseases, promoting urination and excretion, calming cholera morbus, improving skin condition, calming the stomach, neutralizing poisonous effects and improving eyesight. To help prevent and cure diseases, those with cold physical constitution must take warm vegetables to vitalize their physiology and those with hot physical constitution cold vegetables for balance. To improve their physical health, our ancestors tried to control their bio rhythm with food and medicinal material and promoted health and prevented diseases by taking such food. We therefore expect that we can have a healthy dietary life by taking advantage of the five conditions and five tastes of vegetables and continuing the spirit of Yacksikdongwon(藥食同源).
The Effects of Internship Program Satisfaction on the Career Decisions of Culinary Major Students
Hwang, Hyun-Ju ; Huh, Kyoung-Sook ; Chong, Yu-Kyeong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 702~711
The purpose of this study was investigate the effects of internship program particularly how the satisfaction with the internship program affects the students’ career decisions. Culinary major students at 5 different two-year colleges in Seoul and Kyunggi-do participated in this study. Out of 500 questionnaires, 415 were analysed using SPSS 13.0 and descriptive analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were used. Based on conducting factor analysis results, the satisfaction measurement was classified into 4 factors: constructs, contents, benefit, environments and communication. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated for the reliability of the survey instrument. Two-thirds of the students (66.9%) answered that the internship program had helped them to decide their career. Particularly, constructs and contents of the internship program presented statistically significance to the career path. Based on the satisfaction level, students in high level wanted to be chefs while those in low level wanted to leave to other jobs. The overall satisfaction with the internship program differed according to the time of internship, internship duration, and place of internship.
Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Sugar Cookies using Citron Powder
Kong, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Hae-Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 712~719
Sugar cookies using various levels of citron powder were prepared and the physicochemical and sensory characteristics were investigated in this study. The pH of the dough was relatively lower in the groups with increased citron powder. The yellowness of dough color was significantly increased from value of 23.47 to 36.99 as the substitution levels of citron powder content was increased (p<0.05). The degree of gelatinization of the dough measured using DSC was reduced with increasing delayed with the increased amount of the powder content. Cookies with powders content of 4-6 g showed significantly lower water contents than compared to those with 0-2 g(p<0.05). The spread factor tended to decrease as the substitution levels of the sample groups were increased. The results of sensory characteristics showed significantly higher bitterness and lower sweetness with the 6 g substituted sample group at (p<0.05). Desired citron cookie was prepared with the group of a substitution levels of 4 g citron powder from the confounded viewpoint of the physicochemical and sensory properties that were investigated.
Functional Properties of Medicinal Plant Extracts
Park, Chan-Sung ; Yang, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Mi-Lim ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 720~727
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional properties of medicinal plant extracts. Four kinds of medicinal plants, Dioscorea batatas(DB), Armeniacae Semen(AS) Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge(CP) and Ponciri Fractus(PF), were extracted with water and 70% ethanol and the extracts were tested for their electron donating ability(EDA), nitrite scavenging ability(NSA) and inhibitory effects on cancer cells(MDA cell and A549 cell)growth. EDA at 100-1,000 ppm of water extract ranged from 3% to 14%, 14% to 36%, 29% to 72% and 14% to 43%, and that of ethanol extract ranged from 9% to 62%, 27% to 59%, 33% to 89% and 14% to 44%, in DB, AS, CP and PF, respectively. NSA of extracts measured at various pH(1.2, 3.0, 4.2, 6.0) showed the highest ability in all extracts at pH 1.2 and decreased with increasing pH. The highest NSA of water extracts of 1,000 ppm at pH 1.2 was 6%, 31%, 55% and 44% and that of ethanol extract was15%, 32%, 69% and 52%, in DB, AS, CP and PF, respectively Inhibition ratio of water and ethanol extracts on MDA cell growth was 24% and 17%, 51% and 93%, 46% and 69%, and 48% and 47%, while that on A549 cell was 18% and 9%, 6% and 3%, 7% and 3%, and 43% and 11%, at 1,000 ppm, in DB, AS, CP and PF, respectively.
Functional Properties of Angelica gigas Nakai Leave (AGL)Extracts and Quality Characteristics of Mumalangi Kimchi Added AGL
Kim, Mi-Lim ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 728~735
This study investigated the development of health promoting high quality Mumalangi Kimchi. Angelica gigas Nakai leaves (AGL) were extracted with water and 70% ethanol, and the extracts tested for their electron donating ability (EDA), nitrite scavenging ability (NSA) and inhibitory effects on MDA and A549 cells. The EDA in 100-1,000 ppm water extracts from AGL ranged from 40 to 80%, but that of the ethanol extracts ranged from 37 to 81%. The NSA increased with increasing AGLconcentration in the extracts and decreasing pH. The NSA of the 1,000 ppm water and ethanol extracts from AGL were 29 and 35%, respectively, at pH 1.2. The inhibition ratios of the water and ethanol extracts from AGL on MDA cell growth were 35 and 32%, while those on A549 cell growth were 27 and 23%, respectively, at 1,000 ppm. After sun drying radishes for 15 hours, for the preparation of Mumalangi, the water contents were higher in summer radishes (39.5%) than fall radishes (32.6%) the color of summer radish also changed to brown. During storage of Mumalangi Kimchi, with the addition of 1-3% AGL, at 20?for 4 weeks, the yeast growth was inhibited. The shelf-life of Mumalangi Kimchi was extended by the addition of AGL. In the sensory evaluation of Mumalangi Kimchi, that with the addition 2% AGL had the highest scores for color, flavor, taste, texture, after taste and overall acceptability. Mumalangi Kimchi with the addition of 2% AGL had significant high scores for both taste and overall acceptability (p.0.05).
Analysis of Foreign Customers' Evaluation of Service Performance for Korean Traditional Restaurants
Kim, Sun-A ; Lee, Min-A ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 22, issue 5, 2006, Pages 736~745
The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foreigners’ evaluation of service performance, (2) define foreigners’ needs for each segment of Korean traditional restaurants, and (3) plan the adaptation strategies for Korean traditional restaurants on foreign countries. From April to July, 2005, 542 foreigners responded to an individual survey. Statistical analyses on SPSS 12.0 for Windows were performed on the survey data using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, reliability analysis, independent-samples t-test and ANOVA. The major findings from the study are as follows. First, among all the attributes, ‘Offer free additional side dishes’ scored the highest, followed by ‘taste of food is good’ and ‘temperature of food is proper’. Second, factor analysis classified the service attributes into four factors in the following order of importance: menu, sanitation, service, and facility and atmosphere. Finally, foreigner groups categorized by their general characteristics, including demographics, showed statistically differences in their evaluation. In consequence, the research findings suggest that operators of Korean traditional restaurants should understand different customers’ needs within and between customer segments.