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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Development of a Multi-purpose Sauce using Kimchi
Shin, Doung-Sun ; Cho, Yong-Sik ; Lee, Soo-Yul ; Han, Gwi-Jung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 281~287
In this study, we explored the characteristics of a Chinese cabbage kimchi sauce, which was made from natural pigments, according to the preservation period. There were no significant changes in pH and total acidity and the color of the sauce with added natural pigments demonstrated stability. Also, vitamin C and the change of viscosity decreased as the preservation period increased. A although the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased over a 20 day period, a certain level was sustained for 91 days. Lastly, the sensory properties of the sauce were not significantly different according to the preservation period.
The Effect of Adding Soybean Oil on the Fluidity of Garlic Chunggukjang Paste
Lee, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Kyeong-Yee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 288~293
In this study, chunggukjang was made from soybeans and Bacillus natto. This chunggukjang was meant to be consumed as a margarine and butter substitute, to help lower trans-fatty acid (TFA) intake. A freeze-dried garlic product was used during fermentation to aid in removing the smell of the chunggukjang. Chunggukjang has a very low fluidity due to its high viscosity; therefore, we added 3%(w/w) soybean oil to improve the fluidity. We found that the TFA content of the garlic chunggukiang paste was no more than 0.02
0.05%, which was low compared to the usual contents of margarine and butter. After 4 weeks of storage the TFA content was 0.03
0.08%, and it remained within the limits of the permissible amount. The addition of soybean oil allowed this chunggukjang to be made with greater ease, and the freeze-dried garlic eliminated the negative inherent qualities of the chunggukjang. Therefore, this garlic chunggukjang paste could be considered reasonable for commercial production.
Changes in the Quality Characteristics of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa Pickle during Storage
Han, Gwi-Jung ; Shin, Dong-Sun ; Jang, Myung-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 294~301
The objectives of this study was to examine the characteristics of Aralia pickles(soy sauce, salt) made with different CaCl
treatments and seasonings by documenting the changes that occurred the courses of preparation and preservation. The results indicated that the various pickle samples had no visible changes in pH, acidity or salinity. The sum of total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria increased gradually during the early stage of preservation and then accelerated growth was shown up until the fifth month of storage; a plateau was maintained until a decrease began at 6 months. We observed no visible changes in color during the preservation period. The sample treated with CaCl
exhibited a higher degree of hardness than the untreated sample, although no distinctive differences were noted during the sensory test.
A Comparison of Opinions between Dietitians and Students' Parents on Sanitation Management in School Foodservice Operations
Chae, Mi-Jin ; Jung, Hyeon-A ; Bae, Hyun-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 302~313
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gap in perceived importance-performance between dietitians and parents regarding school foodservice sanitation practices, to establish a plan for improving the school foodservice monitoring that is conducted by parents. A survey was given using questionnaires and was distributed to 31 school foodservice dietitians and to parents who attended sanitation education in October 2006. All statistical analyses were conducted using the SAS package program(version 8.2 for Windows) for descriptive analysis, t-test, and importance-performance analysis(IPA). The results of the IPA showed the following areas as improvement priorities: (1) contracting with a reliable suppliers, (2) securing proper refrigerator and freezer capacity and checking temperatures, (3) adequate design and construction of foodservice facilities and equipment, and (4) ensuring trays and utensils are clean, dry, and stored in a way that prevents contamination. The results of the IPA illustrated that school foodservice dietitians performed well in 8 out of the 21 sanitation management items. The perceived importance by parents was higher than by dietitians for accurate record keeping and documentation of HACCP worksheets(p<0.01), appropriate cleaning plans and practices(p<0.05), garbage management of inner kitchens (p<0.05), and garbage management of external kitchens(p<0.05). On the other hands, the perceived importance by dietitians was higher than that of parents for contracting with a reliable suppliers(p<0.05) and adequate design and construction of foodservice facilities and equipment(p<0.01). According to the performance analysis there were significant differences between dietitians and parents in six out of the twenty-one items. For these six items, the evaluated degree of performance by parents was higher than that of dietitians. In conclusion, proper education programs should be planned and regularly performed for the student's patents who take part in school foodservice monitoring in order to improve on their monitoring.
Effect of Grain Size on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Porridge
Yang, Yun-Hyoung ; Oh, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 314~320
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of grain size on the physicochemical properties of rice porridge. Here, the grain size of the rice was classified as whole grain, half grain, and flour by traditional Korean cooking methods. The viscosity of the rice flour porridge was highest for the among the three different grain size porridges. In the amylographs, the increase in viscosity for the whole grain porridge was higher than that of the rice flour porridge during cooling. The soluble solid and reducing sugar contents of the rice porridges increased according to the rice grain size, while the blue value decreased. The SDI (starch digestion index) increased according to the rice grain size. The RDS (rapidly digestible starch) was highest while the SDS (slowly digestible starch) the lowest in the rice flour porridge. The morphologies of the rice porridges were examined by SEM and showed a smoother surface and more exudated gelatinized granules in the rice flour than in the whole grain rice porridge. In conclusion, rice porridges made from the smallest possible grain size such as flour may be helpful for people with weaker digestive systems such as infants, the elderly, and hospital patients.
Assessment of microbial contamination levels of elementary school classrooms as foodservice environments
Kim, Sun-A ; Yi, Hae-Chang ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Lee, Min-A ; Park, Ji-Ae ; Kim, Jeong-Weon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 321~326
The microbial contamination levels of school classrooms were assessed as foodservice environments for elementary students. Two elementary schools located in Kyunggi-do were selected, and the total plate counts (TPC) and coliforms were measured from the classroom facilities, including the tables, chairs, floors, shelves, doors, as well as the hands of students, and the air of classrooms. The TPC of the classroom facilities were relatively low ranging from 2.30 to 3.79 log CFU/100 cm
. The TPC counts from the hands of serving students and served students, were 6.39 and 5.33 log CFU, respectively, and the TPC counts of the foodservice utensils were <3.00 log CFU/ea before use and 4.77 CFU/ea after use. The air samples of 'empty classrooms during physical education', 'after physical education class', and 'during lunch' showed the contamination levels of 26 CFU/m
, 364 CFU/m
, respectively, suggesting that the microbial levels in the air varies greatly depending on the class activity before foodservice. When the TPCs of the air during lunch were measured from 18 classrooms, the levels ranged from 76 to >2228 CFU/m
. Coliforms were not detected in the classroom facilities; however, air samples of the classrooms showed 1
. The above results show that classroom air and the hands of students, can have high levels of microbial contamination, which must to be controlled for safer school foodservice.
The Important Attributes of Foodservice Encounters According to Life-style Types as Offered by Young Metropolitan Customers
Yoon, Hie-Ryeo ; Cho, Mi-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 327~336
Life-style factors often include social relationships as well as consumption, entertainment and dress patterns. They also typically reflect an individual's attitudes, values and worldview. Life-style types have become and an important factor for segmenting customer markets ever since significant relationships between life-style and customers' behavior was proven. This study examined the relationships between the life-styles of young customers' and the important attributes of foodservice encounters. Factors analysis with VARIMAX and K-means cluster analysis were conducted to group the subjects by life-style. According to the factors analysis, four underlying dimensions were identified and labeled: (1) 'actively fashioned', (2) 'luxury picky', (3) 'healthy toward', and (4) 'utilitarian leisure'. Based on the factor scores derived from the factors analysis, the K-means cluster analysis classified three groups as statistically significant using ANOVA(p<0.05). The overall mean score for the 3rd cluster 'trendy-active picky' was higher than the other two clusters, and represented very picky attitudes about foodservice attributes. The 3rd cluster also seemed to apply higher standards to all of the foodservice attributes. By order of importance, the most important attributes of the 2nd cluster 'pursue-utilitarian leisure' were food serving time, automation systems, server's hygienes, employee kindness, time in line, and menu variety. In spite of low concerns for the life-style attributes, the first cluster 'passively indifferent' recognized menu variety, food sanitation, food serving time, server's hygiene, menu price, air circulation, and room temperature as important. These results suggest that young diners in Korea could be classified by their diverse life-styles that are represented as trendy, utilitarian, and indifferent and will hopefully contribute to the foodservice industry's ability to segment customer characteristics by different life-styles in Korea.
A Study on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Bread Added Waxy Black Rice Flour
Kim, Woen-Mo ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Lee, Yoon-Shin ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 337~345
The physiological and sensory properties of breads made from waxy black rice flour (WBRF) and wheat flour were investigated. The waxy black rice bread was manufactured with 10, 20, 30, or 40% waxy black rice flour(w/w). The bread volume decreased from 2,096.7 mL to 1,703.4 mL as the WBRF content increased from 0% to 40%. The lightness(L-values) decreased with increasing WBRF concentrations, and the redness value(a-values) increased. The yellowness(b-values) slightly decreased with increasing WBRF content. The textural characteristics of the bread c겨mb were influenced by additions of WBRF. The breads containing WBRF had decreases in hardness for the 10% and 20% WBRF groups, whereas increases in hardness were shown with the 40% addition of WBRF. The springiness decreased with increasing WBRF content. The gumminess and chewiness of the waxy black rice bread decreased at the 10% and 20% additions. In the sensory evaluation, sensory scores decreased with increasing WBRF content for the appearance, external color, crumb color and grain of the waxy black rice bread. Overall acceptability for the 10% and 20% WBRF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the control group.
Sensory and Instrumental Characteristics of Acorn Starch Mook with Additives
Choi, Mi-Yong ; Cho, Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 346~353
The purpose of this study was to find the optimal mixing ratios of Breen tea power and Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten powder for making acorn starch moot The pH, acidity, color values(L-value, redness, and yellowness), texture properties, and sensory characteristics of the acorn starch moot made with varying contents of the additives were measured. The acorn starch mooks were prepared at different ratios using 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%(w/w) green tea powder and Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten powder, respectively, based on 9% acorn starch. The overall optimal ratios that satisfied all the sensory properties of the acorn starch moot were 1.5% green tea power and 0.5% Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten powder. The results suggest that the use of green tea and Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten is valuable for making acorn starch moot of good quality.
Changes in Properties of Jeung-pyun Prepared with the Addition of Milk
Jang, Jung-Sun ; Park, Young-Sun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 354~362
This study focused on the efficiency of Jeung-Pyun by examining its physical and chemical characteristics based on dough made with milk additions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 g, in order to complement Jeung-Pyun's insufficient protein with respect to sitology, and its fermentation process. Moisture contents were approximately 50%, and there were no significant differences between the samples. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the groups with added milk were more than those of the control group, and the greater the addition of milk the more the levels increased. Therefore, the 20 g addition showed the highest values. The pH of the Jeung-Pyun dough was near 4.09
5.15 just after mixing, and as fermentation time increased, the pH decreased significantly in all the sample groups (p<.001). The pH of the Jeung-Pyun ranged from 4.12 to 4.40 and had a tendency to increase. The volume of the Jeung-Pyun dough increased as fermentation time increased, and the groups with added milk had larger volumes than the group with no milk added. Also, the greater the addition of milk the more the volume tended to show a significant increase (p<.001). At eight hours of fermentation time, the group with 10 g of added milk showed a 1.31-fold increase in volume compared to the control, and milk additions of 15 and 20 g resulted in decreased volume by a depression phenomenon. For the volume of the Jeung-Pyun, the addition of milk caused significant increases (p<.001) compared to the control, and the group with the 10 g addition of milk showed the highest volume. As the amount of added milk increased, the more the volume decreased as a whole. With regards to the swelling degree of the Jeung-Pyun the groups with added milk had greater swelling than the control, but there were no significant differences. The group that had 10 g of milk added showed the highest value.
The quality characteristics of Jeung-pyun made with different kinds of beans
Hong, Min-Ji ; Koh, Bong-Kyung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 363~368
Jeung-pyun, a very popular fermented rice cake consumed in Korea, consists mainly of rice, rice wine (Tak-Ju), and sugar. The effects of addition of different beans on the quality characteristics of the batter and Jeung-pyun were investigated. Six different beans were mixed with the rice flour at levels of 5% and 10% of the rice flour weight, respectively. The addition of Back-tae, Huk-tae, Sori-tae, which are types of soybeans, and black gram significantly increased the batter volume and viscosity. However, the fermented Back-tae (Cheongguk-jang) was not effective at increasing the batter volume and viscosity. The buffering effect of the beans was very significant on the fermented batter, and the decrease in pH of the fermented batter made with beans was less than that of the control batter without beans. Additions of the soybeans and Cheongguk-jang were most effective for the buffering effect in the fermented batter. Although the Back-tae, Huk tae, and Sori-tae were different colors and shapes, they were all soybeans and exhibited similar effects on the Jeung-pyun batter. However, the effects of the beans were not significant on the Jeung-pyun. The volume and moisture content of the Jeung-pyun made with beans were not significantly different from the volume and moisture of the Jeung-pyun made without beans. The above results suggest that the addition of different soybeans, mung beans, and black gram significantly effects on the properties of Jeung-pyun batter, but not Jeung-pyun itself.
The Quality and Storage Characterization of Extrusion-Puffed Yukwa
Jang, So-Young ; Park, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Byong-Ki ; Lee, Sook-Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 369~377
The aims of this study were to develop and standardize the manufacturing procedures and ingredient formulation of non-fried, extrusion-puffed Yukwa. The quality and storage stability of the non-fried Yukwa (NF) were characterized and compared against a traditional deep-fried Yukwa (F). The moisture contents of both the NF and F were almost comparable at 5.12
6.22% after the final product preparation. The textural hardness values of the NF samples were one-half to two times as hard as those of F, although no clear distinctions were reported between the two products by the sensory evaluation results (p<0.05). During storage, the acid value of F was 1.68 KOH mg/g on day 7, and then it rapidly increased to 5.52 KOH mg/g on day 14. In contrast, the acidity values of NF were 1.21 and 2.62 KOH mg/g on day 7 and 14, respectively. The peroxide values of the samples increased from 23.5 to 62.0 meq/kg (F) and from 2.0 to 2.5 meq/kg (NF) during the two weeks of storage after preparation, suggesting excellent fat stability for the NF product. Regarding the sensory evaluation results of the products, no significant (p<0.05) differences were noted between F and NF with scores of approximately 3.1 out of 5.0 points for the overall quality characteristics of the final products. Accordingly, we conclude that extrusion puffing technology could be adopted as an alternative to conventional deep fat frying as a partial manufacturing process of Yukwa.
Microbiological Hazard Analysis for Seasoned Sweet Potato Stems in a Free Meal service Operation for the Elderly in Sungnam
Park, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Hae-Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 378~387
In this study, we investigated the application of HACCP for a prepared side dish of sweet potato stems, within a free meal service system for the elderly in the Sungnam area. Total bacterial counts (TBC) and levels of coliforms and Esherichia coli (E.coli) were analyzed through an eight step cooking process. The TBCs of the raw samples ranged between 3.30 and 1.37
CFU/g per 100 cm
The trimmed, blanched, and drained sweet potato stems showed a mean TBC value of 1.37
CFU/g, and the level of coliforms was 1.48
CFU/g. Among the eight samples, however, after stir-frying and serving, the TBC decreased to a standard satisfactory level, and a coliforms and E. coli were not found. A five step process was used and samples were taken to check the microbial quality of the cook and cooking equipment. Here we tested for TBC, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Salmonella. Specifically, the TBC and number of coliforms were examined on the cook's hand's, cutting board, and knife, as they represented hazards for cross-contamination. The three inspection steps of preparation of the trimmed, rinsed, blanched, and drained sweet potato stems, cook's' hands, cutting board and knife were all considered CCPs, and a manual of cooking process management was established to improve the risk factors in this study. In conclusion, this study reinforces that microbiological analysis is as a valuable tool for checking what points and stages of the cooking process must be controlled.
Preference, Satisfaction, and Repurchase Intention of Consumers for Home Meal Replacements(HMR) by Product Categories
Chung, La-Na ; Yang, Il-Sun ; Lee, Hae-Young ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 388~400
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of consumers who purchase home meal replacements (HMR) and to analyze the differences for frequency of use, preference, satisfaction, and repurchase intention based on HMR product categories. The subjects were adults in their twenties or older, who had used HMRs and lived in Seoul and the Gyeonggi Province of Korea. Five-hundred and fifty subjects were chosen by random sampling, and questionnaires were distributed from March 12 to 30, 2005. A total of 451 questionnaires were returned (the rate of return was 82%). The primary results of the study are as follows. First, by analyzing for differences based on the demographical characteristics of the HMR consumers, men had higher 'frequencies of use' and preference, whereas women had higher satisfaction and 'intentions to purchase again.' This implies that HMRs assist women who are usually in charge of home food preparation, based on time and cooking effort; hence a higher satisfaction among the women. Second, by analyzing for differences based on the characteristics of HMR consumers who ate the products, 'frequency of use' (p<.001), preference (p<.01), satisfaction (p<.001), and 'intention to repurchase' (p<.001) for the 'ready to eat' HMR category, by the person who prepared the food, were significantly higher for those subjects in their 20s than for those in other age groups. As for persons influenced by the meal, the teen age group had significantly lower 'frequency of use'(p<.001), preference (p<.05), satisfaction (p<.01) and 'intention to repurchase' (p<.01) than other age groups. 'Frequency of use' (p<.001) and preference (p<.05) were lower if the person influenced by the meal was one's spouse or child than if the person influenced by the meal was oneself. Third, regarding the preference for eating at home or eating out, 'frequency of use' was significantly higher than the other analyzed factors for the 'ready to eat,' 'ready to heat,' and 'ready to end-cook' HMR categories. In short, the 'frequency of use' for HMRs was higher for those who preferred to eat at home versus eating out, simply as a result of being bored with eating out, which is essentially the reason for the origin of HMR.
The Impacts of Brand & Organizational Identification on Job Satisfaction among Kitchen and F & B Employees of Deluxe Hotels
Shin, Seo-Young ; Yang, Il-Sun ; Song, Yong-Dok ; Choi, Mi-Kyung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 401~408
The purpose of this study was to identify the impacts of brand and organizational identification on job satisfaction among kitchen and F & B employees of deluxe hotels. Questionnaires were distributed to 460 employees in the food and beverage departments of 11 deluxe hotels in Seoul. A total of 398 questionnaires were used for analysis (86.5%). Statistical analyses were completed using SPSS Win (12.0) to perform descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, t-tests and ANOVA. The results of the study showed that brand identification was higher with F & B employees than kitchen employees (p<0.01), and was also higher for employees of international brand hotels than local brand hotels (p<0.05). Further analyses revealed that brand identification affected organizational identification, and both types of identification, especially brand identification, had strong impacts on job satisfaction. In conclusion, employee brand identification should be recognized as one of the most important factors of human resource management in the foodservice industry.
Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Content in Commercial Green Tea
Han, Young-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 3, 2007, Pages 409~412
The aim of this study was to examine the content of bioactive component,
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 7 commercial green teas. The teas were grown in different regions in Sourhtern Korea, and were picked during the middle of the season. The green tea extracts were each derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl carbamate(AccQ
Fluor), and GABA was detected by a fluorescence detector at arf excitation of 250 nm and emission of 395 nm. The GABA contents varied depending on the regions where the green tea samples were produced. There was no significant difference in GABA contents between samples A and C, where it ranged from from 45.21
0.99 (nmol/g) to 63.83
0.61 (nmol/g): however, a significantly different amount of GABA was found in the green tea produced in B. The highest GABA content was 210.67
0.85 (nmol/g), whereas the lowest content was 3.88
0.71 (nmol/g). This variation in GABA contents was probably due to the regional differences, even within the same location, as well as the processing technology, which may retain or develop more GABA components in the final green tea.