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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Rice Cookies Based on Goami 2 with Sesames(White and Black) and Perilla Seeds
Jung, Young-Jeong ; Seo, Han-Seok ; Myung, Jyong-Eun ; Shin, Jeong-Min ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 785~792
The aim of this study was to develop rice cookies based on 'Goami 2' rice, and made with sesame (white and black) and perilla seeds. Furthermore, we studied the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the cookies as well as the alternative effects of the sesames or perilla seeds for butter, where we substituted the sesames or perilla for 30% of the total butter. The pH values of the cookie doughs made with the sesames or perilla seeds were significantly different (p<0.001), whereas the spread factors of the doughs were not significantly different. The Hunter color L-, a-, and b- values were significantly different for the cookies made with the added sesames or perilla seeds (p<0.001). The brittleness of the Goami 2 rice cookies (control) was significantly higher than that of the cookies made with the sesames or perilla (p<0.001). In a descriptive analysis performed by 8 trained panelists, the following sensory characteristics: yellow, black, sweet taste, nutty taste, nutty odor, oily flavor, and off flavor, were significantly different among the cookie samples. In a consumer test by 50 women students, the Goami 2 rice cookies were preferred in the following order: Goami 2 rice cookies with no additions > black sesame cookies > white sesame cookies > perilla cookies. In conclusion, some physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were different, in relation to being made with or without the sesame or perilla seeds. However, because of the small difference in acceptance among the cookies, the sesame and perilla rice cookies show strong potentials for consumer acceptance. Moreover, the black sesame cookies were more acceptable in terms of butter substitution for the cookie preparation.
The Antibacterial and Antioxidative Activity of Licorice and Spice Water Extracts
Park, Chu-Ja ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 793~799
The purpose of this research related to the development of natural preservatives, in which licorice and spices (clove, fennel fruit and Chungyang green pepper) were extracted with distilled water, and the extracts were tested for their antibacterial and antioxidative activities. The polyphenol contents of the water extracts from licorice, clove, fennel fruit and Chungyang green pepper were 17.4, 21.4, 6.6, and 0.9 mg/g, respectively. The water extracts from licorice and clove demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The electron donating abilities (EDA) of the water extracts from the licorice and other spices ranged from 60 to 88% at 1,000 ppm; the highest value was for the licorice followed by fennel fruit, clove, and green pepper. The xanthine oxidase inhibition ratio (XOD) of the extracts ranged from 28 to 50% at 1,000 ppm, where the highest value occured in the cloves, followed by fennel fruit, green pepper, and licorice. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity ranged from 33 to 53% at 1,000 ppm, and the highest value was for the licorice followed by cloves, fennel fruit, and green pepper. The nitrite scavenging abilities (NSA) at 1,000 ppm of the clove and fennel fruit water extracts were 95% and 65% at pH 1.2, respectively. The NSAs of the extracts were highest at pH 1.2, and decreased with increasing pH. Considering all the obtained results, we have concluded that licorice and spice extracts can be used as natural preservatives in the development of health foods.
The Effects of Drying Method and Spice Extracts Added to Beef Jerky on the Quality Characteristics of Beef Jerky
Park, Chu-Ja ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 800~809
To develope Hanbang beef jerky as health food, six kinds of beef jerky were prepared by adding sugar (A), licorice (B) and three kinds of spice extracts (clove: C, fennel fruit: D and Chungyang green pepper extract: E) and mixture of all extracts (F). The effects of the drying method and added spice extracts on the quality characteristics of the beef jerky were evaluated. In general, the air-blast dried beef jerky contained
crude lipid and
crude ash. For the mineral content of the air-blast dried jerky, the most prevalent mineral was Na
mg%), followed by K, P, Mg, and Ca. The Ca content of the beef jerky was highest in the mixed extract group (88.53 mg%), and the lowest content was in sugar-added group (53.12 mg%). For the color properties, the L-value (lightness), a-value (redness) and b-value (yellowness) were higher in the air-blast dried beef jerky than in the hot air dried samples. The drying methods showed their greatest affect on the redness (a) for all six jerkies (p<0.001). For the preference by sensory evaluation, the beef jerky samples with added sugar (A) and licorice extract (B) had significantly higher scores than the beef jerky samples with the added spice extracts, for both of air-blast drying and hot air drying (p<0.05). Preference for the air-blast dried beef jerkies with added clove (C) and fennel fruits (D) were significantly higher, in terms of taste, color, softness and aftertaste as compared to the respective hot air dried jerkies (p<0.01). Considering all the obtained results, we concluded that licorice and spice extracts can be used as natural preservatives in the development of health foods and the air-blast drying method is recommended to improve the quality characteristics of beef jerky.
A study on the Quality Properties of Jeung-pyun added SPI(Soybean protein isolate)
Hong, Geum-Ju ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Kang-Sung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 810~817
The quality properties of Jeung-pyun made with soybean protein isolate(SPI) were investigated. The SPI Jeung-pyun was manufactured using 3% whole protein, 7S protein or 11S protein(w/w). The redness values (a-values) of the Jeung-pyun were negative and the yellowness(b-value) of the control group was significantly lower compared to the other samples. The textural characteristics of the Jeung-pyun were influenced by the additions of SPI. The Jeung-pyuns containing soybean flour, whole protein, 7S and 11S protein had increases in springiness, but decreases in cohesiveness. In the sensory evaluation, overall desirability, sweetness, and moistness were highest in the whole protein group. The control group showed the highest scores for hardness and toughness, and the scores for after-taste and adhesiveness were the highest in the samples made with soybean flour. The 7S and 11S additions showed high scores in terms of color and springiness. In the analyses for consumer acceptance and sensory quality intensity, the whole protein addition had significantly higher scores for general acceptability and the Makgeolli flavor. Hardness was highest for the control group and the Makgeolli flavor was strongest with the soybean flour addition.
Quality Characteristics of Jeolpyeon by Different Ratios of Lycil fructus Powder
Lee, Mi-Young ; Kim, Jong-Gun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 818~823
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding various concentrations of Lycil fructus powder on the quality characteristics of Jeolpyeon. The Lycil fructus powder was added to rice powder at ratios of 3, 6, 9 and l2%(w/w). The moisture contents of the Lycil fructus Jeolpyeon samples ranged from
. For the color values the L-value decreased and the a-value and b-values incresaed with increasing amounts of Lycil fructus powder. In the textural analysis hardness was highest for the 3% Lycil fructus powder addition, however springiness and cohesiveness did not difference significantly by the addition levels. Finally the results of the sensory evaluation showed the Jeolpyeon containing 6% added with Lycil fructus powder was superior for overall preference, color, flavor, softness, chewiness and after-taste.
Effects of Pectin and Potato Starch on the Quality Characteristics of Low-Fat Pork Patties
Joo, Sin-Youn ; Chung, Hai-Jung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 824~831
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of low-fat pork patties containing fat replacers. Pectin(PE) and potato starch(PO) were added as fat replacers and physicochemical properties of the patties were evaluated after oven-roasting or pan-frying. Uncooked and cooked pork patties formulated with the fat replacers were higher in moisture and ash content and lower in fat content than those of the control. The cooking yield and reduction in diameter of the patties were significantly improved by the addition of PE or PO and oven-roasting exhibited a higher cooking yield and lower reduction in diameter than pan-frying (p<0.05). Water holding capacity(WHC) and fat retention were highest in the patties formulated with PE, while the control had the lowest WHC when cooked by oven-roasting. The Hunter L (lightness) values were not different among the patties but the Hunter a (redness) and b (yellowness) values of the low fat pork patties were higher than those of the control and oven-roasting produced higher redness values than pan frying. Hardness and brittleness were lowest in the patties with PE, while cohesiveness and springiness showed no difference among the patties (p<0.05). The sensory analysis results showed that the use of PE or PO improved the overall acceptability of the low-fat pork patties. After 30 days of storage at
, pH and cooking yield decreased slightly, while hardness increased in all the patties.
The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of almond gruel according to the concentration and pretreatment of almonds
Ryu, Seung-Yeon ; Cho, Young-Sim ; Cho, Yun-Kyung ; Jung, Ah-Ram ; Shin, Ji-Hun ; Yeo, In-Ok ; Joo, Na-Mi ; Han, Young-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 832~838
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of different almond gruels according to the concentration and pretreatment of the almonds. For the physicochemical parameters, pH, sweetness and viscosity decreased with an increasing almond content, while spreadability, lightness, redness, and yellowness increased. In addition, pH, sweetness, spreadability and viscosity decreased by using baked almonds. Also the L(lightness) and a(redness) color values increased by using baked almonds, whereas the b-value (yellowness) decreased. In the sensory evaluation flavor and nutty taste were significantly different(p<.001) among the samples. The overall preference scores also showed significant differences(p<.001) between the different concentrations of almond. The almond gruels containing 40%, 60%, and 80% almond showed higher preferences than the 0 and 20% concentrations.
Sensory Characteristics of Diluted Espresso(Americano) in Relation to Dilution Rates
Lee, Seung-Yeon ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ; Park, Mi-Hyun ; Seo, Han-Seok ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 839~847
The aims of this study were twofold: i) to investigate changes in the sensory characteristics and consumer preference of diluted espresso drinks according to different dilution rates; ii) to compare the physicochemical characteristics between diluted espresso coffees, using the preferred coffee of this study and commercial products from coffee shop chains. Descriptive analysis using a 15 cm line scale, and a consumer preference test were carried out by 6 trained panelist,; and 50 consumers (F=39, M=11), respectively. Appearance (transparent, black), odor (bitter, rich), taste (bitter, burnt, astringent, umami, sour), and mouth-feel (aftertaste, body, coarseness, oily, roughness, soft-swallowing) were significantly different among the 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, and 11-times dilution rates. In particular, the sensory characteristics associated with mouth-feel showed obvious differences with the dilution rates. In the consumer preference test, the 9-times diluted espresso had the highest preference, whereas the 3-times diluted espresso showed the lowest preference. Moreover, the 9-times diluted espresso demonstrated similar physicochemical characteristics such as pH, sugar content, and total solid content to those of the commercial diluted espresso drinks from coffee shop chains. In conclusion, the sensory characteristics and consumer preference of the diluted espressos were influenced by the dilution rates.
Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Sikhe Prepared with Extracts from Hovenia dulcis THUNB
Kim, Hyang-Hee ; Park, Geum-Soon ; Jeon, Jeong-Ryae ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 848~857
Sikhe, a traditional Korean drink, was prepared with Hovenia dulcis extract (HDE), and its quality and storage characteristics were evaluated through sensory and microbial analyses. In the color analysis, the lightness of the Sikhe showed a decreasing tendency according to the addition of HDE, while redness and yellowness increased. The Sikhe prepared with 20% HDE had the highest sugar concentration at 12days of storage (
). Interms of sensory quality, both the 20% and 40% HDE-added Sikhes had the highest overall preference. The microbial cell counts presented no distinct differences early in the storage. period, but the general bacteria counts of the Sikhe made with the increasing concentrations of extracts decreased with a longer storage period. The coliform counts of the Sikhe prepared without HDE (control) was 10.5 CFU/g at 10 days of storage, but the 100% HDE-added Sikhe had a level of 7.9 CFU/g at 16 days of storage. These results indicates that Hovenia dulcis may inhibit normal microbial growth and extend the shelf-life on Sikhe.
An Assessment of Dietitian Job Tasks According to the Characteristics of Foodservice Operations and Dietitians
Bae, Hyun-Joo ; Lee, Hye-Yeon ; Chun, Hee-Jung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 858~866
The objective of this study was to identify the job performance and perceived job importances of dietitians according to the characteristics of foodservice operations as well as dietitians. Questionnaires were distributed to 400 dietitians, and a total of 202 were received and utilized(50.5%). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SAS package program(version 8.2) for descriptive analysis and
. The results are summarized as follows. The highest job task frequency was for sanitation management (98.5%); and then nutrition management (96.6%), cost management (92.6%), and inventory management (92.1%). The dietitians' perceived job importance was highest for sanitation management (74.3%), followed by nutrition management (68.8%) and human resource management (37.1%). Dietitians with under 3 years of experience had more difficulties, particularly in purchasing management, cost management, and sanitation management. Dietitians within contracted foodservice operations were dissatisfied by having insufficient education for cost management. Thus, programs for on-the-job and off-the-job training, reflecting dietitians' educational needs and changing job tasks should be increased.
Recognition and Consumption Patterns of Traditional Doenjang and Soy Sauce Housewives according to Age in Seoul
Kim, Na-Young ; Han, Myung-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 867~876
This study was performed to determine the attitudes of 397 housewives on the function, preference, eating frequency, and manufacturing procedures of traditional doenjang and traditional soy sauce by age in Seoul. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: 95.5% of the housewives recognized a necessity for traditional doenjang and soy sauce, and 88.7% of them considered traditional doenjang and soy sauce as being 'good for health', as compared to marketplace doenjang and soy sauce. Also, the proportion of those holding this view of 'good for health' increased with increasing age. The believed functions for traditional doenjang and soy sauce were 'anti-cancer effects' (87.1%), 'prevention of obesity' (51.1%), and 'prevention of constipation' (38.5%). The preference for traditional doenjang or soy sauce by those in their 60s (4.65, 4.45) was higher than by those in their 20s (4.05, 3.65). The frequency of intake for traditional doenjang increased with increasing age. The main reasons for frequently consuming traditional doenjang and soy sauce were 'good for health' (64.0%, 59.2%) and 'delicious' (58.5%, 57.1%). The main reason for not frequently consuming traditional doenjang and soy sauce was 'I have no traditional doenjang or soy sauce' (71.4%, 71.6%). About 39.5% of the housewives manufactured traditional doenjang and soy sauce at home. Those in their 60s (78.1%) manufactured more traditional doenjang and soy sauce than those in their 20s (25.0%), 30s (22.4%), 40s (37.7%), and 50s (52.9%).
Quality Characteristics of Brown Sauce with Added Apricot During Storage
Lee, Jung-Ae ; Shin, Young-Ja ; Park, Geum-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 877~883
To evaluate the potential use of apricot as a sauce ingredient, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of apricot brown sauce were compared. Various concentration (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) of apricot were used to evaluate the quality characteristics of the sauce during storage for 12 days at
. The pH value of the 5 types of brown sauce ranged from 3.8 to 4.6, and these pH levels were stable during the storage period. The L-values of the 0% apricot brown sauce were higher than those of the 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% apricot brown sauce. All the samples tended to have higher viscosities during storage, especially after three days after. In the sensory evaluation, softness, roasted flavor, texture, after taste, and overall taste were highest for the 10% and 20% apricot brown sauce. For the overall acceptability, the
apricot brown sauce attained the highest score.
Quality Characteristics of Jelly Made with Yam Powder
Lee, Jung-Ae ; Park, Geum-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 884~890
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding various concentration of yam powder (Y0:0g, Y1:2g, Y2:4g, Y3:6g, Y4:8g, Y5:10g) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of jelly. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.61 to 5.70, and this pH range was stable. As for the viscosity of the jelly, the samples made with yam powder showed higher viscosities than the control. and the viscosity increased with increasing amounts of yam powder, viscosity was increased. The Hunter color L- and a-values decreased significantly (p<.001) by the addition of yam powder. For the textural characteristics, the addition of yam powder increased the cohesiveness and decreased the springiness and chewiness. In the sensory evaluation, the appearance and flavor acceptability of the jellies were in the order of Y0>Y1>Y2>Y3>Y4>Y5. The texture acceptability was highest in Y0 and Y1 and taste and overall acceptability were highest in Y1.
The Quality Characteristics of Grape Jelly Made with Various Gelling Agents for Consumption by Elderly Women
Choi, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Oh, Myung-Suk ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 891~898
This study was carried out to determine the quality characteristics of grape jellies made with various gelling agents such as agar,
-carrageenan, and gellan gum for consumption by elderly women. The concentrations of agar were 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45%, and those of the
-carrageenan and gellan gum were 0.15, 0.3, and 0.4%, respectively. The color values, gelling temperatures, melting temperatures, break down rates, textural properties, and consumer acceptance of the grape jellies were measured. The average age of the subjects participating in the acceptance test was 82. The lightness of the grape jelly made with agar was the highest, and its redness was the lowest among the jellies. The gelling and melting temperatures for the grape jelly made with gellan gum were higher than those of the other jellies, and the melting temperatures were 37, 43, and
based on 0.15, 0.3, and 0.4% gellan gum content, respectively. The break down rate of the grape jelly made with gellan gum was the lowest among the jellies. These results indicate that the stability of the grape jelly made with gellan gum was superior among the jellies. The hardness, adhesiveness, and springiness of the grape jelly made with agar were lowest among the jellies, and the grape jellies made with agar(0.25% and 0.35%) and gellan gum(0.15% and 0.3%) had the highest consumer acceptance among the jellies. However, the gellan gum was deemed an inappropriate gelling agent with regard to the acceptability due to its sour and moldy taste as perceived by the participants.
The Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yakgwa Prepared with Herbs
Gwon, So-Young ; Moon, Bo-Kyung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 899~907
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of herbs, including rosemary, thyme, oregano, ginger, and green tea, on the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of Yagkwa. After 16 days of storage at
, all the herb-added samples showed significantly lower values for acid, TEA and peroxide than the control. The samples with rosemary and thyme showed significantly higher antioxidant activities than the other samples. The samples with rosemary and ginger showed significantly lower L-values than the control sample and the samples with thyme, oregano and green tea showed significantly lower a-values than the control. For the b-value, the control sample had the highest value. In the sensory evaluation of the Yakgwa, there were no significant differences between the samples in terms of color, flavor and texture. For overall acceptability, the rosemary-added sample showed the highest score among the samples and the thyme-added sample showed a significantly lower score than the control. In the texture analysis, all the herb-added samples, except for green tea, showed higher hardness than the control. In conclusion, the addition of herbs would be a useful way to enhance the antioxidant quality of yakgwa and rosemary would be the best choice when considering antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics.
The Properties of Rice Flours Prepared by Dry- and Wet-Milling of Soaked Glutinous and Normal Grains
Kim, Wan-Soo ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 908~918
To prepare ready-to-use rice flour as de novo material for processed rice foods, glutinous(W) and normal rice grains (N) were soaked for 1, 8, and 12 hours prior to processing. One half (DG) was air-dried and milled, and the other (WG) was milled and air-dried. General, morphological and pasting properties of the flours (NDG, NWG, WDG, WWG) were compared to those of a control (raw milled rice without soaking). The general compositions of the rice flours varied with soaking. Crude ash was considerably decreased at the beginning of soaking (1 hour). With the soaking, the rice flour, having polygonal shaped particles and a layered surface, acquired particles with smooth edges, which were then uniformly distributed. Additionally, the WG flour was lighter and had a lower
value than the DG flour, due to a higher L and less +b as a result of soaking. Compared to the control, the WBC of the normal rice flour was decreased significantly with soaking, and the WG flour had significantly lower WBCs than the DG flour. Stirring number (SN), an indicator of
activity, was highly and significantly correlated with WBC (r=-0.85, p=0.0001) in the normal rice flour. At
, the SP and solubility of all the soaked rice flours were much higher than those of the control. Positive (r=+0.85, p=0.0001) and negative (r=-0.61, p=0.02) correlations between the SP and solubility of the normal and glutinous rice flours were found, respectively. Using RVA, the pasting temperature of NDG was lower than that of NWG (p<0.0001). The peak viscosities of all the soaked flours were significantly decreased with soaking (p<0.0l), with the highest viscosity in the normal rice flour soaked for 8 hrs. Total setback, indicative of retrogradation, was lower in NDG than in NWG, with the lowest setback at 8 hrs of' soaking. Based on these finding, the NDG flour with 8 hrs of soaking was less damaged, and had a lower total setback and lower pasting temperature, which would make it an appropriate rice flour for commercial mass production.
The Quality Characteristics of Black Sesame Gruels Made with Different Concentrations of Steamed Black Sesame and Various Kinds of Rice Powder
Park, Jung-Lee ; Chae, Kyung-Yeon ; Hong, Jin-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 919~929
In this study, we applied a steam treatment to black sesame to determine the optimum treatment conditions, and also examined the antioxidant effects and quality characteristics. For black sesame gruels, roasting can be used in a variety of ways in cooking to enhance functionality and preference. We found that the solid content increased with the addition of 70% steamed black sesame in the glutinous rice-black sesame gruel samples, and for glutinous black rice-black sesame gruels, solid content was highest with the addition of 50% steamed black sesame. For the chromaticity, the L-value decreased as the addition of steamed black sesame increased in all the black sesame gruels made with the steamed black sesame. With regard to texture, the cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and adhesiveness of the gruels made with steamed black sesame were highest when 60% steamed black sesame was added. The results of the sensory test showed that overall preference was highest for the glutinous rice-black sesame gruel made with 60% steamed black sesame, while the glutinous brown rice-black sesame gruels were preferred with 60% and 70% additions, and the glutinous black rice-black sesame gruel was deemed best with 60% steamed black sesame. The most appropriate ratios of steamed black sesame in the black sesame gruels, with regard to overall quality, are as follows: 60% steamed black sesame for the glutinous rice-black sesame gruel, 60% and 70% steamed black sesame for the glutinous brown rice-black sesame gruel, and 60% steamed black sesame for the glutinous black rice-black sesame gruel.
A Study on Expectation Factor and Level About Food Coordination in Restaurant - For Twenties to Thirties Customers
Ahn, Ji-Won ; Kim, Heh-Young ; Ko, Sung-Hee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 930~939
The purpose of this study was to suggest ways for practical food coordination, by examining restaurant-visitor' expectation factors for food coordination in restaurants. Statistical analyses were carried out based on the statistical data collected via survey from the restaurant. visitors. For the data analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, frequency analysis, t-test, and ANOVA were applied, using the SAS 9.1(ver.) program. In the results for the general perception of food coordination, the degree of recognition by restaurant visitors for food coordination is not high. However, necessity for food coordination is highly recognized and a 70% of the respondents were positive in their response about an expropriation price. Fitty percent of the respondents indicated a positive response regarding the relationship between the visual effect of the food and a re-visit to the restaurant. Therefore, most restaurant visitors believe food coordination is necessary in restaurants, and expect to pay for it in price.
Quality Characteristics of Whole and Peeled Garlic Jangachi(Korean Pickle) by Aging Period
Jung, Hyeon-A ; Jung, Hee-Sun ; Joo, Na-Mi ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 940~946
In this study, raw whole garlic and peeled garlic were pickled in brine, to test for changes in flavor compounds by aging period. Changes in pH, acidity and hardness were measured, and a sensory evaluation performed. The pH of the peeled garlic Jangachi in brine decreased as the aging period increased. The acidity increased as pH decreased, and the hardness tended to decrease as the aging time increased. For the peeled garlic Jangachi in brine, 3,3-thiobis-l-propene, allyl methyl trisulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide increased as aging proceeded, but allyl methyl disulfide and diallyl disulfide tended to decrease. In the sensory evaluation, hardness decreased as the aging time increased. Therefore, the above flavor compounds are considered to be major components of the characterized flavor of pickled garlic. When the overall quality was compared between the whole garlic Jangachi and peeled garlic Jangachi in brine after 60 days, the peeled garlic Jangachi was deemed superior.
Quality Characteristics of Fish Paste Containing Lotus(Nelumbo nucifera) Leaf Powder
Shin, Young-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 947~953
This study was conducted to promote the utilization of fish paste with added lotus leaf powder as a food. The tested concentrations of lotus leaf powder were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%. All the samples of fish paste with added lotus leaf powder had 37% water content. For the Hunter color values, the L, a and b values of the fish paste decreased with increasing concentrations of lotus leaf powder. And the folding test presented a good score(AA). In the texture meter test, the gumminess, and brittleness decreased according to increasing concentrations of lotus leaf powder. However, the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of the fish paste were not significantly changed by the addition of lotus leaf powder. In the sensory evaluation, the lotus leaf flavor, hardness, and adhesiveness increased as the concentrations of lotus leaf powder increased. The fish paste with 0.5% lotus leaf powder(0.5 LP) showed the highest acceptance scores in terms of pleasant taste and springiness. The fish paste with 0.5% lotus leaf powder(0.5 LP) also showed the highest acceptance scores for appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and overall quality. Therefore, the results suggest that lotus leaf powder can be applied to fish paste to increase its quality and functionality.
Optimization of Extraction Condition for Black Tea with Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis) by Response Surface Methodology
Lim, Oh-Jun ; Byun, Kwang-Ihn ; Lee, Byoung-Gu ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 954~960
The study was designed to determine optimum extraction conditions, by the factorial design of 3 variables and 3 levels using an a RSM program. To determine the optimal conditions for the extraction of black tea with chamomile, the experimental design was applied. The independent factors were the extraction temperature (
), extraction time (2 min, 4 min, 6 min), and chamomile addition (0.3%, 1.0%, 1.7%). By the RSM (response surface methodology) analysis of the black tea with chamomile extraction, we found that the extraction temperature greatly affected the extraction yield, brix, pH, and reducing sugar, caffeine, theobromine and theophillin contents. The optimum extraction time, temperature, and chamomile content were 4 min,
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flour Porridge
Yang, Yun-Hyoung ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Kwon, Oh-Yoon ; Lee, Kun-Jong ; Park, Soo-Cheon ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 961~967
The aim of this present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-irradiation on the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of the rice flour porridge. The viscosity of the gamma-irradiated rice flour porridge was decreased as compared to that of the control. The soluble solid and reducing sugar content of the rice flour porridge was increased according to the gamma irradiation dose, while the blue value was decreased. From the results of a DSC curve, it was suggested that gamma irradiation delayed the retrogradation of the cooked rice flour porridge. The sensory score for overall acceptance and the chewing times for swallowing of the porridge, decreased with gamma irradiation doses above 3 kGy. Based on these results gamma irradiation may significantly enhance the swallowability of rice porridge, especially for elderly or infant subjects who have decreased mastication. However, more research is needed to improve the sensory qualities for the industrial application.
Effect of Spirulina on Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Son, Chan-Wok ; Shin, Yu-Mi ; Sim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 968~976
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of spirulina powder on the growth properties of lactic acid bacteria in reconstituted skim milk. The spirulina powder supplemented to S. thermophilus and L acidophilus slightly stimulated lactic acid production. In addition, the growth and acid production of L. bulgaricus were enhanced by the addition of spirulina powder. When the spirulina powder was added to reconstituted skim milk at the level of 1%, the mixed cultures of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus showed higher numbers of viable cells and higher acid production than the other cultures. The effects of the addition amounts of spirulina powder (1%, 2% and 3%) to the reconstituted skim milk on the growth properties of the mixed cultures of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were evaluated. The pH of the skim milk with added spirulina powder was lower than that of the control, but the amount of spirulina did not have a significant affect. The titratable acidity increased with the incubation time until 12 hr. The number of viable cells in the skim milk with added spirulina increased according to the amount of spirulina. Thus, the spirulina was effective for the increasing lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt.
The Quality Characteristics of Sulgi Prepared Using Different Amounts of Mulberry Leaf Powder and Lotus Leaf Powder
Son, Kyoung-Hee ; Park, Dong-Yean ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 977~986
This study was conducted to evaluate the mechanical (texture and color) and sensory characteristics of mulberry leaf sulgi (MLS) and lotus leaf sulgi (LLS) that contained different ratios of ingredients. MLS and LLS with final concentrations of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% of powdered mulberry and lotus leaf respectively, were prepared. The texture characteristics (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness), color values (lightness, redness, yellowness), and sensory characteristics (color, flavor, moistness, taste, brittleness, chewiness and after-taste) of the different sulgis were then measured and compared. With the exception of gumminess and chewiness, the texture characteristics of 0% MLS, 1% MLS and 3% MLS were not significantly different. The sensory characteristics of 0% MLS had the highest scores, whereas those of 5% MLS were the lowest for all factors except for brittleness. However, with the exception of chewiness, the scores obtained from 0% and 1 % MLS did not differ significantly. In addition, 1% MLS and 3% MLS were not significantly different from each other. Furthermore, the texture characteristics of 0% LLS and 1 % LLS were not different significantly, although the characteristics of 1% LLS were significantly different from those of 3% and 5% LLS when springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness were considered. Additionally, the sensory characteristics of 0% LLS and 1% LLS were not significantly different, with the exception of brittleness, and the characteristics of 1% LLS and 3% LLS were not significantly different, with the exception of taste and after-taste.
Literary Investigation and Traditional Food Cooking Methods for the Development of a Breakfast Food Substitutefood I (Analysis of Mieum, Misu, and Goeum During
Bok, Hye-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 987~1002
This study examined Tthe cooking methods foroftraditional foods called such as Mieum, Misu, and Goeum from the from investigation of old cook books and ancient literatureis as follows. There We found were 7 types of Mieum that were cooked by mixing rice and cereals, while 3 types of Mieum were cooked by mixing cereals and herbal medicines to with thenuts. The Mieums that were cooked by mixing meat, fish, and shellfish, etc. to the herbal medicine ingredients like such as medical plants, etc were consisted of 8 types. Therefore, a total of 18 types of Mieum, Misu, and Goeum, etc were have been classified. Among the cooking methods of for Mieum, rice and grains were boiled for an extended longtime and filtered with a sieve to be used as the juicebroth. The Job's tears and millet, etc were mixed into water, or boiled after being made into a powder, soaked into water, and dried. The herbal medicine ingredients such as ginseng were boiled for an extended long time, and once the ingredients are were flown out cooked down, it the broth was filtered with asieve to be used the as a liquid extract. The meat, bone, and shellfish, etc were also boiled for a longn extended time, filtered with a sieve, and made into a juice broth to be used as a drinks from on occasion time to time. These drinks, called Mieum, Misu, and Goeum above, were healthy foods our ancestors used to enjoy for enjoyment drinking, and were also food for remedyies and sources of nutritionon. As Since the meal replacement foods to that replace meals that can be eaten right away while working and studying are needed, due to is required within the our busy schedules of in modern peoplesociety, thise literary investigation and the cooking methods for of Mieum, Misu, and Goeum, which that used to be are our traditional foods, can be are used as a basic research material for the development of convenient breakfast to meal replacements breakfast.
Research on the Structural Relationships Between Hotel Restaurant F&B Production Strategies, Service System, and Business Performance
Kang, Seok-Woo ; Kim, Duk-Hee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1003~1014
This research aimed to assess the relationships between restaurant production strategies, service systems, and business performance. The sample included 202 questionnaires collected from exclusive high-end hotels located in the Seoul area of Korea. The questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 12.0. The hypotheses were verified by applying frequency analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The results are summarized as follows. First, it was found that the F&B production strategies of the hotel restaurants had a positive (+) effect on business performance. Second, the F&B production strategies positively influenced the service system, and the service system had an effect on business performance.
Hazardous Effect of Dietary Trans Fats on Human Health and Regulations
Gil, Bog-Im ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 23, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1015~1024
Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) are defined as the sum of all unsaturated fatty acids that contain one or more non-conjugated double bonds in a trans configuration. Dietary trans- fatty acids originate from commercially hydrogenated oils and from dairy and meat fats. From the perspective of the food industry, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are attractive because of their long shelf life, stability during deep-frying, and semisolidity, which can be customized to enhance the palatability of baked goods and fried foods. Although no definite differences have been documented so far between the metabolic and health effects of industrial and ruminant TFAs, the intake of industrially produced TFA has declined, and in Europe, the majority of TFAs are of ruminant origin. Due to the scientific evidence associating TFA intake with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CDH), the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) issued a final rule that requires the amount of trans fat present in foods to be declared on the nutrition label, by December 1, 2007. In addition, many food manufacturers who use partially hydrogenated oils in their products have developed, or are considering ways, to reduce or eliminate trans-fatty acids from certain food products.