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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
An Exploratory Study on the Ethical Attitudes of Consumers in Consumption Situations;based on the Consumer Ethics Scale
Jung, Hyo-Sun ; Yoon, Hye-Hyun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~10
The purpose of this study was to examine the ethical attitudes of consumers in consumption situations by using the consumer ethics scale(CES). Self-administrated questionnaires were completed by 492 consumers, and the resulting data were analysed by frequency, chi-square, one-way ANOVA, factor analysis, reliability analysis, and cluster analysis. We found four different groups of consumers were identified according to their ethical attitudes in consumption situations: 1) the unethical onlooker consumer group, 2) the socialized unethical consumer group, 3) the ethical consumer group, and 4) the severely unethical consumer group. The unethical onlooker consumer group was most widespread prevalent among university students who were in their 20s and down or under, and who received spending money from their parents, and the socialized unethical consumer group was most prevailing prevalent among the higher educated consumers. The women who consumers slightly outnumbered men in an the ethical consumer group, slightly outnumbered the men who did, and many of the university-educated large income earners fell into this group consumed in that way as well. The severely unethical consumer group was quite uncommon among those who were at the age of 41 and up over, and not many of the higher educated people and larger income earners consumed in an the severely unethical consumer group, either. Thus, it's proven this study proves that in terms of the propensity to consume, the consumers' were different from one another in ethical attitudes and behaviors differ according to their demographic characteristics.
Isolation and Identification of Yeast Strain from Fermented Tea
Kang, Ok-Ju ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 11~15
In searching for yeast to be utilized as biocontrol agents, a single yeast strain was isolated from Camellia sinensis based on its morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties, as well as by molecular techniques. This single strain was pink to red in color and designated as strain JY-1. The effects of temperature, pH, NaCl concentration, and ethanol concentration on the growth of the JY-l strain were examined for the JY-1. Growth occurred at temperatures ranging from 20 to
, and between pH 3.0 and 12.0, with optimal growth at
and pH 5.0. The yeast also grew in the presence of 0-2% (w/v) NaCl and 0-4% (v/v) EtOH. The isolate was further classified based on biochemical characteristics using the VITEK system. The biochemical data obtained using this system were similar to those of Rhodotorula glutinis/Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (exhibiting a 93% matching level). Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on l8S rDNA sequences indicated that the yeast represented a basidiomycetous species, and its highest degree of sequence similarity was with Rhodosporidium azoricum, strain JCM11251 (99%).
A Study on Billed Silvertown Residents' Satisfaction and Trust with Foodservice
Kim, Ha-Yun ; Shin, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Myung-Hee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 16~22
This study focused on the attribution factors affecting billed Silvertown residents' satisfaction and trust in relation to foodservice. Residents living in 'N' charged Silvertown were randomly selected for the study. Among them, 27 did not complete the survey, and a total of 143 questionnaires were analyzed. Data analyses were carried out using the frequency, factor analysis, cross tabs, and regression procedures of the SPSS 12.0 package. The results were as follows. First, for prospective Silvertown residents, among all the service offered, meals and medical services were of primary importance. Second, for Silertown foodservice, menu variety and taste were the most important aspects. Third, in the factor analysis for effects of foodservice on satisfaction and trust, the factor were restaurant facilities, food taste and quality, and restaurant operations. Fourth, in the relationship between the restaurant operation and residents' satisfaction levels, restaurant equipment, food taste and quality, and the resident's level of trust were significant. Finally, foodservice satisfaction and trust significantly affected residents' satisfaction with living in Silvertown.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Prepared with Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Powder
Eun, Soon-Duk ; Kim, Mun-Yong ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 23~30
Sulgidduk samples made with additions of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder, and a control were examined for quality characteristics such as moisture content, water activity, color, gelatinization properties, textural characteristics, and sensory qualities in order to determine the optimal ratio of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder in the formulation. The moisture contents among the samples ranged from 41.98% to 44.97%, and increased as the content of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder increased. The water activities of the samples were not significantly different. As the Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder content increased, the redness and yellowness of the samples also increased, but lightness decreased. For the gelatinization properties, the additions of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder caused decreases in peak viscosity (P) and holding strength viscosity (H). Furthermore, final viscosity (F), setback, and time to peak viscosity decreased with increasing Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder content; however, breakdown and temperature to peak viscosity were not significantly different among the samples. Hardness and gumminess decreased with increasing Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder content, and adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience also tended to decrease; however, springiness was not significantly different among the samples. In the consumer acceptance test, as the content of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder increased, the scores of all evaluated characteristics decreased; while the characteristic intensity ratings showed the reverse effect, and the 2 and 4% Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder samples obtained fairly good scores. In conclusion, the results indicate that adding
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. powder to Sulgidduk is optimal, providing good physiological properties and reasonably high overall consumer acceptability.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Prepared with Ulmus Cortex Powder
Jun, Mi-Kyoung ; Kim, Mun-Yong ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 31~38
Sulgidduk samples made with additions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% Ulmus cortex powder, and a control, were examined for quality characteristics such as moisture content, color, gelatinization properties, textural characteristics, and consumer acceptance, in order to determine the optimal ratio of Ulmus cortex powder in the formulation. The moisture contents among the samples were not significantly different, ranging from 40.57 to 42.37%, and increased as the Ulmus cortex powder content increased. For the color values, lightness decreased and yellowness and redness increased with increasing Ulmus cortex powder content. With regard to the gelatinization properties, peak viscosity (P), trough viscosity (T), final viscosity (F), breakdown, and consistency increased with increasing amounts of Ulmus cortex powder. Pasting temperature, time to peak viscosity, and setback presented decreasing tendencies with the additions of Ulmus cortex powder. For the textural characteristics, increasing Ulmus cortex powder content presented decreases in hardness, springiness, and chewiness however, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess were not significantly different among samples. In the consumer acceptance test, the scores of all evaluated characteristics decreased as the ratio of Ulmus cortex powder increased. However, the intensity ratings for the 1 and 2% Ulmus cortex powder samples showed the opposite effect, obtaining fairly good scores. In conclusion, the results indicate that adding
Ulmus cortex powder to Sulgidduk is optimal, providing good physiological properties and reasonably high consumer acceptability.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Prepared with Different Amounts of Green Laver Powder
Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Yoon, Sook-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 39~45
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding different amounts (0, 4, 8, 12, 16%) of green laver powder to Sulgidduk, a traditional Korean rice cake product, in terms of textural properties and sensory characteristics. During storage, moisture content was reduced less in the green laver-added samples as compared to the control group. With increasing additions of green laver powder, L-values decreased, a-values increased significantly, and b-values decreased; however, no changes were observed in the control group. In the mechanical evaluations, hardness increased less during storage in the green laver added samples than in the control group. Adhesiveness did not differ significantly by the addition of green laver powder. Springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness showed significant differences, and increased or decreased repeatedly during storage. In the sensory evaluations, the 16% green laver group received the highest scores for color, flavor, and taste Moistness and softness were evaluated higher in the green laver groups as compared to the control group; however, moistness, softness, and elasticity did not differ significantly during storage.
Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Cuscutae Semen
Jeon, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Kim, Mee-Ra ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 46~51
In this study, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Cuscutae semen ethanol extract were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the Ames test was employed to determine the inhibition effect on mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The extract showed significant free radical-scavenging activity towards the DPPH radical, and at a concentration of 400 ppm, its free radical-scavenging activity was similar to that of BHT. The
value of the extract was 89 ppm, indicating good antioxidant capacity. Moreover, at 5 mg/mL, the extract presented inhibitions of approximately 98.0% and 49.2% on mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and sodium azide, respectively. The total polyphenols and flavonoid contents of the extract were 20.1 mg/g and 1.9 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, this study indicates that the ethanolic extract of Cuscutae semen has excellent antioxidative and antimutagenic potential.
The Antibacterial and Antioxidative Activities of Samultang Ingredient Extracts
ChoI, Mi-Ae ; Kim, Mi-Lim ; Park, Chan-Sung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 52~58
The purpose of this research relates to the development of natural preservatives. Here, Samultang ingredients (Rehmannia glutinosa, Cnidium officinale, Paeonia lactiflora and Angelica gigas) were extracted with distilled water and 70% ethanol, and the antibacterial and antioxidative activities of the extracts were tested. The highest polyphenol contents were found in the water and ethanol extracts of Paeonia lactiflora (100 g) at 843.2 mg and 721.1 mg, respectively (p<0.05). The ethanol extract of Cnidium officinale demonstrated antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, and that from Paeonia lactiflora against S. aureus. The electron donating abilities (EDA) of the water extracts ranged from 67 to 84%, and those of the ethanol extracts ranged from 68 to 84% at 1,000 ppm. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of the water extracts ranged from 47 to 50%, and those of the ethanol extracts ranged from 50 to 56% at 1,000 ppm. The nitrite scavenging abilities (NSA) of the water extracts at 1,000 ppm of the water extracts ranged from 30 to 49%, and those of the ethanol extracts ranged from 42 to 54% at pH 1.2, respectively. The NSAs of the extracts were highest at pH 1.2, and then decreased with increasing pH. The highest levels of antibacterial and antioxidant activity occurred with the water and ethanol extracts of Paeonia lactiflora, which had the highest polyphenol content among the Samultang ingredients. Over all, the ethanol extracts of the Samultang ingredients had higher activities than the water extracts. Considering the combined results, one can conclude that Samultang ingredient extracts would be useful as natural preservatives in the development of health foods.
Effects of Sea Tangle Extract and Sea Tangle Yogurt on Constipation Relief
Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Kim, Soon-Im ; Han, Young-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 59~67
In an effort to make a functional and stable yogurt, this study investigated the improvement effects of sea tangle extract and sea tangle yogurt on intestinal function. The intestinal improvement effect of the extract was measured by the charcoal meal transit method, employing Balb/C mice. And constipation relief was compared utilizing the loperamide-induced constipation method, employing SD rats. Charcoal meal transit was remarkably increased in the mice receiving sea tangle extract as compared to the controls. The constipation relief effects of the sea tangle and sea tangle yogurt were evaluated by measuring fecal amounts in the rats after adding them to water. The fecal contents increased remarkably in the sea tangle administered rat groups as compared to the control group. In addition, different yogurt samples were used to evaluate the characteristics of the sea tangle yogurt. During storage, pH slightly decreased in the yogurt with sea tangle as well as without. At the same time, acidity slowly increased as the storage duration increased. As time elapsed, the amounts of viable cells increased in both yogurts (with and without sea tangle). In the sensory evaluation, significant differences were shown between the sea tangle yogurt and the control for color, flavor, sweetness, and overall quality. Overall, based on the combined results of the intestinal function effects and sensory evaluation, the 0.25% sea tangle yogurt proved to be superior.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Spirulina added Yogurt
Shin, Yu-Mi ; Son, Chan-Wok ; Sim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~75
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of yogurt containing spirulina. Yogurt base was prepared from skim milk added with
spirulina powder and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus : L. bulgaricus = 1 : 1) at
for 12 hr. Kiwi puree and oligosaccharides were then added. The addition of 1% spirulina powder stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria, which showed the highest viable cell count (
CFU/mL), and increased the titratable acidity (1.10%). The viscosity range of the yogurt was 6,000 to 9,000 cP, and the sugar content of the yogurt was around 18
. The antioxidant activities were determined using the DPPH method, and the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the yogurt containing spirulina was higher than that of the control. The sensory evaluation scores for appearance, odor, taste, overall acceptability and buying intention were higher in the yogurt containing 0.25% spirulina than in the other groups. The amount of macronutrients in the yogurt containing spirulina was higher than that in the control. In addition, the amounts of micronutrients in the yogurt containing spirulina was significantly increased. According to these results, the optimum concentration of spirulina powder is around 0.25%.
Optimization of Iced Cookie with Arrowroot Powder Using Response Surface Methology
Lee, Ji-Hee ; Soung, Yun-Hee ; Lee, Sun-Mee ; Jung, Hee-Sun ; Paik, Jae-Eun ; Joo, Na-Mi ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 76~83
The aim of this study was to use arrowroot powder to develop a recipe for a nutritional cookie having the optimal composition of ingredients and texture to elict a strong preference response in all age groups. Wheat flour was partially substituted with arrowroot powder to reduce the wheat flour content of the cookie. Measurements were made and analyzed according to the Response Surface Methodology technique, which showed 16 experimental points including 2 replicates for arrowroot powder, yellow sugar and butter. The compositional and functional properties of the test were measured, and the values obtained were applied to a mathematical model. A canonical form and perturbation plot showed the influence of each ingredient on the final mixture product. The result of sensory evaluation showed very significant values for color (p<0.01), appearance (p<0.001), texture (p<0.05), overall quality (p<0.05), and flavor (p<0.05). Instrumental analysis showed significant values for lightness (p<0.001), redness (p<0.01), yellowness (p<0.01) and spread ratio (p<0.001). The optimal sensory ratios were determined to be 15g for the arrowroot powder, 70 g for sugar and 80 g for butter.
Salinity and Consumption Patterns of Kimchi and Soup
Stew in Jeonju Area
Song, Mi-Ran ; Lee, Kyung-Ja ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 84~91
In this study, Kimchi, soup and stew samples were collected from May to June, 2007, in the Jeonju area, and their salinity levels were analyzed. In addition, housewives were surveyed via questionnaire to assess food behaviors and consumption patterns. The average salinity of the Kimchi samples was
. The average salinity of the soup/stew samples was
in the broth portion and
in the homogenized mixture of both broth and solids. The average salinity of all types of soup was
, and that for stews was
the average salinity of the stew was significantly higher than that of the soup (p<0.001). Beanpaste soup had a significantly higher average salinity
than clear soup
(p<0.05). The Food behavior scores of the respondents, with regard to sodium intake and salty taste preference, showed significant positive correlations to the salinity of the soup and stew samples (p<0.01). The consumption patterns of the Kimchi and soup/stews were also analyzed to determine whether there was a relationship to the saltiness of the food samples. The respondents were divided into two groups for each food category: Kimchi groups of below 2.0% salinity and above 2.1% salinity, soup/stew groups of below 0.8% salinity and above 0.9% salinity. The below 0.8% salinity soup/stew group used salt or soy sauce in meals significantly less frequently (p<0.01) than the above 0.9% salinity group. The lower salinity Kimchi and soup/stew groups gave significantly higher scores regarding answers that their Kimchi was 'bland' (p<0.05). The types of frequently consumed Kimchi were determined as Korean cabbage, Welsh, wild greens, radish, KKak Du Ki, and Yol Mu Kimchi. When compared to the above 2.1% salinity Kimchi group, the below 2.0% salinity Kimchi group gave higher scores regarding answers that they consumed 'more than half the broth in the bowel' and also gave significantly higher (p<0.01) scores in answering that they consumed only the solid ingredients, leaving the broth.
Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Soypaste Salad Dressing Stored at Two Different Temperatures
Shim, Hyun-Jung ; Shon, Chan-Wok ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Kang, Eun-Young ; Lee, Kun-Jong ; Lee, Jeung-Hee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 92~98
In this study, salad dressing was prepared with added soypaste and its quality characteristics were evaluated. In terms of nutrient composition, the soypaste dressing contained higher levels of protein, minerals, and vitamins, and fewer calories, as compared to commercial mayonnaise. In addition, sensory evaluations revealed that the soypaste dressing received higher scores for flavor, taste, viscosity, and over-all preference than the commercial mayonnaise. The viscosity and emulsion stability of the freshly made soypaste salad dressing were 2,400 cP and 80%, respectively. And during 8 weeks of storage at
, the viscosity and emulsion stability values remained similar to those of freshly made dressing. With prolonged storage time, the Hunter's color b-value slightly increased, whereas the L- and a-values slightly decreased. In terms of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition were 2- to 3-fold higher in the soypaste salad dressing as compared to the commercial mayonnaise. And the soypaste dressing's antioxidant activity increased according to the storage temperature and time. Total microbial numbers increased to 6.2 log CFU/mL in the soypaste dressing, but E. coli was not detected. Overall, the results suggest that soypaste salad dressing could be introduced as a commercial product.
Storage Characteristic Comparison of Laver-wrapped Rice and Laver-wrapped Rice with Vinegar
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kang, Sun-Jeong ; Hahn, Young-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 99~105
Laver-wrapped rice and laver-wrapped rice containing a vinegar blend (vinegar:sugar:water:salt = 5:2:2:1) were prepared and their degrees of aging from 10 to
, total cell numbers, and total coliforms were examined and compared. The total cell numbers of the laver-wrapped rice increased to 1 log cfu/g at 36 hours, and the total cell numbers of the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar had increased to within 48 hours. At
for 24 hrs, the total cell numbers for the laver-wrapped rice had increased to 5 log cfu/g: whereas trhe total cell numbers of the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar(5ml of vinegar marinade mixed into 100g of steamed rice), stored at the same conditions had not increased. In the vinegar-marinated rice (2ml/100g rice), microorganisms appeared at 18 hours. However, at the concentration of 5ml/l00g of rice, microorganisms were not observed at 24 hours. Coliforms did not appear in the laver-wrapped rice nor in the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar(prepared at 10ml/100g) until 48 hours. When stored at 10 and
, no microorganisms were found in the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar until 48 hours, respectively. However, at
, microorganisms were observed in the laver-wrapped rice from 24 hours, and from 48 hours in the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar. These results suggest that laver-wrapped rice should be consumed within one day. The number of microorganisms inside the laver-wrapped rice reached 6 log cfu/g by 24 hours, but the increase in the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar was slower. The aging(% damaged starch) of the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar(5ml/100g the rice) stored at
was reduced, with 3% damaged starch at 24 hours. Consumer evaluations revealed that the laver-wrapped rice prepared with 5ml of the vinegar blend received higher scores for flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptance as compared to the control. In particular, significantly higher scores were given for taste, texture, and overall acceptability. In summary, the laver-wrapped rice with vinegar had an extended shelf-life(more than 1 day) at storage temperatures of
, as well as reduced retrogradation. In addition, based on consumer evaluations, adding vinegar to laver-wrapped rice laver is effective for increasing overall acceptability.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Quality of Cooked Spinach During Storage
Kim, Min-Hee ; Yang, Yun-Hyoung ; Sim, Hyun-Jung ; Son, Chan-Wok ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 106~113
This study investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on microbial, physical, and sensory qualities as well as the antioxidant activity of cooked spinach. At 3 kGy of gamma irradiation, microbial growth was inhibited until 4 weeks and 5 days at storage temperatures of 4 and
, respectively. The dose of 2 kGy did not significantly affect hardness; however, Hunter color system values for lightness, redness, and yellowness were changed. Low dose gamma-irradiation (up to 2 kGy) did not significantly affect the antioxidant activity of the cooked spinach. Also, based on a triangle sensory test, the gamma-irradiated cooked spinach was not significantly different from the control. These results, suggest that applying gamma irradiation to cooked vegetables at doses lower than 2 kGy can be recommended to extend shelf-life and maintain quality.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Quality of Kongnamul Muchim(Cooked Soybean Sprouts) During Storage.
Kim, Mi-Sun ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Yang, Yun-Hyoung ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Lim, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 114~120
In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbial, physical characteristics, sensory qualities and antioxidant activity of Kongnamul Muchim(cooked soybean sprouts) were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 3 kGy inhibited microbial growth until 4 weeks of storange at
and until 5 days at and
. The 3 kGy dose did not significantly affect the hardness of the sprouts; however Hunter's color values for lightness, redness and yellowness were changed. Low-dose gamma irradiation(up to 2 kGy) did not significantly affect the antioxidant activity of the Kongnamul Muchim. Also, based on a triangle sensory test, the gamma irradiated Kongnamul Muchim was not significantly different from the control. From these results, it is suggested that the applying gamma irradiation to cooked vegetables at doses lower than 3 kGy is recommended to extend shelf-life and maintain quality characteristics.
Dietary Behavior and Dietary Fiber Intake of High School Girls in Chungbuk Area
Kang, Yu-Ju ; Kim, Hyang-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 121~131
This study was performed to examine the food behavior and dietary fiber intakes of high school girls using questionnaires and 24-hr recall method. Collected sample were 263 girls from 4 different high schools. The dietary intakes were analyzed by the DS24 WIN program. The average height and weight of the respondents were
kg. The average BMI was
which was within the normal range. The breakfast skipping rate was 39.2% and the reason of breakfast skipping were lack of time(50.0%), irregular meal time due to eating between meals(17.0%) and poor appetite(13.7%). The average daily energy intake of the respondents was 1741kcal. Beside protein, phosphorus, iron, niacin, vitamin A, and B1, all other nutrients intake level were below the recommended intake(RI). Average calcium and folate intakes were below the EAR as of
respectively. The average dietary fiber intake of the subjects was
g, between 3.4g-35.2 g, and the respondents coumed
g/kcal of dietary fiber. The main sources of dietary fiber were rice and kimchi which supplied 14.75% and 13.66% of total dietary fiber respectively. Also the major food groups supplying dietary fiber were vegetables and cereals, 36.90% and 31.06% of total dietary fiber respectively.
Changes in the Functional Properties of Spices and Herbs during Cooking
Lee, Jeung-Hee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 1, 2008, Pages 132~156
The basic effects of herbs and spices when applied during cooking include flavoring, pungency, coloring, and deodorizing/masking effects. Besides these basic effects, herbs and spices have antioxidant, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical, and nutritional properties. This review briefly describes the flavor component characteristics as well as biological functions of herbs and spices during cooking and processing, with specific focus on garlic and Brassica vegetables.