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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of food and cookery science
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Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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The Transformation of Saponin Platycodi Radix by Aspergillus niger and Anti-oxidation Evaluation of the Transformed Metabolites
Kang, Ju-Hui ; Ji, Gnu-Uk ; Wui, Hye-Jung ; Hwang, In-Kyeung ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 729~734
The principal objective of this study was to assess the possibility of transforming platycodin glycosides using various strains of probiotic bateria and edible fungi. Among the experimental microorganisms assess herein, Aspergillus niger KCTC 6909 evidenced the highest level of platycodin glycoside hydrolysis during fermentation. Particularly in cases in which the organism was incubated in the presence of rhamnose and platycodins. In order to produce the enzyme from Aspergillus niger effectively, various incubation conditions were assessd in order to determine the optimal conditions. The cytotoxicity on V79-4 (Chinese- hamster lung fibroblasts, normal cells) of platycodin was reduced significantly after conversion (concentration on
); DPPH radical scavenging activity before conversion was 35.05%, and was 57.44% afterward. We noted significantly higher conversion activity inhibiting oxidative degradation. In conclusion, these results indicate that the proper combination of food microorganisms -and fermentation conditions can result in an increase in the glycoside hydrolysis of platycodin the resultant products of which reduce cytotoxicity- and increase anti-oxidant activity.
The Quality Characteristics of Yogurt Add Supplemented with Low Grade Dried-Persimmon Extracts
Ko, Seo-Hyun ; Kim, Soon-Im ; Han, Young-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 735~741
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of yogurt to which had been added extracts of low quality dried persimmons, in an attempt to expand the range of use of low-quality dried persimmons. In the results of our sensory evaluation, our optimal results were attained with the addition of 5 g of dried persimmon extracts, 90 g of water, 20 g of oligosaccharide, and 50 g of fructose at a specific level of 1000 mL. During the 20-day storage period, the pH value of the dried persimmon yogurt was lowest on the 15th day in the control group and the 20th day in the yogurt to which 0.5% extract had been added. The titratable acidity was lowest by a significant margin on the 10th day for all types of yogurt. Viscosity assays showed a stable level of acidity over different storage periods. The number of viable cells demonstrated a trend toward increase with passing time, and the number of viable cells in the dried-persimmon yogurt was higher than that in the control yogurt.
Physico-chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Chungkukjang Powder Added Hamburger Patty
Lee, Yong-Mi ; Lyu, Eun-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 742~747
This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of the hamburger patty to which Chungkukjang powder (CJP; 0, 2, 4, and 6%) had been added. The contents of moisture, crude protein and crude ash in the control group(0%) were significantly(p<0.01) lower than that of the CJP patties, but crude lipid content in the control group was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the treated group. The values of L(brightness) and b(yellowness) of the control group were lower than that of the CJP patties, but a-value(redness) of the control group exhibited the highest score. The texture of the control group was significantly(p<0.05) harder than that of the CJP patties. Among the mean scores of sensory characteristics of samples, the patty with 2% CJP powder showed the highest sensory score, and also, had significantly(p<0.05) higher chewiness than the control group. In preference, the control group showed a higher score than the treated group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The patty with 2% CJP had significantly (p<0.01) higher consumer sensory score in texture than that of markets. The results showed that the CJP patties could contribute toward complementing the nutrients of hamburgers on sale. Furthermore, the results of this study can contribute toward improving the nutritional and functional well-being of products.
The Antioxidants Activities of Hot-Water Extracts of Wa-song (Orostachys japonicus A. Berger) on Edible oil and Fat
Shin, Jung-Hye ; Lee, Soo-Jung ; Cha, Ji-Young ; Seo, Jong-Kwon ; Cheon, Eun-Woo ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 748~756
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activity of hot water extracts of wa-song (Orostachys japonicus A. Berger) dried using hot air (HWE) and frozen (FWE). Varying levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/100 g) of HWE and FWE were added to soybean oil and lard. Chromaticity, anisidine value, acid value, peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value in oils were measured periodically during their storage for 28 days at
. The chromaticity of edible oils showed a general increas with prolonged storage as well increasing levels of extracts. The anisidine value was not significantly increased during storage for 14 days, but was significantly increased after storage for 21 days in soybean oil and lard. The anisidine value of HWE on soybean oil was
after storage for 28 days its value was lower than that of the control and buthylated hydroxy anisol (BHT). The antioxidant activity of HWE was found to be more effective than that of FWE. The acid value of HWE was significantly increased during storage from 14 to 21 days in soybean oil and from 7 to 14 days in lard. The antioxidant activity of FWE was particulary effective at the primary stage of the reaction system of lard storage. POV was highly increased during the storage periods between 7 and 14 days in soybean oil. The antioxidant activity in all the samples tested did not significantly increase after storage for 14 days, except when 0.1 g/ 100 g of FWE added to lard. TBA values of all the samples were lower than that of control and 0.02% BHT during their storage. The antioxidant activities of wa-song within the reaction system of oils were more effective in soybean oil than in lard.
Rheological Properties of Korean Wheat Composite Flour and Dough with Nelumbo nucifera G. Tea Powder
Kim, Young-Sook ; Jung, Seung-Tai ; Kim, Mun-Yong ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 757~762
In this study, korean wheat composite flour and dough were prepared with 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6% Nelumbo nucifera G. tea powder(NNTP). The samples and a control were then compared qualitatively in terms of moisture, protein, ash, and wet gluten content. The farinogram, amylogram, and extensogram characteristics of the dough were also examined, in order to determine the optimal ratio of NNTP for the formulation. According to our results, the moisture content of the flour decreased with increasing NSPP content, whereas its protein and ash content, resistance, and R/E ratio at 135 min of extensogram increased. The NNTP samples had a significantly higher water absorption and weakness of farinogram and maximum resistance at 45, 90, and 135 min. Additionally, samples had an R/E ratio at 45 min of extensogram, 90 min less than the control group. However, stability of the farinogram, temperature of maximum and maximum viscosity of the amylogram, and extensibility of the extensogram showed the reverse effect. The control and NNTP samples showed significant differences in gelatinization beginning temperature of the amylogram, while development time of the farinogram was not significantly different. With regard to the extensogram characteristics of the dough, the area of the control and 1.5% NNTP increased with increasing testing time, whereas at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% NNTP, extensibility, and resistance, maximum resistance, and R/E ratio of control and NNTP samples decreased. An area of 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% NNTP and extensibility of 1.5% NNTP were not significantly different among the testing times. In conclusion, these results show that 1.5% NNTP may prove very useful as a substitute for korean wheat flour where the production of korean wheat white bread is concerned. It may also provide good nutritional and functional properties.
Investigating the Efficiency of Various Consumer-acceptance Testing Methods while Developing a Ready-to-eat Meal
Shin, Weon-Sun ; Kim, Ji-Na ; Kim, Kyeong-Mi ; Park, Jin-Hee ; Chung, Jin-A ; Chung, Seo-Jin ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 763~770
A taste-testing method that accurately measures consumer-acceptance is critical during the course of the product development stage. Although various types of consumer-acceptance tests are available, the testing protocol appropriate for measuring the acceptance of ready-to-eat-meals (REM) has not yet been verified. In this study, various hedonic taste-testing methods (9-point hedonic scaling, best-worst scaling, open ended response) were compared for their efficiency and power in identifying the preferred REM menu of consumers. Forty-four consumers evaluated the acceptance of five types of REM menu samples consisting of a wide variety of flavors. Consumers initially used the 9-point hedonic rating method to choose the best and the worst sample among the 5 meals tested. Finally, consumers were asked to fill out open-ended comments where they could freely describe their liking and disliking of each sample. The results showed that the REM menu acceptance measured by the 9-point hedonic method that rated best-worst scaling exhibited a similar preference pattern. The open-ended response method could not provide a quantifiable acceptance data but was able to provide supplementary information regarding the limitations of the samples and therefore, provide a general idea of the direction of improvement during the product development.
The Sensory Evaluation and Practical Use of Kochujang Sauce Adopted to Home Use Test
Lim, Seong-Il ; Han, Kyung-Soo ; Cho, Gyeong-Hyeon ; Seo, Kyung-Mi ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 771~779
The purpose of the study was assessing Kochujang sauces(BBQ & Chicken) using a Home Use Test(HUT) focused on England food consumer. To achieve of the purpose, 58 England food consumers were selected by CCFRA's customer database. The qualification of the sample was responsible for the households' main grocery shopping, cooking Oriental/ Far Eastern cuisines at home, enjoying hot/spicy chilli based food and would be willing to buy hot chilli based Oriental sauce. 3 times of HUT were accomplished. The test was continued during 3 weeks, and each test was continued during one week. To check the sensory evaluation results on these sauces, 9 point hedonic scale and JAR(Just About Right) were used. The frequency analysis was adopted for the study. The results of a study were as followed. The overall satisfaction(upper 7point) on BBQ sauce was 60%, and the chicken sauce was 55.1%. The sweetness, hot taste, and BBQ aroma were suitable as a upper 40% using JAR scale. On purchase intention, BBQ & Chicken was slightly increased. These sauces were proper lunch & Dinner time. Also, good for dip, stir fry, and marinade. The result of put to use the sauces on food material as followed. BBQ sauce was proper Chicken(45.5%), vegetable(29.9%), and turkey(19%) in the order named. In case of the chicken sauce was ordered chicken(46.2%), vegetable(27.5%), beef(17.5%).
A Study on the Effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Revisiting Intention, and Word-of-Mouth Communication Regarding Korean Hotel Restaurants
Min, Kye-Hong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 780~787
The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of service quality in a Korean restaurant in a Five Star Hotel in Metropolitan city causes on customers satisfaction, revisiting intentions and word of mouth communication. As a component of the study, 344 customers who had visited restaurants at 4 hotels were selected for our Q&A research, Our investigation was conducted largely frequency analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. First, as one of our study results, factors causing effects in service quality can be categorized into human service factors, physical service factors, and menu service factors. Second, the service quality of Korean restaurants has been found to exert effects on customer satisfaction, revisiting intentions, and word-of-mouth communication. Third, customer satisfaction has been determined to exert significant effects on revisiting intentions and word of mouth communication. Fourth, customer revisiting intentions has been found have been shown to exert significant effects on word-of-mouth communication. As one of the limits of this study, some difficulties did occur when attempting to implement Q&A research on customers who enjoyed restaurant services, as there was not sufficient space to interview them. As another limit, this study was conducted only with test subjects who had visited Korean restaurants in Five Star Hotels the results of our study cannot, then, be considered represent active of all Korean restaurants. Consistent with this future studies will need to be conducted not only with Korean restaurants, but also with Japanese, Chinese, and Western restaurants.
A Survey on Preference and Satisfaction of the Customers Purchasing Ready-to-Eat Foods
Chae, Mi-Jin ; Bae, Hyun-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 788~800
This study was executed in order to analyze the purchasing practices, preferences, and satisfaction of consumers purchasing ready-to-eat foods. The study was executed from the
2007 in the Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do area. Questionnaires were distributed among 480 people. Of these, 410 questionnaires were collected and applied to a statistical analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using the SPSS package program (version 14.0 for windows). The results of the statistical analyses were as follows. 42.4% males and 57.6% females participated in this study. The biggest motivation behind the purchase of ready-to-eat foods was convenience, 51.0%. The most common venues where these foods were purchased were supermarkets or discount marts, 67.6%. The ratio of substituting ready-to-eat foods for meals was 70.5%. The consumption practices of ready-to-eat foods of the consumers according to purchase place illustrated significant differences in the average expense per person each time (p<0.01), co-consumer (p<0.001), and age (p<0.05). The purchase preference was high with kimbaps (73.4%), hamburgers (29.8%), sushis (29.0%), and sandwiches (27.9%). Unmarried individuals showed a significantly higher overall liking and satisfaction for ready-to-eat foods than married individuals (p<0.001). Individuals living without a family was significantly higher overall liking and satisfaction than individuals living with a family (p<0.05). Individuals who spent an average of 10,000 won per time showed a significantly higher overall liking and satisfaction than those who spent below 10,000 won per time (p<0.05). In the presence of a friend as a co-consumer of ready-to-eat foods, satisfaction was significantly high (p<0.01). Consumers who purchased ready-to-eat foods at meal times, showed a significantly higher overall liking, compared to those who purchased such food products in between meal times (p<0.01). The preference and satisfaction degree of the consumer must be reflected by product development, quality improvement and marketing plan establishment.
Comparison of Hyang-Sa and Bulchunwee Rituals and Food in Kyungbuk - Focused on Daegu and Andong Areas -
Choi, Jeong-Hee ; Park, Geum-Soon ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 801~810
The principal objective of this study was to assess Korea's traditional ritual food culture, and to compare two types of ancestral rites the Hyang-Sa and Bool-cheon-wi rites which were held in the Daegu and Andong regions of Korea. In this study, we describe the performance of the Bool-cheon-wi rites held by two head families located near the Andong area namely, the head family of Seoae Ryu Seong-Ryong(1542-1607)(Seoae) who was well-respected for his writings and personality, and the head family of Dangye Ha Wee-Ji(1412-1456)(Dangye) who was well-known and famous as one of the members of the Sa-ryuk-sin. This research was conducted via diredt engagement in these memorial services and several interviews with the families. The results were summarized as follows; Foods used in the Hyang-sa rites including Mae(bap), Kook, Jaban(Jogee), Po(dried fish), Juck, boiled and seasoned vegetables, fruits, confections, and liquor. Jobap and Ssalbap were used as Mae at SD(Seo Dalsung), and PMPH(Pahoi Myogul Habin Park) used Jo, Hyunmy, Pi and Susu in the raw. The dishes on the table were arranged as follows. A wine cup was placed in the first row, Po(a dried pollack), and jujube and nuts in the second row, Ryukpo(slices of dried beef), Sangeogogi were set at the third row, and Soegogi, pork, Mu, and Minary were placed in the fourth row, and the head of the pig was placed in the center of the table at SD. A wine cup, Soegogi, and pork were positioned in the first row, Mu, Minary, Pi and Susu were placed in the second row, and Jogee, Jo, and Hyunmy were placed in the third row at PMPH. The sacrificial foods offered for Bool-cheon-wi rites were as follows; Mae(bap) Kook noodle Jogee Tang(stew) Po Juck Tucks boiled, seasoned and salted vegetables Jeon fruit confectioneries liquor(chungju). The head family of Seoae Yu Seong-Ryong utilized 5 types of Tang(meat stew, fish stew, chicken stew, vegetable stew, seafood stew), whereas the head family of Dangye Ha Wee-Ji utilized 3 kinds of Tang(meat stew, fish stew, vegetable stew). As a basic Tuck, Shi-roo-tuck(a steamed rice cake), piled up to 25 layers, was primarily utilized. In particular, Jung-Gae(Seoae's favorite food) was placed on the table. For grilled-meat food(Juck), Yu's family used raw meat and Ha's family the half-cooked meat. The main types of Jucks used were meat-Juck, fish-Juck, chicken-Juck, and these were not served one by one. Hyang-sa and Bool-cheon-wi rites have an the educational function, in that they allow for the carrying out of filial duties by a heartfelt performance of performing the ceremony, by taking great care from the pre-rite preparations to the post-rite period. In addition, these rites have various meanings, as events that strengthen the ties of blood relations of ancestors and themselves, and to promote and harmonize family friendships, they may also have religious meaning in the culture, as prayers are offered that all the family's descendants may be blessed, live long and enjoy abundance whlie respecting their ancestors. As for the role of Hyang-sa and Bool-cheon-wi rites in today's nuclear family society, it can be said that these rites remain especially important as a method to strengthen community consciousness by fostering an understanding of the meaning of existence itself, and thus inspiring the roots of consciousness.
Studies on the Quality Characteristics and Shelf-life of Maejackwa Containing Nuts and Seeds Prepared by Baking Method
Chung, Hai-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Joon ; Baek, Jung-Eun ; Sung, Dae-Kyung ; Song, Hwa-Youn ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Kim, Gyu-Heun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 811~817
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking method on the quality and shelf-life of Maejakgwa containing nuts and seeds. Four different types of nuts and seeds (almond, cashewnut, coconut, and sunflower seed) were added to flour, and baking method was applied to prepare the Maejakgwa, physicochemical properties of which were then evaluated. The proximate composition analysis demonstrated that crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were higher in the Maejakgwa containing nuts and seeds than in the control group. The lightness (L) value of the control Maejakgwa was lower than that observed in the groups containing nuts and seeds. Maejakgwa made with cashewnut, coconut, and sunflower seed evidenced higher yellowness (b) values than were recorded in the control and coconut groups. The incorporation of cashewnut, coconut and sunflower seed into the Maejakgwa lowered the hardness values (p<0.05). Our consumer test demonstrated that Maejakgwa prepared with almond was the most highly preferred, and the control group was the least favored. After 30 days of storage at
, the peroxide value of the Maejakgwa containing sunflower seed was substantially higher than in any other groups, thereby suggesting that the addition of sunflower seeds resulted in accelerated lipid oxidation. No noticeable changes in peroxide values were observed in the groups prepared with coconut and cashewnut during storage time. The acid value increased with increasing storage time, and the addition of sunflower seed evidenced the highest values as compared to other groups.
The Effect of 6 Sigma Program on Culinary Quality Performance, Work Commitment, and Customer Loyalty in the Culinary Division
Kim, Hyun-Mook ; Yoo, Young-Jin ; Ha, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 818~828
A recurrent theme within the literature on the 6 Sigma program is the study of its effect on organizational performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 Sigma on culinary quality performance, work commitment, and customer loyalty in the culinary division of hotels and family restaurants. The samples of this study included the employees of the culinary division of hotels and family restaurants that implemented or were about to implement the 6 Sigma program. A total of 248 questionnaires were analyzed with statistical methods of factor analysis, reliability test, and regression analysis. The findings of this study showed that the 6 Sigma program affected the culinary quality performance and work commitment of culinary division employees. Also, the 6 Sigma program, culinary quality performance and work commitment affected customer loyalty. Furthermore, work commitment affected culinary quality performance. Based on these research findings, it is required that the culinary division of hotels and family restaurants should incorporate the 6 Sigma program. For this purpose, good quality data should be collected with sufficient preparation procedures, and task force team should be made. Moreover, experts in this field should be cultivated, with the training of employees in mind. It is also crucial that the current quality of product and services be measured and that all the employees of the culinary division participate in the implementation of the 6 Sigma program. The intervention and heavy participation of the top management and head of the culinary division is expected for the successful implementation of 6 Sigma program.
Quality Characteristics of Allium victorialis Mul-kimchi during Fermentation
Park, Geum-Soon ; Kim, Gui-Sun ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 829~836
This study was carried out to investigate the properties of mul-kimchi made with allium victorialis. Chemical and sensory characteristics were determined during fermentation at
for 4 weeks. The pH decreased with an increase in total acidity. Mul-kinchi showed salinity properties ranging within
during fermentation. Hunter's color L, a-values were gradually decreased, but b-value was increased. In the texture, hardness and strength decreased as the aging time increased. The numbers of total- and lactic bacteria cells rapidly increased up to the second week, and this slowly increased thereafter. Sensory evaluation of mul-kinchi was favored for appearance, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptability during the second week. Sensory properties of well ripened odor and sour taste negatively correlated with physicochemical properties of pH and hardness. Sour odor and sour taste were positively correlated with acidity and total- and lactic acid bacteria.
Quality Characteristics of Jeungpyun Manufactured by Ginseng Makgeolli
Sung, Jin-Hee ; Han, Myung-Joo ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 837~848
The objectives of this study were to investigate the quality of ginseng makgeolli during the fermentation and aging period, and to develop Jeungpyun manufactured by ginseng makgeolli. Four different amounts of ginseng powder (0, 2, 4 and 6 g) were added to the filtered mash which was fermented for 4 days at
and then aged for 6 days at
The quality of Jeungpyun batter containing 0, 2, 4 and 6% ginseng during fermentation, and the sensory, color and textural characteristics of ginseng Jeungpyun were analyzed. The pH of jeungpyun batter without ginseng was lower than the other batters. During 4 hours of fermentation of the batter at
, the pH of the batter significantly decreased. The expansion volume of the batter without ginseng increased 4.11 times after 4 hours of fermentation, whereas batters with 2, 4, and 6% ginseng increased 1.70 times. The L value of Jeungpyun decreased by increasing the concentration of ginseng However the a and b values of Jeungpyun significantly increased with an increase in the concentration of ginseng. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that Jeungpyun with 2% ginseng had the highest flavor, taste and overall acceptability scores. In the textural analysis, the hardness of Jeungpyun increased by increasing the concentration of ginseng after 6 days of storage at
. This study showed that Jeunpyun containing 2% ginseng was the optimum addition level.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk with Concentrated Sweet Pumpkin Powder
Jeong, Ki-Young ; Kim, Mun-Yong ; Chun, Soon-Sil ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 849~855
DPPH radical scavenging activities were 66.80% by hot water extract and 41.86% by 80% methanol extract. Inhibitions of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were 91.09% by hot water extract and 75.20% by 80% methanol extract. In this study, Sulgidduk samples were prepared with 1, 3, 5, and 7% concentrated sweet pumpkin powder (CSPP), and a control were examined for quality characteristics such as moisture content, water activity, color, textural characteristics, and sensory qualities, in order to determine the optimal ratio of CSPP in the formulation. The samples containing CSPP exhibited significantly higher moisture content than the control group. Water activity was not significantly different among the Sulgidduk samples. For the color, the control group presented significantly higher lightness as compared to the samples containing CSPP. The samples containing 1 and 3% CSPP had significantly higher greenness than the samples containing 5 and 7% CSPP. Yellowness increased as the level of CSPP content increased. In terms of textural characteristics, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were highest at the 1% substitution level, while lowest at the 3% level. The CSPP samples presented significantly higher adhesiveness, springiness, and cohesiveness than the control group. In the consumer acceptance and characteristic intensity rating test, the control group showed significantly higher color and flavor as compared to the CSPP samples. Pumpkin flavor, delicious taste, and off-flavor increased with increasing amounts of CSPP. Softness, overall acceptability, and gumminess were not significantly different among the various samples tested. Sweetness was highest at the 5% substitution level, while lowest at the 1% level. In conclusion, the results indicate that substituting
CSPP to Sulgidduk is optimal, providing good DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of ACE as well as reasonably high overall acceptability.
Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk by the Addition of Tofu
Ryu, Yung-Ki ; Kim, Yeon-O ; Kim, Kyung-Mee ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 856~860
We prepared Tofu-sulgi by adding tofu and then analyzed the final product in terms of its nutritional quality, rheological characteristics and sensory tests. While the calorie quantity of Sulgi with Tofu was relatively low compared to that of Baeksulgi, it contained the dietary fiber, calcium and iron that were not present in Baeksulgi. Since Baeksulgi holds a large amount of carbohydrates, it shows a higher weight due to its dense fiber. On the other hand, Sulgi with Tofu showed a relatively low level of tofu protein despite the increased amount of tofu protein. This demonstrated the soft characteristics of Sulgi with Tofu. Also, the results of the sensory test showed that Sulgi with Tofu exhibited a higher preference than Baeksulgi in terms of its taste, flavor and fiber content. The preparation method of Sulgi with Tofu in this study used the natural grinding of tofu without removing the moisture. Also the use of both non-glutinous and glutinous rice flour that can be obtained easily in the public market, are convenient due to their characteristics of easy storage and no property change. Therefore, the preparation method of Sulgi with Tofu is quite convenient as compared to that of traditional Dduk (Korean rice cake) including Baeksulgi. From the perspectives of nutritional content, rheological characteristics and taste preference, Sulgi with Tofu fared better than Baeksulgi. Considering the overall quality characteristics of Sulgi with Tofu, we believe that the addition of tofu could contribute positively toward the quality characteristics of Sulgi.
Health-Related Behaviors of Industry Workers Exposed to Unclean Work Environments and Changes in Nutritional Status in Response to Usual Pork Consumption
Kim, Mi-Young ; Cho, Kyung-Dong ; Han, Chan-Kyu ; Lee, Bog-Hieu ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 861~870
This study was conducted to evaluate the health status, life style, dietary habits and nutritional status of 44 industry workers that were routinely exposed to unclean environments while consuming 3 major pork dishes 2 times a week for 6 weeks. The health status, life style and dietary habits of the workers were investigated by a survey questionnaire, and the nutritional status was evaluated using the 24-hour recall method. Overall, the subjects reported that their health status was fairly good throughout the year, but that they felt dizziness and fatigue often. In general, the subjects did not exercise regularly and drank alcohol very often. The average daily energy intake increased from 1,708.3 kcal to 1,859.5 kcal without a change in the BMI or WHR when the respondents were fed pork dishes. However, the mineral intake did not differ significantly in response to the consumption of pork, although the Zn intake tended to increase. Moreover, the vitamin
, niacin, and E intakes increased after consuming pork(p<0.05), while the cholesterol intake decreased from 425.2 mg to 356.7 mg after eating pork(p<0.05). Additionally, both the fat intake and the PUFA intake increased after the consumption of pork with the intake of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increasing significantly(p<0.001). Finally, the intake of essential amino acids also increased significantly in response to the consumption of pork(p<0.01). Based on the results, regular consumption of pork dishes improved the nutritional status of industry workers without any adverse effect in terms of the intake of relative fat and cholesterol.
A Survey of the Preference for Korean Kimchi by Spanish Natives
Lee, Myung-Ki ; Jang, Dai-Ja ; Yang, Hye-Jung ; Jeong, Ja-Kyeong ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 871~875
This study was conducted to develop methods of promoting traditional Korean Kimchi globally. To accomplish this, 99 Spanish natives were surveyed for their sensory evaluation and awareness of Kimchi. The results revealed that a relatively high number (46.9%) of the respondents had eaten Korean Kimchi. After eating the Kimchi, women tended to provide a slightly higher overall acceptability than men. Furthermore, when the overall sensory evaluation was conducted, the characteristics of Kimchi that were most recognized were its red color, spicy smell and hot taste. In addition, 93.9% of the respondents said that Korean Kimchi was a suitable food based on its spicy flavor>chewing force>appearance>red color>fermented smell. However, 6.1 percent of the subjects responded that they did not find Kimchi appetizing due to its hot taste>fermented smell>chewing force. Interestingly, the hot taste was a common selection for the reason that individuals liked or disliked Kimchi. When ranked among traditional Spanish foods, Kimchi was reportedly similar to cooked cabbage, cooked bell peppers, cooked red peppers and Moheu ppikan, pickles, Spanish lettuce, chiseutora and oil pickled cheese, or to various vegetables pickled in vinegar. Taken together, the results of this study should facilitate the globalization of Kimchi. In addition, the findings of this study provide fundamental data that should assist in the development of a local style of Kimchi for Spain.
Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Green Tea Garlic Paste added Calcium
Son, Chan-Wok ; Jeon, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 876~881
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of green tea garlic paste added calcium. Garlic was heated with green tea and charcoal at high temperature (
) and high pressure (
) for 20 min, and then added several calcium sources (calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium lactate, mixed calcium, calcium powder). Calcium carbonate, mixed calcium or calcium powder significantly increased pH of green tea garlic paste (p<0.05). All kinds of calcium sources significantly increased the viscosity of green tea garlic paste (p<0.05). Solid soluble content of green tea garlic paste was increased only in calcium citrate and calcium powder groups. Lightness, redness and yellowness of green tea garlic paste with calcium were increased, compared with control group (green tea garlic paste without calcium). The antioxidant activities by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of green tea garlic paste added calcium citrate, calcium lactate or calcium carbonate group were much higher than those of the other control groups. The garlic odor and garlic taste by sensory test were significantly weaker in calcium carbonate or calcium citrate group (p<0.05). Based on these results, it was suggested that calcium carbonate or calcium citrate is appropriate material for deodorizing and fortifying agent for green tea garlic paste.
Quality Characteristics of Fresh Pasta Noodle Added with Red Hot Pepper Juice
Kim, Jung-Soo ; Hong, Jin-Sook ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 882~890
The present study investigated the influence of different volumes of red hot pepper juice on the quality characteristics of fresh Pasta noodle. Supplementation with 0% (control), 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, or 10% red hot pepper juice produced similar gelatinization characteristics of peak viscosity, temperature at peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and numerical value of breakdown. However, increasing concentrations of red hot pepper juice produced progressively and significantly low cold paste viscosity and setback. The chromaticity of wet and cooked noodles was significantly lower in L value and significantly higher in +a and +b values with increasing volumes of red hot pepper juice. The texture of fresh noodles displayed no significant differences in hardness, adhesiveness and chewiness. The springiness and cohesiveness were lower and higher with the increase of added red hot pepper juice, respectively, but the differences just attained significance. For cooked noodles, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness tended to be higher with increasing volumes of red hot pepper juice, but again the differences just attained significance. Cooking characteristics of weight, volume, moisture absorptive power and turbidity decreased with increasing volumes of red hot pepper juice. Sensory characteristics of acceptability including appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall-acceptability improved with increasing red hot pepper juice volume, in particular with 5% and 7.5%. Amylograph characteristics for initial paste temperature positively correlated with the texture characteristics for chewiness (p<0.05). Negatively correlated amylograph parameters included texture for springiness with for peak viscosity (p<0.01), texture for adhesiveness with hot paste viscosity (p<0.01) and breakdown with texture for adhesiveness, cohesiveness and chewiness (p<0.05).
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Commercial Soybean Sprouts
Shon, Hee-Kyung ; Jae, Eun-Joo ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Hee-Sun ; Byoun, Kwang-Eui ; Lee, Kyong-Ae ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 891~898
The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial film-packed soybean sprouts from domestic cultivars were investigated. The hardness of the cotyledons was higher than that of the hypocotyls in fresh and cooked soybean sprouts (Kongnamulmuchim). Furthermore, the color determination showed that the hypocotyls and cotyledons of the soybean sprouts had a light green color that was not eliminated by cooking. The acceptability of fresh soybean sprouts was negatively correlated with a beany odor, beany taste, and grassy taste, but positively correlated with a nutty odor, nutty taste, and sweet taste. In addition, the acceptability of boiled soybean sprouts was negatively correlated with a beany and grassy taste, and positively correlated with a nutty odor and taste. Furthermore, the acceptability of cooked soybean sprouts was negatively correlated with a beany odor, beany taste, grassy odor, and grassy taste, while it was positively correlated with a nutty odor and taste. Finally, the lipoxygenase activity of the cotyledons was higher than that of the hypocotyls in fresh and boiled soybean sprouts.
Quality Characteristics of Soybean Dasik with Spirulina
Kim, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Lee, Yun-Jin ; Kim, Mee-Ree ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 899~904
Dasik is a type of Korean traditional confectionery that is kneaded with various grains, nuts or herb flour and honey and then pressed with a decorative press. Soybeans are a rich in protein, lipids, dietary fiber, minerals and fat soluble vitamins. Spirulina is a functional food that contains protein, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber and pigments. In this study, soybean Dasik containing spirulina was developed in an attempt to provide an easy method of incorporating spirulina into daily dietary life. In addition, we evaluated the quality characteristics of the soybean Dasik with spirulina that was developed here. Specifically, 0, 10, 20 and 30% spirulina was added to the soybean powder that was used to prepare soybean Dasik. Soybean Dasik that contained 30% spirulina had a higher moisture content and lower hardness when compared to other groups. In addition, the L, a and b value decreased as the level of spirulina increased. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of soybean Dasik increased according to the increase in the addition of spirulina. Specifically, the
values of the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the control group were 76.6 mg/mL and 100.7 mg/mL, respectively, whereas these values were 26.3 mg/mL and 32.9 mg/mL, respectively, in Soybean Dasik that contained 30% spirulina. When a sensory evaluation was conducted, the overall preference decreased as the level of added spirulina increased. When the buying intension was evaluated, the control group had the highest score (7.8), followed by that of the Dasik that contained 20% spirulina (7.2) The buying intention was lowest for the Dasik that contained 30% spirulina. In conclusion, Soybean Dasik that contained up to 20% spirulina would be maketable.
Physico-chemical Properties of Gugija (Lycii fructus) Extracts
Shon, Hee-Kyung ; Lee, Young-Sang ; Park, Young-Hyun ; Kim, Mee-Jeong ; Lee, Kyong-Ae ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 905~911
Dried and roasted Gugija (Lycii fructus) were extracted with water, 50% ethanol and 100% ethanol, after which the physico-chemical properties of the extracts were evaluated. The extraction yield was higher when using water for the extraction solvent than when the other solvents were used, while the water extract of roasted Gugija had the highest yield. Furthermore the pH of the extracts increased as the ethanol concentration increased, and the pH of dried Gugija was higher than that of roasted Gugija when extracted using the same extraction solvent. The sugar concentrations of the extracts from dried and roasted Gugija were
, respectively. The total polyphenol contents of the extracts from the dried and roasted Gugija were
, respectively. Dried Gugija extract with water had a higher the total polyphenol contents than the other extract. The total polyphenol contents of roasted Gugija extracts were higher than those of dried Gugija, when using 50% or 100% ethanol for extraction solvent. The electron donating ability and total antioxidant activity of dried Gugija were
, respectively, whereas those of roasted Gugija were
, respectively. Dried and roasted Gugija extracts were higher electron donating ability and total antioxidant activity, when using water, and 50% or 100% ethanol, respectively. The predominant amino acid in all extracts was threonine. The essential amino acids constituted approximately
of the total amino acids of extracts from the dried and roasted Gugija, respectively. Finally, the total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities showed that optimal extraction solvent would be water, and 50% or 100% ethanol for dried and roasted Gugija, respectively.
Effect of Trehalose on the Shelf-Life of Backsulgies
Kim, Heh-Young ; Noh, Kwang-Seok ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 912~918
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of Backsulgies prepared using different ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of trehalose after 4 days of storage. As the concentration of trehalose increased, the moisture content of the Backsulgies decreased. Furthermore, increased levels of trehalose, resulted in significantly lower L and b values. However, the a values did not differ significantly in response to the addition of trehalose. The total cell counts of Backsulgies also decreased as the level of trehalose increased, which indicates that microorganisms were inhibited by its addition. Furthermore, the hardness of the Backsulgies decreased as the level of trehalose increased, whereas the hardness of the Backsulgies increased as the storage time was extended. Finally, the sensory evaluations revealed that the chewiness and hardness of Backsulgies decreased as the level of trehalose increased.
Analysis on the Consumer's Attitude and Purchase Behavior of Oysters
Lee, Min-A ; Lee, Jong-Kyoung ; Cha, Sung-Mi ;
Korean journal of food and cookery science , volume 24, issue 6, 2008, Pages 919~930
This study was conducted to survey the attitudes of oyster consumers and to analyze their purchase behaviors based on demographic variables. To accomplish this, a questionnaire that was developed based on content analysis and panel discussion was distributed to 467 general consumers. The majority of the respondents ate oysters (90.6%), although the proportion of oyster consumers increased with age. The primary reasons for not-eating oysters were odor (33.3%), flavor (16.7%) and concern for safety (11.9%). Most respondents consumed raw oysters (96.1%) during winter (70.0%) at discount stores (51.3%). Fishery wholesale markets were the most common places to purchase oysters for respondents in their 60 s, while the other groups reported that discount stores were the most common place to purchase oysters. Most respondents ate oysters the day of purchased (53.2%). Furthermore, most respondents (39.2%) reported that they consumed the oysters only after evaluating the appearance and odor and that they avoided oysters during summer for safety. Women were more likely to check the expiration date than men, while housewives were the most likely to check the expiration and usually kept the oysters at refrigerator. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the various types of oyster products must be targeted toward different demographic markets. Moreover, this study will be useful for promoting the safer and more effective consumption of oysters.