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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
An Experimental Study of Smoke Movement in Tunnel Fires with Natural Ventilation
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~6
In this study, reduced-scale experiments were conducted to understand smoke movements in tunnel fires with the natural ventilation. The 1/20 scale experiments were conducted under the Froude scaling since the smoke movement in tunnels is governed by buoyancy force. Three cases of experiments, in which a natural vent location varied from 1 m, 2 m and 3 m from the fire source symmetrically, were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of the position of ventilation systems on smoke movement. In case of a poo1 whose diameter is 4.36 cm, the temperature of smoke layer passed through the vent was maintained 7~
less than that of smoke layer without a vent. In case of a pool whose diameter is 5.23 cm, the average velocity passed through the vent was decreased when it was close to the fire source. And the maximum delay time was 3.86s. In CASE 1, the ceiling temperature was decreased by approximately 8
and the vertical temperature was decreased by approximately
. In CASE 2, both ceiling and vertical temperature wert decreased by
and in CASE 3, they were decreased by
each. It was confirmed that the thickness of smoke layer was maintained uniformly under the 25% height of tunnel through the visualized smoke flow by a laser sheet and the digital camcoder.
A Numerical Study of Smoke Movement with Radiation in Atrium Fires
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 7~15
This paper describes the smoke filling process of a fire field model based on a self-developed SMEP (Smoke Movement Estimating Program) codo to the simulation of fire induced flows in the atrium space (SIVANS atrium at Japan) containing smoke radiation effect. The SMEP using PISO algorithm solves conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and species, together with those for the modified k-
turbulence model with buoyancy term. Also it solves the radiation equation using the discrete ordinates method. The result of the calculated smoke temperature containing radiation effect has shown a better prediction than the result calculated by only convection effect in comparison with the experimental data. This seems to come from the radiation effect of
gas under smoke productions. Thus, the consideration of the radiation effect under smoke in fire should be necessary in order to get more realistic result. Also the numerical results indicated that the smoke layer is developing at a rate of about 0.1 m/s. It would take about 450 seconds after starting the ultra fast fire of 560 kW that the smoke layer move down to 1.5m above the escape level.
Fire Hazard of PP and LLDPE dust in Chemical Plant Process
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 16~22
Thermal properties of PP and LLDPE dusts from chemical plant and their risks of coexisting with oxidizer were investigated by a pressure vessel. The thermal decomposition of PP and LLDPE dusts with temperature using DSC and the weight loss with temperature using TGA were also investigated to find the thermal hazard of PP and LLDPE dusts. Using the pressure vessel which can estimate ignition and explosion of PP and LLDPE dusts coexisting with oxidizer, a series of bursting of a rupture disc, experiments has been conducted by varying the orifice diameters the weight ratio of the sample coexisting with oxidizers and the species of oxidizer. And fire gases was measured by gas analyser (
). According to the results of the thermal analysis of PP and LLDPE dusts, the decomposition temperature range of PP and LLDPE dusts was 200 to 350 and 300 to
, respectively. The risk of PP and LLDPE dusts coexisting with oxidizer was increased as the orifice diameter was decreased. On the other hand, it was increased as the weight ratio of the sample to the oxidizer were increased. In addition, the risk of PP and LLDPE dusts coexisting with oxidizer was affected by the decomposition temperature of the sample and oxidizer. It is found that the risk of fire becomes high when the decomposition temperature of the sample is about same as that of oxidizer. Also, the fire gases was occurred carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The amount of carbon monoxide generated was found to be much higher in PP decomposition than in LLDPE due to incomplete combustion of PP which has high content of carbon in chemical compound.
Estimation of fire Experiment Prediction by Utility Tunnels Fire Experiment and Simulation
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 23~33
The utility tunnels are the important facility as a mainstay of country because of the latest communication developments. However, the utilities tunnel is difficult to deal with in case of a fire accident. When a cable burns, the black smoke containing poisonous gas will be reduced. This black smoke goes into the tunnel, and makes it difficult to extinguish the fire. Therefore, when there was a fire in the utility tunnel, the central nerves of the country had been paralyzed, such as property damage, communication interruption, in addition to inconvenience for people. This paper is based on the fire occurred in the past, and reenacting the fire by making the real utilities tunnel model. The aim of this paper is the scientific analysis of the character image of the fire, and the verification of each fire protection system whether it works well after process of setting up a fire protection system in the utilities tunnel at a constant temperature. The fire experiment was equipped with the linear heat detector, the fire door, the connection water spray system and the ventilation system in the utilities tunnel. Fixed portion of an electric power supply cable was coated with a fire retardant coating, and a heating tube was covered with a fireproof. The result showed that the highest temperature was
and the linear heat detector was working at the constant temperature, and it pointed at the place of the fire on the receiving board, and Fixed portion of the electric power supply cable coated with the fire retardant coating did not work as the fireproof. The heating tube was covered with the fireproof about 30 minutes.
Flame Extinguishing Concentrations of Mixed Gaseous Agents
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 34~40
Fire extinguishing efficiency of mixed gaseous agents were investigated by the cup-burner test and predicting by the model of flame extinguishing concentration. The binary mixed agents that tested were carbon dioxide/HFC-23, carbon dioxide/HCFC-22, carbon dioxide/HFC-227ea, carbon dioxide/HFC-125, carbon dioxide/FIC-13I1, Hexafluoropropylene/HFC-23 and ternary mixed agents were carbon dioxide/HFC-23/HFC-l34a, carbon dioxide/HFC-23/HFC-227ea, carbon dioxide/HFC-23/HFC-125. A model which contains the flame extinguishing concentration and composition of pure components predicted the flame extinguishing concentration of mixture well. This model was superior when each component of the mixture exhibit physical fire extinguishing performance.
A Visualization of Smoke Front under a Horizontal Plate
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 41~46
The flow induced by a vertically impinging circular jet under a horizontal plate is investigated by visualization technique, using kerosene smoke in nitrogen gas to visualize the vortex flow and impinging flow. The light source was the sheet beam of Ar-Ion laser. The vertical and horizontal images scattering of kerosene smoke were recorded by the high speed CCD camera and the video camera. The instantaneous velocity of the vortex and the mean velocity of the smoke front were measured from the acquisited images.
A Research on Legal Alternatives to Fire Performance Certificate and Tests for Interior Finish, Decorative Materials in Premises Used as Assemblies
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 47~54
Similar patterned fire incidents such as, Inchon Live-Hof Pub Restaurant as, Sea-land Children Resort have proven that serious loss of lives were caused by hazardous gas generated from a combustion of interior finish and decorative materials. Therefore, comparing Korean fire regulation with other countries fire code, e.g. UK, USA, France about limitation of interior finish and decorative materials in premises as assemblies, differences & problems have been int estimated and analyzed on hew serious they may affect on fire spread and smoke development based on analyze facts. It is suggested that Korean fire code would be revised in order to reduce hazardous interior finish materials from special occupancy and adapted new test methods to verify proper fire performance in premises as assembles which require a fire certificate. Finally, detailed code alternatives will be suggested in order to set up effective fire regulation, which could promote preventing serious loss of lives in future.
The Self-regulating Fire Prevention System in Korea: with the Focus on the Role of Insurance System
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 55~65
This paper's purpose is three-folded: modeling the self-regulating fire prevention system, developing a packet of practical fire prevention measures and regulations, and reviewing the applicability of fire insurance system in Korea as a main components of the self-regulating fore prevention system. The so called self-regulating fire prevention system is defined as a grand national fire prevention framework based on and promoted by the vitality and creativeness of the market (or private sector). This drastically contrasts with the existing government-led fire prevention system in Korea. The self-regulating fire prevention system has three grounds: the principle of self-responsibility, the redefinition of the fire service as a public goods, and the principle of self-selection. It seems natural that the self-regulating fire prevention system requires the function of fire insurance institution as a pivoting mechanism providing individual decision makers with a system of incentives, resulting in rational behaviors in the part of each individuals and in the well-balanced fire prevention network in the part of the overall public. In this regard, this pilfer examines the institutions and performance of the fire insurance industry in Korea and reviews the limitation of the industry as an instant replacement mechanism of the current government-led fire prevention system in Korea.
A Study on Adhesion Test Methods for Fire Hose
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 66~74
In order to improve the adhesion test methods for fire hose, 7 kinds of standards (KOFEIS, UL, FM, NFPA, BS, Chinese standard, JIS, JFEII standard) in 5 countries (Korea, USA, UK, China, Japan) were compared and adhesion tests were conducted by using the samples choosed randomly from the product produced in Korea. It was concluded that the sample size, the rate of seperation of a strip of the lining from the janet and standard judgment should be more differed and divided in accordance with the fire hose number in adhesion test to get the high Quality of fire hose.
A Basic Study on the Evacuation Safety Performance of High-rise Apartment Building
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 75~83
It has been recognized that the evacuation planning is very important for effective evacuation of occupants on fire event. However the present evacuation planning and regulation for fire safety usually tend to meet the minimum requirements based on the existing laws and regulations. The ultimate goal of the evacuation planning is evacuate occupants rapidly from building fires to the safe areas. In this study, First, analyzed occupants load density and occupants characteristics in high-rise apartment buildings, Second, A evacuation safety performance of high-rise apartment buildings was analyzed with various typical floor plans. The purpose of this study is to figure out the evacuation characteristics in high-rise apartment buildings and improve countermeasure through comparative study on the Evacuation regulation and floor plans for High-rise Apartment buildings.
Study on the Establishment of a Safety Allowance Level of Disastrous and Hazardous Facilities in Large Cities
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 84~92
In today's world, rise in the establishment of social infrastructure resulting from population saturation in large cities has led to more extensive and frequent use of chemical materials on facilities. A result, unexpected and serious accidents, hazards, contingencies and disasters are more prevalent than ever. Such phenomenon calls for more devoted and concerted efforts towards finding ways to reduce the safety hazards that are seen to take place more often than before with the increase in the number of facilities that are prone to bring disaster and hazard coupled with the conventional safety problems that continue to exist even today. In developed countries, such challenge is addressed by various appropriate countermeasures drawn up by local professional committees on industrial facilities, whose members conduct offsite and onsite evaluation un the potential industrial disasters and its seriousness and provide their advice thereof. Against this backdrop, this study aims at identifying a comprehensive safety allowance level (safety acceptable level) when imposing limitation on the development of conventional or new facilities, for the fur pose of establishing a safety allowance level of disastrous and dangerous facilities in Korea. This is done by assessing and applying the level of danger each individual is exposed to in a randomly selected region (disastrous and dangerous areas in Seoul) based on probability of quantitative hazards, as well as simulation and calculation methods which include: i) social disaster evaluation method applying Quantified Risk Assessment of Health & Safety Executive of UK and Matrix of Risk of Evaluated Sources of Hazard; ii) Fault Tree or Event Tree Analysis and etc.
The Improvement of Evacuation Performance for Discount-Store in Underground
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 93~99
This study aims to improve the Evacuation Performance o( the I)inc()unto-store in underground that is rapidly new shopping store in Korea. In this paper, The architectural properties of the floor plan and section was reviewed with egress focus, occupant load density of the Discount-store was surveyed and the procedure and method of performance based egress design for this occupancy was analysed with SIMULEX model and calculation method. As a result of modeling, more longer available safe egress time (ASET) is expected than required safe egress time (RSET)in underground discount-store. In order to improve the Evacuation Performance for this type occupancy, egress capacity including escape stair, aisle width, escape door is calculated with based on occupant load density and review of shopping cart's structure and size and maximum escape capacity of the cash counter.
A Study on the Application of the Regulation of the Interior Materials in Entertainment Occupancy
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 100~107
A Interior material, a main cause of fire-growth and generating toxic gas when it burns, should be dealt with great care in life safety design. Nonetheless, it has been used recklessly with undue attention to its contribution to fire in particular in entertainment occupancy and causes many victims in fire. Therefore, this study attempts to examine the current use of interior material in Korea and find out what to be improved and enhanced in terms of related regulations. Based on the comparison and analysis of the Korea regulation with those of advanced nations, suggestions are made for an effective and efficient improvement and complement to the current system. What can be suggested from this study are as follows. The use of interior material should be controlled under the unified regulation of fire-safety codes. Code should be set up so that the current construction enforcement should be applied in retroactive to those entertainment buildings that obtained a license prior to the implementation of the system certifying that the building is fire-resistant and fire-protective. The legislation should be made to control the fire-protection facilities of small-sized, underground entertainments. It should be obliged to present the blueprint displaying the use of interior material at the time of changing occupancy. Or, it should be compelled to report changes that go way without permit to the administrative office. A compulsory provision should be set up to have a fire-resistant performance to movable furniture. The classification index designating the fire hazard of interior material by flame spread rate and smoke toxicity and its test method should be established.
The Properties Analysis of 600V Grade Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated Wire with Variation of Thermal Stress
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 108~115
In this paper, we analyzed the properties change of electric wire when the thermal stress was applied to 600V grade polyvinyl chloride insulated wire (IV). In the structure analysis, normal wire has the properties of direction on the surface, but in case of deteriorated wire at above
, it formed the carbide, the crack and the crystal. The surface composition rate of normal wire was Cu : 100%, but the section composition of the deteriorated wire at
showed Cu : 78.89%, O : 21.11%. In result of analyzing the differential scanning calory of copper wire, the new reaction peak was observed on the deteriorated wire at above
. In case of the deteriorated wire as
at the differential thermal analysis, an endothermic reaction appeared at
lower than the reactive point of normal wire. The occupation rate of oxygen according to the deterioration of copper wire is about 20% at
A Study on Problems and Solutions of Fire Investigation in Korean Fire Administration
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 116~126
Fire investigation to examine ignition and combustion enlargement etc., to assess fire damage and to investigate a fire suspect, is used as a valuable data for better fire suppression and fire prevention police. Fire investigation is divided in to fire-cause investigation, fire-damage investigation, and fire-criminal investigation. At present, fire-cause investigation is lacking In scientific technology; specially is deficient in accurate damage assessment. And considering fore criminal investigation, since the police lacking in specialty on fire take exclusive charge of fire criminal investigation upon general investigation, it is difficult to investigate fire criminal effectively. Finally deficiency in fire investigation operates as very big blind-spot in fire safety having important axis in social safely; the loss is shifted on nation's shoulder. To solve those problems, legal, institutional, operational preparation is urgent. And so, this study tried to stabilize specialty of fire-fighting to offer more active, qualitative fire administration service, and to contribute to public peace and welfare by grasping problems after diagnosing Korean fire investigation and proposing the solutions.
A Study on Practical Analyzing and Improving Disaster Management Organization of Korean Government
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2001, Pages 127~138
I. introduction. A government goal at the present is established to make a welfare nation and to keep people's safe living, but it is criticised that when a large-scale disaster happens, the authority concerned could not deal with it, causing many people injured and material damage. Moreover, in these days, cities have many risk factors. extremely large and intelligent building, industrial facilities and underground equipment have many risk themselves along with scientific progress. The cope with disaster effectively, government must have efficient organization, skillful personnel, tool, facilities and so on. To reduce the damages, what's the most effective government organization\ulcorner II. Government organization for managing disaster In a few decades, a large-sized accidents broke out in korea, for example, collapse of Sampoong department store, break of Sungso bridge, explosion of Daegu city gas, gas explosion accident at Ahyon-dong etc. but government has not any adequate disaster response organization. Especially, after collapse of Sampoong department store broke out, Disaster Management Act is enacted to solve the past problem. According to Disaster management Act, disaster is limited in manmaid disaster. Therefore, in this thesis, disaster management is inspected theoretically, organization of disaster management for pattern of disaster, and role, duty of government organization, emergency relief organization system and actual conditions are analyzed. there are some problems. there are trials and errors. the government has changed the disaster management organization by the disaster management law. the organization consists of central and local government. but both of government do not work together harmoniously. in thesis, I would like to introduce the advanced nations disaster management organization, and study our central, local government organization. III. Conclusion Change and development of the government disaster management organization is the goal of this thesis. we have to increase public service in response and manage disaster. protecting civilian's life from the disaster is very important responsibility of government. there would be better way of government disaster management organization.