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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
The Causes and Analysis of Electrical Fires -focused on Dynamic Characteristics of RCD-
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~5
Recently, the occurrences of electrical fire have been suppressed by a residual current protective devices(RCD), a molded case circuit breaker(MCCB) and a fuse in case of an earth leakage, a short circuit and an over current. But it is impossible for the RCD to break the circuit in the case of the conductor fractures, the failure of pressure contacts on connecting points and the momentary short circuit of low voltage wiring. Therefore, it is require to study the constructive problem of the RCD. In this paper, we have tested the operation characteristics of the RCD according to the R load and R-L load in the conductor fractures, the failure of pressure contacts on connecting points and the momentary short circuit of low voltage wiring.
A Study on Response Characteristics of ionization Smoke Detector Influenced by Air Stream
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 6~9
Recently, forced ventilating air conditioning system has been widely used in modern buildings. However, It is obvious that this kind of system may affect on the response of fire detectors at real fire incidents, especially, on the ionization smoke detector, which is critically influenced by air stream. Therefore we studied to verify the response characteristics of air stream by ionization smoke detector for the design of facilities in practice. In this study, experiments were executed to examine the correlation between air velocity and the ionization detector's responses with var-ious air velocity and smoke densities in the simulated test room. As a result of experiments, ionization detector's operating time is in reverse proportion to air velocity. And the detector shows more sensitive reaction when the velocity of smoke stream increase over 60 cm/s. In addition, it was shown that ionization smoke detector is more sensitive to smoldering fires in paper than that in petro-chemicals.
A Study on the Fire Resistance Design of Buildings Considering the Fire Load Energy Density
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 10~16
The main purpose of this study is to raise the point at issue and to propose reform direction about the current performance criteria of fire resistance through the examination of the fire resistance required for each use of compartment by using performance-based fire safety design method. To examine the performance criteria of fire resistance, this study compared the equivalent time of fire exposure which was calculated by using time-equivalent formulae with the required fire resistance time determined by existing prescriptive code, and surveyed factors such as the fire load energy density, ventilation factor, fire compartment materials and fire compartment geometry in order to calculate the equivalent time of fire exposure.
A Study on the Characteristics of Heat Release for Pascon and Concrete Trough
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 17~24
Thermal effects and characteristics of heat release for electrical wire installed in pascon and concrete trough have been theoretically approached and studied in consideration of the structure of products. The points of difference between two troughs have been evaluated by theoretical approach and estimated by computer simulation in similar condition of institution environment. As a result, the average of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of concrete trough is superiority to pascon trough considering only for characteristic of materials. But when considering for institution environment (thickness, area and trough structure etc) as the results of the calculation and computer simulation using FLUENT, the degree of heat release for pascon trough is of advantage to concrete trough.
Influence of Combustion Flame on Flashover Characteristics Due to Fire Occurrence
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 25~34
In this paper, characteristics of the DC flashover voltage in the horizontal air gap of sphere-sphere/needle-needle electrode system were investigated when the combustion flame of paraffin oil was present between the two electrodes. The reduction characteristic of DC flashover voltage was discussed with the thermal ionization process, the relative air density and the deflection phenomena in the shape of flames that caused by the corona wind and Coulomb's force. As the results of an experimental investigation, It was found that the reduction characteristics of DC flashover voltages with flames were affected strongly by the flame deflection and the change of relative air density. It was also found that the thermal ionization phenomena were not important in the range of combustion flame temperature.
A Study on Fire Characteristics of Sofa Cover Materials
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 35~42
In this study, we tried to evaluate the ignitibility, flammability, heat release rate, and toxicity of five different types of burning artificial leather sofa covers that are widely used in entertainment service industry buildings. As the results of this study, putting the artificial leathers under fire conditions we found out following results auto-ignition temperature was
, limiting oxygen index was 19~20%; at heat flux of
, ignition time was 10~16s and peak heat release rate was
; and at heat flux of
, ignition time was 6~9s and peak heat release rate was
. The toxic materials discharged from the burning leathers were 5,550~6,290 ppm of CO, 18,500~23,400 ppm of
, 110~140 ppm, of HCl, 13~65 ppm of HCN and 145~220 ppm of NOx.
Thermodynamic Empirical Equations for Physical Properties of Inert Gas Mixtures
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 43~49
For the inert gases of Ar,
, the empirical equations of the gas mixture were correlated in terms of saturated pressure, density and viscosity. They were obtained by regression analysis based on the mixing rule. The empirical equation of saturated pressure was assumed as the first order function of temperature. The empirical form of density was expressed as compressibility factor and saturated pressure while the empirical equation of viscosity was formulated as a power function of temperature. This empirical equations of the physical properties were obtained in the composition of Ar,
, 40/50/10(mol. %).
The Lower Flash Points of the n-Butanol＋n-Decane System
Dong-Myeong Ha ; Yong-Chan Choi ; Sung-Jin Lee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 50~55
The lower flash points for the binary system, n-butanol+n-decane, were measured by Pensky-Martens closed cup tester. The experimental results showed the minimum in the flash point versus composition curve. The experimental data were compared with the values calculated by the reduced model under an ideal solution assumption and the flash point-prediction models based on the Van Laar and Wilson equations. The predictive curve based upon the reduced model deviated form the experimental data for this system. The experimental results were in good agreement with the predictive curves, which use the Van Laar and Wilson equations to estimate activity coefficients. However, the predictive curve of the flash point prediction model based on the Willson equation described the experimentally-derived data more effectively than that of the flash point prediction model based on the Van Laar equation.
A Numerical Study on Smoke Control for Smoke Control Systems and Air Flowrate
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 56~61
The smoke removal rate from a room with an opening was investigated for different smoke control systems by using the large eddy simulation turbulence model of the Fire Dynamics Simulator. The decreasing rate of the particles randomly distributed in the 2m X 2m X 2.4m room was com-pared for the ventilation system, pressurization system and extraction system, and for the air flowrate of the ventilation system. Difference in the smoke removal rate among the three smoke control systems was small when the opening was closed. The pressurization system showed less smoke removal rate than the other two systems when the opening existed, and hence is not recommended for subway stations with large openings. It was also shown that a less flowrate in the ventilation system leads to a much longer smoke removal time.
A Study of Heat St Smoke Evacuation Characteristics by the Changing of Operational Method of Tunnel Fan Shaft Ventilation System for Fire on Subway Train Vehicle
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2003, Pages 62~69
The smoke control system in subway platform is not only using for smoke exhaust facility but also using ventilation system. For this reason, smoke vent effectiveness is depending on its position, ventilating volume capacity and the vent method. In this study, the passenger's evacuation time was calculated for the case of fire on sloped subway train vehicle in subway platform. In order to recommend the mechanical smoke exhaust operation mode, SES (Subway Environmental Simulation) was used to predict the airflow of the inlet and outlet tunnel for the subway station. Fire dynamics Simulator(FDS) was used the SES's velocity boundary conditions to calculate the smoke density and temperature under the condition of fire on stopped subway train vehicle at the platform. We compared smoke density and temperature distributions for each 6 types of smoke exhaust systems to clarify the characteristics of smoke and hot air exhaust effectiveness from the result of fire simulation.